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Plastic Pipes Conference Association

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Please note that all Conference papers and abstracts are only made available for downloading on the strict understanding that same are for personal use only and are not for subsequent re-publication in whole or in part other than with the express written prior consent of the copyright owner.

Copyright of all papers and extracts remains with the individual author(s) or their employers as copyright owners and the PPCA has no authority to permit publication other than on the terms detailed above. The PPCA cannot accept any liability for the accuracy of any information contained within the paper or abstract and any opinion expressed therein is that of the author not the PPCA

Plastic Pipes database of conference papers
1970 till 2016

PPCA is a global association dedicated to the ongoing creation and distribution of technical and application information on plastic pipes system in order to educate and expand their safe, cost effective and sustainable use.


NEW – we have added a tag with short summary and keywords to each paper just click on the “i”, gradually all papers will be covered

Plastic Pipes (2016) - Berlin Plastic Pipes (2014) - Chicago Plastic Pipes (2012) - Barcelona Plastic Pipes (2010) - Vancouver Plastic Pipes (2008) - Budapest Plastic Pipes (1970-2006)

Plastic Pipes (2016) - Berlin

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  • This study is related to two common approaches used for pipe fabrication, viz. in-line compounding and extrusion of a pre-compound. Pipes were extruded using both approaches and properties were evaluated per the relevant ASTM and ISO standards for water and gas pressure pipe applications to compare the performance of extruded pipes. The results show that when high quality pipes are produced, the performance of pipes made via either in-line compounding or a pre-compound, is equivalent.Tags: Pipe extrusion, in-line compounding, pre-compound, screw design, polyethylene pipe properties, ASTM International, ISO, water and gas piping COMPARISON OF IN-LINE COMPOUNDING VS. PRE-COMPOUNDED RESIN ON POLYETHYLENE PIPE PERFORMANCE
  • With a new and innovative catalyst concept it is possible to produce a bi-modal PE-RT Type II material with excellent properties in a single reactor process. The catalyst is based on two different metallocene components, whereas one component doesn't incorporate any co-monomer and the other component shows a typical homogenous co-monomer distribution. A key characteristic of this catalyst system is the significant better FNCT performance at given weight average of molecular weight in comparison to bi¬modal products based on standard catalysts. The new PE-RT Type material combines increased flexibility, glossy surface and low creep at elevated temperaturesTags: PE-RT Type II, metallocene, FNCT NEW PE-RT TYPE II MATERIAL FROM INNOVATIVE
  • The innovation process dedicated to polypropylene product development has continuously brought into the market new products, enlarging the use of these products in more and more applications.Tags: PP-R, copolymer, melt, temperature, 1-hexene, pressure, resin, comonomer INCREASED INTERNAL PRESSURE RESISTANCE POLYPROPYLENE
  • FIBER REINFORCED LARGE DIAMETER POLYETHYLENE PIPE (GRPE) consists of fiberglass as the middle layer, and HDPE as inner and outer layers to provide required strength and stiffness. This composite pipe is made by spirally winding under hot melt condition, pipe pressure ranges is from 0.8 to 1.6 MPa.The fiber reinforced composite pipe is anew type pipe with a brilliant prospect, which can be widely applied in water conservancy projects and municipal pipeline such as portable water supply and sewage. Currently, the equipment for producing polyethylene large diameter fiber reinforcement composite pipe with diameter ranges from 300 to 3000mm as successfully developed. The report from China National Test Center of Polymer & Chemical Building Materials indicates that the product is fully compliance with the relevant standard.Tags: Large diameter polyethylene pressure pipe, spirally hot melt winding, fiber glass reinforcement FIBER REINFORCED LARGE DIAMETER POLYETHYLENE WINDING PIPE
  • The need for larger diameter pipes and fittings for in-house heating, plumbing and domestic water systems is pushing the existing materials and processes to their limits. More often final products cannot be produced without penalties either in production rate or in final product quality. This paper discusses processability and properties of newly developed PP-R and PE-RT grades. The benefits offered by the new grades in production of pipes and fittings as well as in the final product properties and quality are demonstrated and elaborated.Tags: Propylene random copolymers,polyethylene resin for raised temperature, pipe, fitting, processing NOVEL POLYOLEFIN SOLUTIONS –INCREASING PRODUCTION RATE OF PIPES AND FITTINGS WITH SUPERIOR PROPERTIES
  • Bi-modal high density polyethylene (HDPE) has become more popular in recent years, because it has both easier processability and higher mechanical strength. The easier processability is brought from low molecular weight component and the higher mechanical strength is brought from high molecular weight component. The cluster of high molecular weight component is called “gel” in this study. When the gels are not eliminated sufficiently, quality problems in products take place such as fish eyes in films and white spots in black pipes. However, it is difficult to eliminate gels by low molecular weight component. In this study, we compared gel elimination mixing performance of two types of our mixers, which are typically applied to high capacity processing of the bimodal HDPE. One is counter-rotating twin screw continuous mixer LCM-H and the other is co-rotating twin screw extruder KTX. Tags: Continues, Mixer, Gel Elimination, Bi-modal High Density Polyethylene PERFORMANCE OF A COUNTER-ROTATING CONTINUOUS MIXER FOR BI-MODAL HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE
  • The paper offers an overview of systems and components for efficient pipe extrusion, particularly for larger and thick-walled pipes. It introduces several possibilities for lower melt temperatures and internal pipe cooling. Together these systems can significantly reduce sagging and cooling length needed in the line. Furthermore, a look is taken at a system for inline product change that allows fast color and pipe dimension changes during the production of larger (diameters above 250 mm), thick-walled pipes. The main components are the pipe head including the adjustable melt gap, the calibration sleeve and the pipe support in the vacuum bath and the end sealing.Tags: pipe, melt, cool, dimension, head, extrusion, diameter THE NEW DIMENSION OF PIPE EXTRUSION
  • The European Plastics Pipes and Fittings Association (TEPPFA) and it Application Group Civils working group initiated a new project at the beginning of 2015, to find a way of improving the communication and promotion of TEPPFA and its projects to the industry. This project was divided into the two phases with the market research in phase I with a qualitative survey targeting industry experts in each country via focus groups and individual in-depth interviews, with the ultimate aim of understanding the main barriers and drivers of plastic products. Tags: Plastic, Teppfa, materials, decision, pipes, market, water, systems, research, contractors MAIN DRIVERS AND BARRIES FOR PLASTIC PIPES IN EUROPE
  • In 2013 The European Commission published in the Official Journal a legislative package consisting of a communication and new methodology to assess the environmental footprint (EF) of products (PEF) and organisations (OEF). Differently from EN 15804, PEF and ISO methods have a horizontal approach which can be applied to all kinds of products, materials and organisations. Tags: Plastic pipe systems, life cycle assessment (LCA), environmental product declaration (EPD), European sector approach, sustainable construction and housing, Product Environmental Footprint PEF, Organisation Environmental Footprint OEF, European standards, ISO standards, environmental sustainability, The European Commission’s PEF (Product Environmental Footprint) applied to plastic piping systems
  • The plastic pipes sector can provide a significant outlet for recyclate recovered from end of life pipe systems, construction waste and from other waste streams. However potential EU legislative issues will need to be addressed to avoid the unnecessary incineration or disposal of millions of tonnes of recyclable plastic waste. Tags: recycling, PVC, polyolefin, environmental impact, circular economy, waste streams THE EUROPEAN PLASTIC PIPES INDUSTRY - RECYCLING COMMITMENT
  • PVC4Pipes, a non-profit association founded in Brussels in 2003, whose main purpose is to support and stimulate the use of PVC pipe systems, has recognized the need to improve the knowledge and the perception in the market of the quality and environmental sustainability of PVC pipe systems. So a series of communication tools are being developed and specific target audiences have been identified.Tags: Training Toolkit, Presentation Package, PVC pipe, PVC4Pipes PVC4PIPES TRAINING AND PRESENTATION PACKAGES
  • The current condition of35-50years old uPVC main (110 mm) and service (32 mm) pipes for gas and water distribution was assessed. From 27 excavation sites in total about 400 segments of 1.2 meters length each were tested using many techniques. Tags: PVC, pipe, residual quality, rapid crack propagation, RCP, impact, fatigue, Hydrostatic Pressure Test, solvent-cemented joint. RESIDUAL QUALITY OF EXCAVATED UPVC GAS AND WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPELINES
  • Osaka Gas has carried out the production, supply, and sale of gas since 1905 and has distributed gas to 7,200,000 customers. The piping used for distribution was originally steel and cast iron pipes, but we have been adopting the use of polyethylene piping for low pressure distribution since 1980, and have to date laid approximately 15,000km of pipe. This report introduces the various efforts we are undertaking toward the improvement of construction quality regarding the laying of our polyethylene pipe.Tags: quality, system, qualifications authorization, quality inspections, technical development, safety management VARIOUS APPROACHES TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF POLYETHYLENE PIPING CONSTRUCTION QUALITY IN OSAKA GAS
  • This paper summarizes the design and implementation of the largest asbestos cement pipe bursting project performed to date within the United States. The paper also presents regulatory information required to properly track and document an asbestos cement pipe bursting project while meeting the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, a subsection of the Clean Air Act as adopted by US Congress and enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency(EPA).The paper presents findings of Water Research Foundation Project #4465 which was solicited by the EPA and summarizes the environmental impacts of various asbestos cement pipe rehabilitation methods. The paper also outlines a direction to pursue the Administrator Approved Alternate, an alternate to existing Regulations that can be approved by the current EPA Administrator, to allow for a comprehensive standard for pipe bursting of asbestos cement pipe within the US. Tags: Asbestos, cement, pipe, bursting, regulations PIPE BURSTING ASBESTOS CEMENT PIPE IN COMPLIANCE WITH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY’S REGULATIONS AND SCIENTIFIC DATA COLLECTION ON THE PROJECT
  • This presentation will discuss Miami-Dade’s ongoing experience in dealing with their aging infrastructure by using HDPE to slipline both large diameter lines and pressure pipes. The presentation will discuss the HDPE sliplining lessons learned in Miami-Dade and will also discuss some experiences in other regions of the USA. The experience discussed will include case studies involving 72-inch, 42-inch and 36-inch sliplining in both water and wastewater applications. The lessons learned will be highlighted.Tags: pipe. HDPE, main, water, force, slipline, pressure LARGE DIAMETER HDPE SLIPLINING – WHERE EXPERIENCE MATTERS
  • It has long been the case that plastic pipes have been subject of folding operations in a factory and then supplied to site for use in pipeline renovation applications. The same cannot be said for pipes subject to diameter reduction as they have, as a principle, relied on being diameter reduced at site in a forming process after which they are held in longitudinal tension to prevent recovery of the pipe to its original size. There are good reasons why both folded pipe and diameter reduced pipe lining systems coexist in the market and in this paper we will present a recent innovation by Subterra that allows pipes to be diameter reduced in a factory environment and then held in a reduced diameter without application of tensile loads. Tags: pipe, diameter, liner, recovery, roller, system Close-fit Pipe Lining Without the Machines
  • PVC-Oriented is the second generation of PVC-Unplasticized. Molecular orientation of PVC-U pipes results in a strong improvement of the physical and mechanical properties. The new draft European standard for PVC-oriented plastic piping systems is based on the ISO 16422 “Pipes and joints made out of oriented unplasticized poly(vinyl)chloride (PVC-O) for the conveyance of water under pressure –Specification’s” . This new draft EN standard is set up as a system standard containing specifications for pipes, fittings and the fitness for purpose of the system. Tags: PVC-oriented pipes, European System standard, Conveyance of water NEW EN STANDARD PVC ORIENTED PLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS
  • The many benefits of PE100 pipe materials include flexibility and toughness in addition to being relatively light products that are not subject to corrosion and expected to last well beyond the design lifetime [1]. It is also a distinct advantage that end-load resistant joints can be made using butt fusion (BF) and electrofusion (EF) welding. There is, of course, always room for improvement and Exova has continually provided solutions to the difficulties identified for both BF and EF welding processes [2, 3]. In addition to the new training standard reported at the last conference [4] that is expected to result in a step change in improvement of site practice, Exova is active in a variety of other ways to ensure that quality is assured as now presented.Tags: test, weld, condition, quality, performance ASSURED QUALITY OF BUTT FUSION AND ELECTROFUSION WELDING OF PE100 PIPE
  • This paper provides a historical overview of the development of polypropylene (PP) for piping applications. The discussion includes a historical review of each step in the evolutionary trend for PP piping materials over the last 40 years and culminates with a focus on the most recent development in PP piping technology; PP-RCT. The paper then concludes with four case study installations of PP-RCT piping in North America.Tags: Polypropylene, Pipe, PP, PP-RCT Polypropylene Pipe: An Evolving Market
  • With the offers of whole value chain people, the application of PE pressure pipes has been increased widely in China since 1990’s, especially for gas pipes. Compounding PE material ensures the qualified pipes being used for infrastructure projects. There are some Innovation products from pipe producers to enlarge the PE pipe application area, such as reinforced composite pipes, multiple pipes etc. On the other hand, due to unbalance development, we still have challenges to realize sustainable development, such as the quality of PE water pipes can’t match the standard requirement, no enough training or education etc. Fortunately, the situation is changed and can be improved through continually communicating with end users and enough compounding PE supply. Tags: PE pressure pipe, quality alliance, PE product innovation and sustainable development REVIEW OF QUALITY, APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT FOR PE PRESSURE PIPE IN CHINA
  • The United States water industry relies heavily on American Water Works Association (AWWA) Standards publications for product ratings, design parameters, and guidance on installation methodologies. In September 2015, AWWA published Standard C906-15 covering 4” –65” polyethylene pressure pipe for waterworks applications. The previous standard was significantly revised in response to the global prevalence of PE4710/PE100 HDPE pipe compounds. Publication of AWWA C906-15 completed an unusually exhaustive standard development process that was initiated at AWWA in 2005 and taken up in earnest by the full Polyolefin Pressure Pipe & Fittings Committee during 2008.Tags: AWWA, C906, PE4710, Design Factor, Safety Factor CHAIRMAN’S REVIEW OFTHE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS FOR U.S. PIPE STANDARD AWWA/ANSI C906-15
  • The Lake Charles Chemicals Project (LCCP) is a new chemicals plant facility and as a result, corrosion and compatibility as well as cost play a very important role in the selection of piping components. For the purpose of this case study, the focus will be the high density polyethylene (HDPE) piping system used in the construction of the site’s firewater system as part of the utilities and offsite infrastructure. This case study involves the specification, procurement, preparation, and installation of 111,190 feet (21 miles or 33.9 km) of HDPE pipe and fittings in sizes ranging from 4” to 24” in diameter. Tags: high density polyethylene (HDPE) piping components, Factory Mutual Research Corporation (FMRC), Factory Mutual Approved (FM Approved), Lake Charles Chemicals REACHING NEW FRONTIERS AND MAINTAINING MOMENTUM IN THE PLASTICS PIPING MARKET
  • Multilayer extrusion technologies and modified grades of polyethylene having specific severe requirements for resistance to slow crack growth focused for pipe laying with alternative techniques, improved resistance to chlorine disinfectants used in drinking water systems, superior temperature resistance in industrial applications and excellent behaviour for large bore ducts are some of the most state-of-the-art solutions for challenging applications.Tags: PE100-RC pipes, alternative installations, PE-RT pipes, chlorine resistant PE pipes RECENT PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS IN PIPELINES WITH ADVANCED GRADES OF POLYOLEFINS
  • The Star Energy Wayang Windu geothermal plant in Java, Indonesia, generates up to 227MW of electricity using the natural steam from deep beneath the earth. Once the steam has cooled and condensed it is returned to the underground reservoir through condensate pipelines and injection wells. By 2012 the existing steel pipeline was badly corroded due to the aggressive nature of the condensate and Star Energy identified PE100 as the best replacement material. This paper provides a background to the project and describes the materials selection, design and installation processes which Star Energy, their contractors and suppliers went through before concluding with some of the lessons that they learnt whilst undertaking the project.Tags: PE100, geothermal, condensate, power plant THE WAYANG WINDU GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT -FIRST EVER USE OF PE100 FOR A CONDENSATEPIPELINE
  • Canfor’s Prince George Pulp & Paper Mill in Prince George, BC, Canada operates a bleach plant effluent system for the production of Bleached Kraft Pulp. The original underground fiberglass reinforced pipe (FRP) presents an elevated risk to both environment and production targets. Over the past five years there have been over 10 repairs required to maintain integrity of the pipeline. The primary objective of the project was to create a more reliable pipeline and reduce the risk of a major leak event and subsequent consequences. With temperatures up to 75°C, standard PE4710 materials were not suitable for this application. A brand new PE-RT product that expands the use of PE into larger diameter industrial applications allowing continuous operating range from -45°C to 82°C with intermittent temperatures up to 95°C was selected to replace the underground fiberglass piping. Tags: PE-RT, HDPE, PE4710, Raised Temperature, Fiberglass, FRP ADVANCED APPLICATIONS FOR HDPE PIPES
  • This paper presents a technology for locating plastic pipe buried underground. The technology was developed for the water market in India and, through intra-company collaboration, has been introduced to the water and gas markets in the United States. Information regarding product technology and end-use considerations is presented. Tags: Locatable plastic pipe, tracer wire LOCATABLE PIPE TECHNOLOGY
  • Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipes are an excellent pipe system for use in the field for oil, gas and water transport and are well positioned to replace steel pipes by several numbers of benefits. By careful attention and practice of the materials to be used and required standards of calculation and design, RTP will meet all requirements of a modern and innovative pipe system regarding high pressure and temperature capability. Provider of extrusion line equipment are prepared to fulfill the demands regarding process and system understanding for high level of productivity, flexibility, safety and environment protection with good perspective of increase of commercial use of RTP. Tags: pipe, RTP, design, plastic New Potentials of Lightweight Structures for Pipe Extrusion
  • Bi-oriented PVC (PVC-O) pipes are increasingly installed on a worldwide basis for drinking water applications. This is due to the outstanding mechanical properties of PVC-O pipes, such as high strength and high ductility. Furthermore bi-oriented PVC pipes are light weight, flexible and have a low carbon footprint and an excellent resistance to slow crack growth. In the first part of this paper the history and mechanical properties of PVC-O pipes are discussed. Secondly the process of manufacturing bi-oriented PVC pipes and the development of bi-oriented PVC pipe in material class MRS50 will be highlighted. As bi-oriented PVC pipe in higher MRS values is becoming available, applications in pressure classes of 20 and 25 bar are also becoming more feasible. Tags: PVC, PVC-O, MRS50, Pressure pipe, Tensile resistant coupler BI-ORIENTED PVC EXTRUSION: STRETCHING PIPE PERFORMANCE
  • As the cost of raw material is the dominant part of cost price in plastic pipe, pipe producers internally check on scrap rates and overweight to get the lowest cost price. Scrap rates are mostly defined as start-up scrap. But scrap is also production that is in not in spec, production of pipe that has burning spots, black spots etc. If this is all calculated, scrap rates of 10-15% are not a uncommon. Overweight is all weight of the pipe that is caused by making pipe heavier than determined by the minimum diameter and the minimum wall thickness. Most pipe producers define as overweight the weight of the pipe bigger than determined by the centre of specification. Doing so, these pipe producers already accept overweight in PVC pipe up to 5% and in PE pipe up to 8,5%. Tags: Material Cost Saving, Wall Thickness Control, Automation, Industry 4.0 SAVING MATERIAL IN PLASTIC PIPE PRODUCTION
  • This paper gives an introduction into the Terahertz measurement technique and shows the technology transfer from lab to pipe industry. The technical basics are explained how to measure pipes` wall thickness by THz pulse runtime differences. The measurability of common plastics like HDPE, PP, PVC and PA6 are investigated with the result that HDPE and PP show almost no absorption of the THz radiation whereas PVC and PA6 show stronger absorbing behaviour. The absorption coefficients of PVC and PA6 are determined to be 0.59cm-1and 1.02cm-1, respectively. A field study measurement of a foam core pipe demonstrates the suitability of the THz technique for industrial pipe measurements.Tags: Terahertz, wall thickness measurement, pipe automation TERAHERTZ MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR PIPE EXTRUSION
  • The presentation focuses on the latest system solutions in storage, blending and feeding of main materials and additives, featuring the three main advantages that guarantee a continuous and profitable production of plastic pipes: flexibility, reliability and automation. The main element of modern design to obtain flexibility of solutions, is the ability to engineer the system so to have it fit within predetermined and minimized spaces. Reliability is expressed in the degree of accuracy of proportions amongst the various ingredients to blend, combined with the ATEX solutions today required to isolate, vent, secure, detect potentially explosive agents. Automation is the integration of all processing parameters into a main control fit for the purpose.Tags: Flexibility, Accuracy of proportion, Atex solutions, Integration of all processing parameters, Constancy of production, Dependability, Reliability, Productivity, Profitability, Production lot tracing, Production certification SUSTAINABLE MATERIALHANDLING SOLUTIONS FOR A MODERN PIPE PRODUCTION PROCESS
  • This paper presents the latest one: Comparative LCA of the PVC-U versus the galvanized steel rain gutter system. The result in in line with the indications found in the previous comparative studies: The impact on the environment is relatively lower for plastic pipe systems, compared to similar products produces from traditional materials.Tags: Rain Gutter systems, Rainwater, PVC, Galvanized steel, Plastic pipe systems, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of a PVC-U rain gutter system versus a system made from galvanized steel
  • The environmental impact in terms of global warming potentials(GWP)and non-renewable energy demand (NRED) of sewerage & drainage pipes based on PP-MD, PP-HM, PP-B, and concrete has been assessed using life cycle analysis methodology. It can be concluded that PP-MD and PP-HM materials can significantly lower both GWP and NRED of PP S&D pipes. Moreover, PP-MD has been found to provide the lowest GWP of all pipe materials investigated, whilst approaching concrete as the NRED.Tags: Life Cycle Analysis, Sewerage & Drainage Pipes, Carbon Footprint, Polypropylene, Mineral Modified Pipe LESS IS MORE: POLYPROPYLENE MATERIALS FOR SEWERAGE & DRAINAGE PIPES WITH REDUCED ENERGY AND CARBON FOOTPRINTS
  • A pilot study was conducted with the South eastern Pennsylvania Transit Authority to evaluate the performance of corrugated HDPE pipes manufactured with post-consumer recycled materials in their railroad applications. Two corrugated HDPE pipes – one manufactured with 100% virgin materials and one manufactured with 49% post-consumer recycled content – were installed underneath a main commuter rail line in October 2013 with just two feet of cover from the top of the pipe to the bottom of the rail. After nearly 3 years of service, both pipes are performing as designed, and no noticeable differences were observed between the two pipes with regards to service life relative to fatigue and stress cracking based on an accelerated laboratory study. Tags: Corrugated HDPE Pipe; Recycled Materials; PCR; Railroad LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF CORRUGATED HDPE
  • A new test method was developed to evaluate the stress crack resistance of HDPE materials containing recycled content. The method involves testing un-notched specimens in an elevated temperature bath under a specified stress. The new test method was published in March of 2016 as ASTM F3181, Standard Test Method for the Un-Notched Constant Ligament Stress Crack Test (UCLS) for HDPE Materials Containing Post-Consumer Recycled HDPE. Failure data generated from this test may be bi-directionally shifted to predict the service life of pipes manufactured with recycled materials. The service life prediction model has been validated on full-scale pipes tested in both field and lab environments. Tags: UCLS; BFF; Recycled Materials; PCR; HDPE PREDICTING SERVICE LIFE FOR RECYCLED PE MATERIALS VIA THE UNNOTCHED CONSTANT LIGAMENT STRESS (UCLS) TEST
  • In the present paper, a highly effective test and characterization concept for polymer recyclate materials is proposed and validated. Based on the proposed methods, a study was carried out to investigate the potential of in-plant and post-use PE recyclates from various applications to be utilized in PE recyclate containing pipes. The recyclate contents ranged from about 50 to essentially 100 m%, the remaining portion being a PE 100 virgin resin. As benchmark and reference also included in the study was the neat PE 100 virgin material. Tags: Polyethylene, mechanical recycling, post-use recyclates, crack growth resistance QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMET OF INPLANT AND POST-USE PE RECYCLATS FOR PIPE APPLICATINS
  • The hydrostatic stress rupture test has been conventionally conducted as a good method of the lifetime evaluation. The hot water circulation test which is reflected to the actual operating condition is also useful method. The correlations and differences between the two tests were examined. Compared with the hydrostatic stress rupture test, it was found that the antioxidant in the resin was eluded into the circulating water and was consumed rapidly in the hot water circulation test. The lifetime of the pipe became shorter in the hot water circulation test. In addition, it was also found that when using the brass fittings, copper ions solved from the joint accelerated degradation of a resin, a crack initiation at the pipe inner surface and a slow crack growth through the pipe thickness due to the hoop stress. The hot water circulation test using metal ion containing aqueous solution is suitable as the accelerated evaluation test for plastic pipes.Tags: polyethylene pipe, hydrostatic stress rupture test, hot water circulation test, degradation, post-crystal, actual operating condition COMPARISON BETWEEN STRESS RUPTURE TEST AND HOT WATER CIRCULATION TEST CONSIDERING ACTUAL OPERATING CONDITIONOF PE PIPES FOR HOT WATER APPLICATION
  • This paper discusses the test methodology and ISO 13477 compliant test results for water in PVC pressure pipe manufactured to the AWWA C900 standard commonly used throughout North America.Tags: PVC, polyvinyl chloride, Fusible PVC®, ISO 13477 ISO 13477 S4 TESTING OF AWWA C900 PVC
  • A specific methodology has been designed by ENGIE’ R&T Division to allow an accurate determination of the initiation (incubation) time of the NCBT data. This methodology is based on two different data processing procedures. Such an approach is pertinent and does not require any low strain limit to process the data. Moreover, processing the data in real time allows one to stop the test a short time after the minimum strain rate has been detected. This preferred procedure gives way to an accurate determination of the initiation (incubation) time, hence reducing drastically the NCB Test duration for a quick evaluation of a PE grade.Tags: Polyethylene; PE; Notched Cylindrical Bars under constant load Test (NCBT); Crack THE “NOTCHED CYLINDRICAL BARS UNDER CONSTANT LOAD TEST” (NCBT) FOR ASSESSING THE RESISTANCE TO CRACK INITIATION OF PE100 AND PE100 RC: DETERMINATION OF THEINITIATION TIME
  • In an effort to better understand the different demand upon environmental impact including prolonged and unexpected cold weather patterns, there is a need for the piping system to meet a degree of freeze and thaw resistance. The freeze and thaw cycling test protocol, Water Quality Association (WQA) ORD 1502,is developed in partnership with the Uponor Technology Group (UTG) and Standards Developing Organizations (SDOs)/Accredited Testing and Certification Agencies Tags: Freeze and thaw cycling of PEX pipes, Environmental impact, Cold Weather installations, Construction materials, plastic tubing, thermocycling TECHNICAL DETAILS AND IMPORTANCE OF THE NEW METHOD OF DETERMINING “RESISTANCE TO OCCASIONAL FREEZE-THAW CYCLING OF PEX” AND “ENVIRONMENTAL ABUSE”
  • Joint performance of joints in gravity flow buried pipelines is very important since joint failure could produce structural or service limits to the system. Standards have been developed to evaluate that joints have the necessary structural and leakage capacities which specify test methods that are not clear and do not seem to evaluate real conditions. In this paper the test methods specified by a European and an American standard are presented and discussed. Then their tests are compared with results of large scale laboratory tests and from simplified design equations. Finally, test methods for plastic pipe joints intended for gravity flow applications are proposed along with a testing apparatus. Tags: Joint, leak tightness, plastic pipe, gravity flow, test method. QUALITY CONTROL TESTING OF JOINTS IN GRAVITY FLOW PLASTIC PIPES
  • The residual quality of first generation PE50 gas pipes, installed in Netherland between 1961 and 1979, is still remarkably good. The only premature failures of a few PE50 pipes were exclusively caused by point loads. When under point loading, they started failing in practice after 8 to 26 years, in a brittle manner. Tags: PE50, first generation, PE pipe, point load, lifetime, prediction PREDICTING THE LIFETIME OF PE50 GAS PIPES UNDER POINT LOADING
  • Our research shows that in a torque rheometer test the greater the gelation degree of PVC-U is, the higher the minimum torque of the torque curve is, and the smaller the difference between the maximum torque and the minimum torque of the torque curve. According to the relationship, the method of evaluating the gelation degree of PVC (Dg) was proposed.Tags: Poly(vinyl chloride); gelation degree; torque rheometer ASSESSMENT OF GELATION DEGREE OF UNPLASTICIZED POLY(VINYLCHLORIDE)(PVC-U) PIPES USING TORQUE RHEOMETER
  • Based on the results of the life cycle assessment, and in addition to a literature review on a variety of competing piping materials, PVC pipe provides a competitive advantage for its use in a variety of water infrastructure projects and provides life cycle costing advantages. Key performance attributes of PVC pipe, such as the resistance to corrosion, high durability, seismic reliability, etc., allow for the long-term sustainability of water infrastructure.Tags: pipe, PVC, cycle, impacts, life, water, corrosion Sustainability of PVC (Vinyl) Pipe: A Comprehensive Environmental Review of PVC Pipe
  • The incorporation of post-consumer recycled polyethylene materials can be used in any gravity flow HDPE pipe application. Manufacturers can design for any application and use as long asTags: recycled, pipe, material, HDPE, stress, life Blending for Application
  • A design justification for reinforcement of fabricated Polyethylene elbows is presented. The acceptance criteria is that the average stress in the mitered wall of fabricated elbow shall not exceed the hoop stress in the matching pipe. Tags: Fabricated Polyethylene Elbows; Design Justification; Virtual Design of Experiment. PE4710 MITERED ELBOW DESIGN JUSTIFICATION BY FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
  • Flange joints connecting plastic pipes to valves are studied. The pipes have a reduced flange adaptor or a HP-flange adaptor. In the full-scale experiments, all flanges have a bolt circle diameter Ø725mm. Four types of gaskets are used: an O-ring, a standard and a profiled gasket of EPDM with a steel core without and with an O-ring part, respectively, and a planar gasket. In parallel, finite element analyses have been used for simulating the bolt tightening and relaxation of the flange joints investigated.Tags: Flange joints, polyethylene pipes, valves, water tightness, experiments, computations WATER TIGHTNESS OF FLANGE JOINTS AT VALVES –Full scale experiments and finite element analysis
  • The objective of this project was to develop methods to be used by any plastic testing laboratory to quantify the effects of hydrocarbon permeation on: 1) the fusibility of plastic pipe; 2) the life expectancy of existing fused joints that have been subjected to hydrocarbon permeation; 3) the Hydrostatic Design Basis (strength) of plastic pipe, and 4) the impact on slow crack growth. A secondary objective was to determine and validate current practices of local distribution companies (LDC) in mitigating hydrocarbon permeation on their in-field pipe. Tags: permeation, polyethylene, pipe, fusibility, lifetime expectancy THE EFFECTS OF HEAVY HYDROCARBON PERMEATION ON POLYETHYLENE PIPE
  • Many improvements in design, function, and methods of manufacture and materials for elastomeric sealing systems for pipelines have taken place over the years. This evolution will continue and we must not underestimate the importance of continuous innovation to bring improved materials, products and installation techniques, in order to maximize performance and longevity of our pipeline infrastructure.Tags: Stress Relaxation, Contact Pressure, Long Term Durability, Pulsation Test. The Evolution of Elastomeric Joints in Plastic Pipeliine Systems
  • PVC pipes for buried applications for water, sewer and gas, has developed an excellent track record. PVC is very inert, has a high resistance against permeation of soil contaminations and gas components and meanwhile has a long-proven lifetime. Next to that, the lifecycle costs of buried PVC pipe systems are amongst the lowest due to its easy installation, low operational costs and the excellent ability to be recycled and used again in new pipes with another functional lifetime of at least another 50 years in all kind of applications.Tags: Buried Pipes, PVC, Experience, Pressure pipes, Non-pressure pipes THE EXPERIENCE WITH THE USE OF UPVC PIPES IN VARIOUS
  • 3S (Strengthen Single System) cyclone single stack system is a new product for building drainage, which has the advantages of saving materials, large drainage quantity, low drainage noise, etc. In this system, the guide structure, swirl angle, volume structure and the height of spiral reinforcement are optimized according to the hydrodynamics, structural mechanics and acoustics. The unique cyclone drainage form could effectively improve the hydraulic conditions of stack and reduce the positive and negative pressure fluctuations of inner stack, which could ensure the security of water seal and reduce the collisions between water and pipe wall or air.Tags: Single stack; SC tee; Flow; Noise A NOVEL CYCLONE SINGLE STACK SYSTEM FOR BUILDING DRAINAGE
  • There are guidelines in AWWA standards for de-rating a PVC pipe’s pressure class if the operating temperature exceeds 23°C. These de-rating factors are appropriate for a system operated at a constant elevated temperature. This paper examines reported pipe temperatures and shows that seasonally the pipes undergo temperature variations that are very close to sinusoidal in nature. This paper integrates a sinusoidal seasonal variation in temperature to derive an average de-rating factor. It is recommended that these average de-rating factors be verified experimentally before being put into practice. Tags: Temperature, rate, rating, factors, summer, effective A PROPOSED PROCEDURE FOR PVC PIPE TEMPERATURE
  • This paper suggests modifications to AWWA guidelines for PVC pipe in the North America when accounting for fatigue failure considerations. Another concern is that the design process needs to consider a variety of stress amplitudes and cycle counts when calculating the expected life of the pipe. This paper outlines a simple and conservative procedure that can be easy to apply and can accommodate multiple stress amplitudes. The paper includes examples for designers to follow in selecting an adequate DR rating for PVC pipe.Tags: pressure, stress, range, pipe, cycles, failure, design, PSI, fatigue A SIMPLE DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR PVC PIPE TO ACCOUNT FOR CYCLIC PRESSURE LOADING
  • Nationally moderated and approved competency training Units and Qualifications have been established in Australia for plastics pipes within an overall Plastics Industry Training Package. Delivery of such Units over a 21-year period has contributed to a greater understanding of various plastics pipes materials, jointing, and installation in the field resulting in improved quality outcomes, cost reductions, and greater efficiencies.Tags: Pipeline Training, PE Fusion, PVC Installation, LeHunt 21 YEARS OF PIPELINETRAINING –THE LESSONS LEARNT
  • Representative earthquake loadings have been reproduced in the ENGIE Lab-CRIGEN laboratories on three PE grades, including an excavated old PE63 pipe operated during more than 35 years. Dynamic loading does not alter the pipe residual performances for the three PE families tested, as shown by both the hydrostatic pressure tests and the Phased Array Ultrasonic Technique evaluation. Bending tests do not alter the remaining performances of the PE80 and PE100 families, which comply with the standard requirements. Conversely, the excavated 35-yearold PE63 pipe doesn’t meet the requirements anymore although no immediate failure occurred. Moreover, the reduced failure times obtained under accelerated pressure tests suggest a remaining life of about five to ten years. As a summary, these tests show a very good behaviour for the main straight lines which is the scope of this working group. As a prospect, the behaviour of singular points like service pipes, fittings, tees, etc. has to be explored further to complete the scope regarding PE networks.Tags: Polyethylene (PE); Earthquake; Seismic loading; Phased Array Ultrasonic Technique (PAUT); Hydrostatic Pressure Test (HPT); Four-point bending test; RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR ASSESSING SEISMIC RISKS ON POLYETHYLENE GAS PIPELINES
  • An insight into a unique approach to the management of electrofusion and butt fusion joint quality on polyethylene pipelines. The presentation will reference experience and learnings from a system that has already been used in the field to great effect (see Abstract) and a new approach to butt fusion (see enclosed paper on Bead Diagnostic Instrument(BDI)) Tags: Joint integrity, whole life costs, butt-fusion beads BIG DATA, BIG DIFFERENCE
  • The Plastic Pipe Institute Municipal Advisory Board recently completed the publishing of the “Generic Electro Fusion Procedure” covering 12 inch and smaller sizes. This publishing effort was conducted with a collaboration of water system operators and electro fusion fitting manufacturers specifically addressing concerns raised by the water operators. The following paper details the organizations responsible, steps taken and covers a few key elements of this document. Tags: MAB, electro fusion, PPI, training, qualification GENERIC ELECTRO FUSION PROCEDURES DEVELOPED BY THE PLASTIC PIPE INSTITUTE – MUNICIPAL ADVISORY BOARD
  • This collaborative program will provide an integrated set of quantitative tools that will provide a structured approach to reducing operational risk in vintage plastic distribution systems susceptible to Slow Crack Growth failures. A novel endoscopic structured light scanning tool will be developed and prototyped for internal inspection of small diameter plastic pipe. The data generated by the tool will be properly reduced to essential parameters to be synthesized with additional available system information including external conditions, inspection and leak records, historic data, and subject matter expertise into a fitness for service evaluation. This assessment will include a probabilistic estimate of the remaining effective lifetime of individual segments of vintage plastic pipe and a yes/no determination of whether a short-term pressure test is capable of validating the maximum defect size in the system. The Bayesian network methods employed are ideally suited to evaluating interacting threats, investigating root causes, and predicting the effect of mitigation strategies based on conditional probabilities calculated from available data. Tags: Slow Crack Growth, Aldyl A, Risk, Fitness for Service, Inspection, Vintage Plastic Pipeline REDUCING OPERATIONAL RISK IN VINTAGE PLASTIC DISTRIBUTION
  • A review of regulations pertinent to the approval of pipe materials is given. This includes are view of the EU REACH regulation, the drinking water directive, the approval systems in place in member states and the developing 4-member state project for harmonisation of approvals in the EU. Particular developments on PVC-U, including migration modelling, are also discussed.Tags: EU REGULATION, REACH, MIGRATION MODELLING, REGULATORYAPPROVALS REVIEW OF REGULATIONS WHICH ENSURE THE SAFETY OF PIPE MATERIALS: HOW PVC-U PIPES APPLY
  • New standards in Italy legally require that chlorine dioxide is used as a disinfectant in any new installation that treat water for human consumption. Chlorine dioxide is preferred to other disinfectants when surface water or water from rivers is used for drinking water supply and particularly Southern European countries started to investigate this option. Due to this trend, the question about the durability of the current pipe systems and improved pipe materials for water supply becomes crucial. Tags: disinfection, chlorine dioxide, PE100, durability, test methods INVESTIGATIONS ON THE BEHAVIOR OF PE100 GRADES IN CONTACT WITH CHLORINE DIOXIDE
  • To maintain the high quality of potable water chlorine based disinfectants are frequently dosed into the drinking water network. Considering the oxidative nature of these species their long-term impact on the aging of polyolefin pipes is a matter of interest. In this study four polyolefin pipe grades were objected to an accelerated aging in 10ppm of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) solution at 60°Cin order to gain information about the penetration behaviour of ClO2. After a few weeks of conditioning the surface analysis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed several micro cracks, confirming a highly degraded superficial layer. The cross-section SEM images displayed the degraded surface layer with a thickness of about a 100µm. Furthermore, thermal analysis such as the Oxidation Onset Temperature (OOT) and IR-spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated a significant material degradation in various depths for each sample.Tags: Polyolefin pipes, Degradation, Chlorine dioxide, Antioxidant profile IMPLEMENTATION OF A NEW CHLORINE DIOXIDEDEVICE FOR ACCELERATED AGING OF POLYOLEFIN PIPEMATERIALS
  • The effect of chlorinated water environment to plastic pipes has been intensively investigated in recent years and proved to affect the lifetime of plastic pipes. Since it is known that the use of the different disinfectants (ClO2, HClO/ClO-) imply different degradation rates, understanding the conditions (concentration, time) which lead to the same degradation speed is key to set testing conditions comparable for the different media. The test results will be compared to those obtained when the materials are tested as pipes following ASTM 2023-13, to ensure the validity of the test as a rating tool.Tags: Chlorine dioxide, Hypochlorite, Polyethylene pipes EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CHLORINATED MEDIA TOPE PIPE MATERIALS
  • A major challenge in the development of new disinfectant resistant resins is linked to the long timeframe (up to 18 months) currently required by a pilot scale pipe testing method to evaluate the performance of different formulations. In this study, we propose a complementary accelerated test method that can be used to benchmark the stability of the additive package against chlorine dioxide treated water. Results from this accelerated test method and pilot scale pipe testing are compared to demonstrate the effectiveness of the test strategy in differentiating among various polyethylene resins and identifying the best performing solution.Tags: Chlorine, Chlorine dioxide, Disinfectant, Polyethylene Pipe, Antioxidant A COMBINATION OF ACCELERATED TEST METHODS TO EVALUATE NEW GENERATION RESINS FOR DISINFECTANT-RESISTANT POLYETHYLENE PIPES
  • The theoretical estimation of migration processes from plastic pipes into drinking water is a versatile and recognized method to assess their compliance with the existing regulations and guidelines. However the quality of these estimations depends on the accuracy with which the input data for the calculations is provided. In this respect in the framework of a TEPPFA-FABES project experimental investigations were conducted with a series of plastic materials (polyolefins) with the aim to develop refined methods for the estimation of the diffusion and partition coefficients needed for the theoretical calculations. The results of these investigations are summarized in this work along with the presentation of two examples of migration estimations according to the EN-12873-1 norm.Tags: migration, polymer, water, migrant, kpw, dp Modelling migration from plastic pipes into drinking water
  • In this paper, we would like to show the capability of radiant floor heating being used with complete plastic pipe system for the large space area of a large mosque (the Isfahan Mosalla Project). Human comfort is a critical consideration when designing a mosque in Iran and the traditionally-used normal unit heater or air-based system rarely meets the comfort criteria in these projects. A full plastic pipe solution is a superior solution when considering the quick and correct installation and commissioning of such a system in a large construction project. In this paper, we describe the challenges we faced in this project.Tags: Radiant Floor Heating and Cooling, Thermal Comfort, Mosque Heating and Cooling. The UFH/C System with PE-Xa Pipes is a Perfect Sustainable Solution for a Large Mosque Project
  • This paper demonstrated the successful application of rainwater harvesting technique at the Jiangsu factory in China. The project documented the economic, environmental and social benefits. Rainwater was used for irrigation in green areas, replenishment of waterscape and for cooling water during manufacturing process. Furthermore, in the summer, roof spraying and cooling system lowered the environmental temperature inside work areas by more than 5 to 8 degrees centigrade. Comparing with traditional air-conditioning system, it only takes 7 years to return the full investment.Tags: Ground rainwater, Gutter or gully, Inspection chamber, Split-flow device, Rainwater pretreatment device, Storage tank, Advanced treatment plant, Clean water basin, Lifting device, Pipeline THE APPLICATION OF RAINWATER HARVESTING TECHNIQUE IN THE PROJECT AT JIANGSU FACTORY
  • The damage of PVC pipes caused by the great earthquakes was investigated in Japan by various organizations including public and private institutions. Because of these investigations, it is found that high-impact modified PVC pipes with the long insertion length have the least failures. Moreover, it is also reported that the pulling out of the joints in liquefaction areas were the most dominant failure. Furthermore, we evaluated the performance of PVC pipes installed more than 40 years ago. In this paper, we present the differences in the damages on PVC pipes caused by the great earthquakes and the evaluation results on PVC pipes used for a long time.Tags: PVC, water, earthquake, joints, damage, supply EVALUATION OF EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE OF PVC PIPES
  • To free itself from the rising costs of water supplied by the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department, the Karegnondi Water Authority proposed a new water intake and delivery system from Lake Huron to Flint, Michigan. Because of the recent introduction of the zebra mussel into North America’s Great Lakes, a chemical dosing system was needed to keep the intake line free of zebra mussels, which restrict flow and clog pipe. A coextruded Advanced polyethylene double contained pipe was chosen for the sodium hypochlorite system because of its excellent chemical, corrosion, and impact resistance. Tags: Advanced polyethylene, chemical dosing, sodium hypochlorite, zebra mussel SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE DOSING FOR ZEBRA MUSSEL ABATEMENT USING DOUBLE CONTAINED ADVANCED PE
  • Plastic Corrugated Piping System (PCPS) was introduced in India in 2001, much later than the western world started using it for various applications. It received a mixed response from the Govt. Agencies, but was well accepted by the market, actual users and standardizing institutions. PCPS finds applications in different forms like DWC, SWC, Flat and Perforated SSD Pipes and accessories, mostly made of PE, PP, PVC. Rex has been a key player in corrugated pipes so far and plans to retain its position in the years to come. Tags: PCPS. PE, PP, PVC, DWC, SWC, SSD, PT Advancing of Plastic Corrugated Pipe Systems in India in Last Two Decades
  • Samples of polyethylene pipe supplied to mining projects throughout the Americas were selected and tested for compliance with existing ASTM specifications. Estimated service life of these pipe products in mining applications are made based on the laboratory tests required in the ASTM specifications. Anticipated performance requirements are considered in the design life predictions. The quality of the tested pipe varied widely.Tags: Mining; Quality; Stress crack resistance; Long term strain; Notched Constant Ligament Stress (NCLS); Oxidation Induction Time (OIT). CORRUGATED POLYETHYLENE PIPE USED IN MINING APPLICATIONS; THEIR COMPLIANCE WITH SPECIFICATIONS AND ANTICIPATED DESIGN LIFE
  • A new composite PE pipe for pressure applications has been developed which combines the following features: polyethylene based, of structural wall, of multiple layers and steel reinforced. Another outstanding feature of this product is that large diameters up to dn2200-2600mm can be made and higher ring stiffness is achieved, at much lower cost. In this pipe two reinforcements are used: steel meshes embedded in pipe wall and steel strips vertical to pipe wall.Tags: steel, pipe, pressure, diameter, welding, stiffness Structural wall multilayer composite PE pipe
  • The properties of adhesive-coated steel tapes in metal reinforced polyethylene spiral corrugated pipe (MRPSCP)are very important for the properties of MRPSCP. In the present research, we take 3 years to develop a new technology to fabricate BZ-SH99 adhesive-coated steel tapes, which have better properties than those fabricated by using traditional methods. Tags: steel, tapes, adhesive, immersion, corrugated, coating The study on long-term resistance to liquid media immersion of adhesive-coated steel tapes applied in metal reinforced polyethylene spiral corrugated pipe for underground sewer
  • Steel reinforced twin wall pipe (SRTWP) is a new generation of corrugated plastic pipes which has a multilayer structure with an omega-shape steel profile indented into a polymer wall whereby these pipes combine the best benefits of plastic and metal solutions –high corrosion, abrasion and chemical resistance, low roughness coefficient, light weight and ease installation together with sufficient stiffness and strength.Tags: Sewer, Corrugated pipes, Steel Reinforced Twin Wall Pipes REINFORCED TWIN WALLCORRUGATED PIPES: THE NEXT EVOLUTION IN SEWER EFFICIENCY
  • To ensure the structural integrity of long term load bearing thermoplastic (like PVC or HDPE/PP) components, the time-dependent behavior of the raw (thermoplastic) material needs to been assessed and integrated in the design procedure. This paper describe show the time-dependent material behavior can be integrated in the design process. As an example, the design of a PVC sewage inspection chamber is elaborated more in detail.Tags: product design, viscoelastic, PVC, simulation, FEM DESIGN OF PLASTIC SEWAGE PRODUCTS IN PVC
  • PVC-O is produced for many years from the 80’s until 2007 the sizes were in majority small (mainly 90-315 mm), the couplers were iron based and the pressure classes were PN 10- PN16. Especially the last 5 years developments are changing this. The pressure class 25 becomes more common, the sizes go standard up to 630 mm (24”) and couplers, bends and fittings are developed in PVC-O to get “all-PVC-O” solutions, necessary in certain countries and markets. Also the lengths of the individual pipe increases to get less couplers, bends preventing possible leakage but most important, longer pipes result in much lower installation costs. Tags: PVC, couplers, steel, sizes, pressure Total overview of developments in PVC-O in size and couplers
  • Plastic pipe systems have more than 80 years of history. Plastic pipes have successfully managed to replace various traditional materials by providing reliable, non-corrosive, leak tight pipeline solutions. As pipes are not the only components of piping systems, logically would be to see the similar development of plastic chambers and manholes, but unfortunately the dynamics with manholes are different. Despite the major growth of plastic chamber/manhole market in the last two decades, their market share compared to concrete is proportionally much smaller than relevant share in pipes. In order to determine the reasons for such differences and discuss possible scenarios of plastic chamber/manhole development in the future, I would like to look in chamber/manhole development history, evaluate advantages and limitations of different production technologies, as well as discuss the activities that should support the future development. Tags: Chambers, manholes, production technologies INSPECTION CHAMBERS AND MANHOLES FOR SEWER SYSTEMS –YESTERDAY, TODAY AND TOMORROW
  • This article gives a brief introduction of plastic inspection chambers underground test, analyses the stress borne by plastic inspection chambers from different angles combined with pressure sensors and strain gauges, sorts out some of the underground test data and analyses the test data, and finally sums up the stress characteristics and influencing factors of plastic inspection chambers in their actual use.Tags: Plastic inspection chambers, Underground test, Pressure sensor UNDERGROUND ENGINEERING STRESS ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC INSPECTION CHAMBERS
  • Three typical case study of longitudinal cracks found in large dimension PVC-u pipes installed in Spanish irrigation networks are presented for discussion. Gelation level of those pipes using EN-ISO 1452-2 alternative test methods DCM, DSC and Tensile test has been evaluated.Tags: PVC-u, RCP, DCM, DSC LONGITUDINAL CRACK IN LARGE PVC-UPRESSURE PIPES. PIPE GELATIONINFLUENCE.CASE STUDY DISCUSION(I)
  • The aim of this presentation is to compare the performance of pipe stabilizer systems commonly used highlighting pros and cons in view of an increasing regulatory pressure due to the toxicological and environmental concerns.Tags: PVC, Stabilizers, Tin, COS, Lead NEW TRENDS IN STABILIZERS FOR PVC PIPE
  • An overview of stabilizer systems for PVC pipes had been given at the last Plastics Pipes conference (PPXVII), detailing which technologies are used around the world. Tags: PVC stabilization, phase out of Lead stabilizers, regional trends for PVC pipes UPDATE ON PVC STABILIZATION FOR PIPES –COMPARISON AND TRENDS
  • This paper presents rheological data on simple rigid PVC compositions lubricated paraffin wax, calcium stearate, and oxidized polyethylene wax. These three materials comprise the most widely used lubricant system for rigid PVC in North America. The influence of certain paraffin wax characteristics will be discussed. Rheological data will be presented on simple PVC pipe formulations containing only lubricants, calcium carbonate, and pigment together with diminishing amounts of heat stabilizer, including one compound without any heat stabilizer. These compositions all display remarkable rheological stability, and demonstrate that lubricants are, in fact, mechanical stabilizers. The North American paraffin wax based lubricant system is an excellent starting point for rigid PVC formulations containing new stabilization technology. The challenge in working with stabilizer free rigid PVC compositions is managing early color development and pinking. Tags: RIGID PVC, LUBRICANTS, RHEOLOGY, STABILIZATION MECHANICAL STABILIZATION OF RIGID PVC COMPOSITIONS
  • The S-bend installation method is the reason for the successful worldwide development of the market for marine PE pipelines over the last 50 years. Small and medium sized PE pipes can safely be installed using the S-bend installation method; however, difficulties increase as pipe sizes increase. In order to ensure a safe installation of pipes larger than 2000 mm, PE pipe and resin manufacturers must contribute to the development of the method, and supply expertise to contractors and the end user, as they did in the 1960sand 1970swhen the S-bend method was originally developed. The technical support given to contractors and end users will be of utmost importance for the further growth of the market for large diameter marine PE pipelines.Tags: Design, installation, intake, PE pipe, outfall CHALLENGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MARKET FOR LARGE DIAMETER PE PIPES FOR MARINE INSTALLATIONS
  • Applying scientifically well established and investigated linear fracture mechanic methods (LEFM) the kinetics of the slow crack growth (SCG) on polypropylene layers and coextruded interfaces on multi-layer-pipes could be investigated. Taking effects of ageing and stress relaxation during the service lifetime into consideration, it was possible to predict the lifetime of such a pipe of at least 100 years.Tags: Polypropylene, Pipes, Lifetime, Linear Fracture Mechanics POLYPROPYLENE MULTI-LAYER-PIPES - 100 YEAR LIFETIME ASSESSMENT USING LINEAR ELASTIC FRACTURE MECHANICS
  • The construction of an 80 km long water pipeline through the Mediterranean sets new standards in water supply. Requested by the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), it runs from the Turkish mainland (Mersin Province) to the Turkish part of the island of Cyprus. For the project, individual lengths of 500 m (1600 ft) PE 100 pipe were produced and installed so that they float 250 m (918 ft) below the surface of the Mediterranean. The prerequisite for the success of this project was the development of an ultra-demanding and innovative flange design for a stub end that can durably join steel and PE 100Tags: PE100, large bore, pipeline, flange, sea crossing WATER PIPELINE FROM TURKEY TO CYPRUS
  • Long length pipes, which are these days often used as high quality and cost efficient solution in various types of projects, are actually product of a problem that PE pipe installers were facing in early days of plastic pipe business. That problem was low reliability of PE pipe joints. The only logical solution was to try to avoid joints as much as possible, by extending pipe lengths.Tags: Long Length Solid-Wall HDPE Pipes LONG LENGTH HDPE PIPES FROM NORWAY
  • There is a clear opportunity for large size PVC-O pipes in the medium-high pressure class, subject to highlight the superior technical performance when compared to traditional materials, although above 630 PVC-O there are cheaper solutions.Tags: PVCO, pipe, 630, dimension, larger size, PVC-O WHAT'S NEW ON PVC?
  • An extensive investigation was conducted into the electrofusion compatibility of pipes produced usingaPE100resinwithanMFR5 value below0.2g/10min. The electrofusion(EF)joining program included pipes up to 800mm in diameter and the use of electrofusion couplers and saddle type fittings as well as varying electrofusion jointing parameters. The results of the investigation demonstrated high quality electrofusion capability for joining large diameter, thick wall pipes made using aPE100 with MFR5Tags: Electrofusion; Pipe; Standards; PE100; MFR5 ELECTROFUSION JOINING PERFORMANCE OF VERY LARGE PRESSURE PIPES PRODUCED WITH MFR5
  • MLFC pipe is a very attractive way of lowering the use of PVC in non pressure applications; easy to start with and compared to other cost saving solutions very interesting. CaCO3 can play an interesting role in MLFC pipe if used in the right way. Recycling plays an important role in Europe for MLFC pipe. In the future, post consumer waste can be used in a simple way, which could make MLFC pipe even more attractive also in the rest of the world. Tags: MLFC, PVCO, pipe, recycling, saving MULTI LAYER FOAM CORE (MLFC) PIPE BECOMES
  • Pre-insulated thermoplastic reinforced pipes were developed for East European heating networks with elevated operating temperatures and pressures. In contrast to monolayer plastic pipes, high modulus aramid mesh reinforcement used in thermoplastic reinforced pipes allows significantly to increase both operating temperature and pressure without pipe wall thickness increase. This made it possible to develop unique flexible pre-insulated heating pipes with up to 16 Bar operating pressure and up to 100˚C continuous operating temperature foraa range of service pipe diameters from 25 mm to 160 mm. Enveloped application boundaries of pre-insulated thermoplastic reinforced pipes open new potential market for plastic pre-insulated heating pipes, as only steel pre-insulated pipes could operate with such conditions previously.Tags: District heating, flexible pre-insulated pipes, reinforced pipes. FLEXIBLE PRE-INSULATED THERMOPLASTIC REINFORCED PIPESFOR CITY HEAT NETWORK
  • Recently, thermoplastic-based composite pipes have been developed in order to satisfy the higher requirements for gas and water distribution. Although the stress rupture test is now the major test method used to evaluate the long-term performance of these pipes, developing a new, convenient test method making it possible to safely and easily evaluate the properties of composite pipes is needed. Therefore, a simpler method such as the tensile fatigue test with ring shape specimens was studied as a method for evaluating long-term performance. Although it depends on layer components, it is suggested that compared to the stress rupture test, the ring tensile fatigue test is better able to speedily evaluate long-term performance for some composite pipes. This method also has the advantage of being applicable to a pipe with scatter layers when it was cut from rectangle direction; the notched test method cannot be applied because of the impossibility of inserting a razor-notch. It is suggested that this new test method could possibly replace the conventional creep and fatigue testing method for some composite pipes.Tags: Composite pipe, Creep, Fatigue, Nol ring, Long-term performance DEVELOPMENT OF THE RING FATIGUE TESTING METHOD FOR COMPOSITE PIPES
  • In today’s world, a lot of energy is wasted. More than 50 %of the energy is lost on its way to the customer. The fundamental idea of modern district heating is to recycle heat that otherwise would be lost and to use renewable sources to heat homes. In other words: a market place for green heat that reduces consumption of natural gas and fuel oil. Flexible plastic pipes offer a corrosion free alternative to metal pipes while significantly increasing the lifetime from 30 to 50 years. Moreover, the high flexibility of the plastic pipes provides the possibility to wind and install an up to one kilometre long PU pre-insulated pipe, which results in a substantial decrease of the installation costs.Tags: District heating pipes, Polybutene, PE-RT, PEX Flexible Plastic Solution for District Heating pipes
  • The cyclic cracked round bar test has recently been added as a full-fledged ISO standard (ISO 18489) for comparison of polyethylene pipe grade materials’ slow crack growth resistance. However, possibilities of this test are yet far from being exhausted. Seeing, that polyethylene is only used in approximately 30% of polymer pipe applications, it is vital to extend the use of ISO 18489 to other materials. First experimental studies on further pipe grade materials, such as cross-linked polyethylene, polypropylene, polybutylene, polyvinylchloride and polyamide, showed promising results. Tags: Durability, CRB Test, Fatigue, Pipe Materials FAST COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT POLYMERIC PIPE MATERIALS
  • This study discusses the correlations of morphological, molecular weight, molecular weight distribution and rheological properties of different PE materials with their slow rack growth resistances obtained from the strain hardening (SH) test, crack round bar (CRB) test and their correlations with notched pipe test (NPT).Tags: Polyethylene pipes, SCG, NPT, CRB, Strain Hardening Modulus EVALUATING STRAIN HARDENING (SH) AND CRACKED ROUND BAR (CRB) TEST METHODS WITH RESPECT TO MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF MATERIALS AND CORRELATION TO NOTCHED PIPE TEST (NPT)
  • Due to the high slow crack growth resistance of modern polyethylene pipe grades a reliable lifetime assessment of pipes with focus on stage II failure has become challenging. The current paper presents a scientific approach for a fracture mechanics lifetime prediction based on Cyclic Cracked Round Bar (CRB) Tests. Based on this standardized tests (ISO 18489) a more sophisticated concept enables the determination of SCG rates which is necessary for development of material laws based on fracture mechanics. In combination with practically proven boundary conditions and modern numerical models this concept is able to predict the stage II failure of a PE100 and a PE100 RC pipe grade in relatively short time.Tags: Polyethylene, lifetime, cracks, slow crack growth, material testing Lifetime prediction of PE100 and PE100 RC pipes based on slow crack growth resistance
  • Samples machined directly from pipe show that orientation has a large influence on the strain hardening modulus. No effects arising as a result of residual stresses were found. Samples machined in the axial direction from a hydrostatic pressurised pipe showed no effect as a result of this mechanical degradation. For now, also no clear effect on the is observable for samples machined in tangential direction, but more research is needed to confirm this.Tags: Strain Hardening Test, SHT, polyethylene raised resistance to cracking DETERMINING THE RESIDUAL QUALITY OF PE PIPES USING THE STRAIN HARDENING TEST
  • The performance of HDPE resins with regards to slow crack growth has increased dramatically over the past two decades. The most common test method for pipe products is ASTM F1473, Standard test Method for Notch Tensile Test to measure the resistance to Slow Crack Growth of Polyethylene Pipes and Resins (PENT). Results are reported as hours to failure. Failure time has increased from a few hundred hours to over 50,000 hours in some cases. Crosslinked polyethylene (PEX) is known to have very high slow crack growth resistance as a result of crosslinking. Unfortunately the methods used to measure the slow crack growth resistance of PEX are different than those used for standard polyethylene (PE) pipe grades. This study reports PENT data for PEX pipe resins, which allows a more direct comparison of the slow crack growth properties of crosslinked PE pipe grades with standard PE pipe grades.Tags: PENT, PEX, Crosslinked, SCG, Slow Crack Growth PENT STUDY OF CROSS-LINKED POLYETHYLENE PIPE RESINS
  • The resistance to Slow Crack Growth of HDPE is related to the strain hardening modulus as determined from a tensile test at 80 °C. Correlations between traditional methods (e.g. Full Notched Creep Test, Notched Pipe Test) and other accelerated tests (e.g. fatigue testing) show that the same failure mechanism is probed and that the strain hardening modulus can be used to study and rank the expected SCG behavior of HDPE materials. With the huge benefits achieved for the HDPE pipe grades using raw materials, the logical next step is expansion of the benefits of the strain hardeningTags: Strain Hardening, random PolyPropylene, slow crack growth, pipe failure STRAIN HARDENING MODULUS: A MEASURE FOR RANKING TIME TO FAILURE OF RANDOM POLYPROPYLENE PIPE MATERIALS
  • With the last advances and improvements in the polyethylene resins used for pipe application, new methods for evaluating long-term mechanical properties need to be introduced. Standard PENT and FNCT tests needs more than one year for characterizing the newPE100RC grades with the consequent thermal ageing problems. Strain Hardening modulus (SH) determination at 80ºCseems to be one of the best alternatives. Correlation between SH method and classic SCG tests are reported on this work. It is proved that the method guarantees a rapid and accurate evaluation.Tags: Slow Crack Growth (SCG), Long-term mechanical properties, Strain Hardening modulus, PENT test, FNCT test. LIMITS ON THE SLOW CRACK GROWTH RESISTANCE EVALUATION FOR THE PE100 and PE100RC RESINS
  • Normal High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is commonly used as the fluid contacting element, or the “inner-liner”, in Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipes (RTP) and steel pipes up to 65 ºC. Through a modification of the HDPE polymer matrix, by adding nano-particles, the E-modulus can be increased. Research shows that Nano-filled HDPE liners can, as a result, be used in RTP and steel pipe up to 85 ºC, a temperature which could previously only be reached by using rather expensive polyamide 11 and polyamide 12 compounds. Tags: High density polyethylene (HDPE), Nano-filled polyethylene, Polyethylene liner, Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipe (RTP) EXPANDING THE APPLICATION RANGE OF HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE FOR USE AS AN INNER-LINER MATERIAL IN REINFORCED THERMOPLASTIC PIPE AND STEEL PIPE
  • PE-UHMW pipes standard and application in China are introduced. In this study, the tensile properties, charpy impact strength and abrasion characteristics of PE-UHMW pipes were investigated. These results demonstrate the excellent properties of PE-UHMW pipes. A novel method of testing melt flow rate was also proposed.Tags: Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (PE-UHMW) pipes, standard, mechanical performances, abrasion characteristics, melt flow rate DEVELOPMENT OF PE-UHMW PIPES TECHNOLOGY AND STANDARD IN CHINA
  • A bimodal high density polyethylene(HDPE)resin with an82°C (180°F) pressure rating has recently been developed for demanding pipe applications. This resin qualifies in the highest-pressure rating category with both ISO PE100 and ASTM PE4710 listings. In addition, it has excellent resistance to both slow crack growth and rapid crack propagation. It expands the capability of traditional polyethylene material to more severe service environments and has been used successfully in North American O&G gas gathering and transporting applications in both solid wall and composite pipeTags: Pipe, High Temperature, PE4710, PE100 A New High Temperature Pressure Rated HDPE Pipe Resin Expands the Capability of Polyethylene Pipe
  • Polyethylene pipes have been used for over half a century in Europe and North America and just over two decades in the Middle East. A recurring misgiving amongst first time users is the behavior of the pipes in the extreme climatic conditions such as the Arabian Gulf. High temperatures do exist but there are misconceptions about what level to design for and how to allow for temperature in the choice of pipe. In this paper the author address the technical challenges of design, production and Installation of PE pipes in these aggressive weather conditions, with the support of proven case storiesTags: HDPE, Hot Climates, Technical Challenges POLYETHYLENE PIPES IN HOT CLIMATES –TWO DECADES OF TECHNICAL CHALLENGES
  • The present paper aims to study the crack growth resistance of a black-pigmented polypropylene pipe grade when exposed to elevated temperatures and various environmental media (air, deionized water, ionized water with a specific chloride content, and chlorinated water) under the simultaneous application of cyclic loads. At the temperature of 95°Cthe fatigue crack growth rates are enhanced in air compared to the various liquid media. Moreover, the combination of the highest temperature with the environmental medium air represents the worst case in terms of fatigue crack growth resistance of PP, at least for slow crack growth rates.Tags: polypropylene; fatigue crack growth resistance; superimposed mechanical-environmental loading; cracked round bar; chlorinated water FATIGUE CRACK GROWTHRESISTANCE OF POLYPROPYLENE IN CHLORINATED WATER AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES
  • The replacement of fossil fuels like natural gas by sustainable gases such as biogas and hydrogen can mitigate global warming. There has been some debate about the impact of sustainable gases on the materials used in the gas grid. An extensive study of the behaviour of PE, PVC, POM and rubber materials was therefore conducted. The most important conclusion from this study is that Dutch gas distribution grids will not be degraded by sustainable gas provided that the gas is dry.Tags: Distribution, Renewable, Sustainable, Natural gas, Biogas, Biomethane, PE, PVC, Rubber, Pipe, Joints CAN PE AND PVC GAS DISTRIBUTION PIPES WITHSTAND THE IMPACT OF SUSTAINABLE GASES?
  • Applications at elevated temperatures like cable conduit pipes for high voltage cables, pipelines used in oil industry or in industrial plants offer new possibilities for PE but additional requirements in such applications have to be taken into account. Long term experience in using PE100 pipes with respect to easy and quick installation as well as reliable operation let pipe producers raise the question, if for these new or modified applications, completely new pipe materials are required or if PE100 materials with adjusted properties can meet the requirements. This paper presents examples for new applications and their specific solutions using modified PE100 resins and provides insights into the additional requirements and material science.Tags: PE-RT, PE100, Industrial Applications, Cable Conduit, Waste Water POLYETHYLENE USED ININDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES
  • The work described here suggests that the most appropriate short-term test for determining flaw acceptance criteria in butt fusion joints is a tensile test using a waisted test specimen geometry, where the cross-sectional area is a minimum at the joint line, and the most appropriate parameter is the energy to break the specimen, and a suitable short-term test for EF joints is a peel decohesion test. The recommended long-term test determining flaw acceptance criteria is the whole pipe tensile creep rupture test.Tags: PE, NDT, flaws, acceptance criteria, mechanical testing DEVELOPMENT OF FLAW ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR WELDED JOINTS INPE PIPES
  • More and more a strong desire is noticeable for Non Destructive Testing (NDT) of welded PE-joints. The objective is to determine the long term performance of plastic piping systems made fromPE100. To assess the impact of “mostly known defects“ on the long term performance of a welding, well-defined flaws have to be “reproducibly” placed into pipe joints which then have to be investigated by both destructive and non-destructive methods. Target is to establish the necessary correlation between flaw size/type measured by non-destructive methods with the long term behavior of the welding measured by destructive methods. Both the method for the quality and quantity wise detection of the defects as well as the appropriate (destructive) testing procedures for the long term behavior have to be chosen carefully in order to enable the realistic and reliable set-up of Fail/Pass criteria for welded PE jointsTags: Non Destructive Testing, PE100piping systems, Butt Fusion joints, Fail / Pass criteria Long term influence of defects in butt fusion joints on PE100 pipes and NDT detection of them
  • The Swedish Water & Wastewater Association (SWWA) has funded a R&D project to investigate different methods suitable for installation inspection of PE joints in field. Methods like phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT), microwave technology and digital radiography were studied. Digital radiography shows promising results in finding defects and imperfections as pores, oblique-angled, toe-in and ovality, incorrect insertion and dirt and impurities. It has also been successfully used to investigate the changes in the weld during a welding cycle. Our conclusion is that digital radiography should be considered as part of a prescribed standard for installation inspection of electrofusion PE joints and that it is a powerful tool to be used for research and development into improving the welding performance.Tags: Electrofusion, PE, polyethylene, joint, digital radiography Digital Radiography of PE Joints
  • In plastics industry, the use of terahertz technology opens up opportunities for novel non-destructive and contactless testing applications. For example, the thickness of individual layers of a foamed multilayered plastic pipe can be monitored contactless and continuously during the extrusion process. Furthermore, internal defects and foreign material inclusions can also be detected. Some materials and additives exhibit characteristic fingerprints in the terahertz spectral range allowing identification. Tags: Terahertz, Non-destructive Testing, Inspection POTENTIALS OF TERAHERTZ TECHNOLOGY FOR THE INSPECTION OF PLASTIC PIPES
  • A test campaign has been carried out by ENGIE Lab-CRIGEN in order to evaluate the acuity of the Phased Array Ultrasonic Technique (PAUT) for detecting and sizing calibrated defects implanted at the inner surface of a PE pipe. These calibrated defects had four different geometries, called “V-shaped”, “half-V shaped“, “semi-elliptical” and “rectangular”, respectively. They were machined at ten increasing depths on the internal wall of four half-shells from a 110 mm PE100 pipe. The heights of the defects, as evaluated by PAUT, were compared to those measured on replicas using the diagnostic impression-casting kit developed by CRIGEN. The40 calibrated defects implanted in the pipe half-shells have been detected by the PAUT examination, including those with the smallest heights corresponding to 2% of the pipe thickness, which brings the POD to 100%.Tags: Polyethylene, PE, Non-destructive testing, Phased Array Ultrasonic Technique (PAUT), Calibrated defect, Impression-casting. ULTRASONIC PHASED ARRAY INSPECTION OF POLYETHYLENE DAMAGED PIPES WITH CALIBRATED FAULTS
  • On request of the Dutch DSO’s and in cooperation with all important Dutch stakeholders (producers, suppliers, contractors and the regulator), Kiwa Technology investigated the relevancy of defects found with Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) and if it was possible to determine acceptance criteria. The project showed that using the PAUT non-destructive testing (NDT) method, mainly voids are found, and that there is a relationship between presence of voids and destructive test results. Based on the results, preliminary acceptance criteria are proposed.Tags: Electrofusion joint, non-destructive testing, PAUT ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF PE ELECTROFUSION JOINTS
  • Inspection of non-metallic materials is becoming more important as more and more non-metallic materials are used in various applications. One method for inspecting this non-metallic material is by electromagnetic radiation in the 1GHz to 100 GHz range, or microwave energy. Microwaves interact with material in a fundamentally different way than other energies and thus, represent a unique inspection opportunity. Tags: HDPE, Thermal Fusion, NDE, Microwave INTERACTION OF MICROWAVE ENERGY WITH HDPE AND ITS USES FOR INSPECTING THERMAL FUSIONS AND BASE MATERIAL


  • Big diameter polyethylene pipes used an important role due to superior performance (Flexibility, light weight, long lifetime and tighten joint) for water and industrial supply to several countries. However according to standard concerned Polyethylene pipes as like ISO4427 we are being used solid wall pipe with too wall thickness against for internal pressure. The major job challenge involved finding new polyethylene solution with best high modulus and flexibility such as superior performance of polyethylene for world customers. In achieving this, polyethylene resin with glass fibre named PE-GF by spiral cross winding method take us new. Our technical team should be considered a several resolutions not only short term test but also long-term behaviour of this Glass fibre reinforced polyethylene pipes. This paper focuses on long term evaluation test for pipes and fittings. At first, explores will get results RCP (S4) test for pipes. Also, explores estimated welding factor for Butt-welding joint.Tags: Glass fibre reinforced polyethylene, Rapid crack propagation, welding factor, Long term behaviour LONG-TERM BEHAVIOR OF GLASS FIBER REINFORCED POLYETHYLENE
  • This study pursued a quantitative evaluation of “the resistance to third party attacks”, whether pipes are destroyed or not, of two polyethylene pipes (PE80 and PE100) and two polyamide12 (PA) pipes. Two types of tests that simulate the impact from actual digging machine (attack simulation test) and four types of the typical impact test using test pieces were conducted to compare the results. The impact resistance from both two attack simulation tests of PA pipes was higher than that of PE pipes. The order of the puncture impact strength was similar to the order of the impact resistance from the attack simulation tests. From these results, it is considered that the fracture mode of third party attacks especially by a digging machine is similar to the fracture mode ofTags: Polyamide, Third party attacks, Gas pipe EVALUATION OF THE RESISTANCE TO THIRD PARTY ATTACKS OF PLASTIC PIPES
  • This paper is to verify the impact of different contents of nucleating agent and annealing processes on the content of β-crystal. By using four-parameter equation of PP-RCT with requirements in different application conditions, different temperature coefficients and Miner's rules the design stress of PP-RCT materials under different applications and the calculation process of test pressure of the PP-RCT pipes have been deduced, which can facilitate the better understanding and learning of relevant standards for plastic piping engineers. Moreover, it provides reference for the research and development of plastic pipe materials and quality control method.Tags: β crystalline polypropylene; PP-RCT; design stress; test pressure THE INFLUENCE OF BETA- CRYSTAL CONTENT IN PP-RCT MATERIALS AND CALCULATIONS OF THE TEST PRESSURE OF PIPE
  • Nowadays large diameter HDPE pipes have been widely used in water supply, municipal gas, mines, nuclear service and other fields, while residual stress of large diameter thick-walled pipes in the extrusion processing have resulted in lots of engineering failure cases. In this paper residual stress and mechanical property of HDPE pipes (250mm diameter and SDR11) have been studied. It is shown that the SCG failure time increases and the longitudinal reversion rates decrease along with the reduced difference value between melt temperature and cooling temperature. Then residual stresses of HDPE pipe are analyzed by the hole-drilling strain gage method and non-uniform distribution model. It is found that the residual stress of pipe also decrease gradually with the reduced temperature difference. And the mechanical behavior on outer, middle and inner regions of pipe wall have been studied through tensile experiment. The samples from the outer regions show the lowest tensile yield strength and the highest residual stress. Therefore the validity of the hole-drilling method on residual stress of HDPE pipes is confirmed by the same variation tendency of residual stresses and physical properties.Tags: Large diameter thick-walled pipe, Residual stress, Hole drilling, Extrusion processing, Mechanical property THE STUDY OF RESIDUAL STRESS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTY ON LARGE DIAMETER HDPE PIPE
  • It is important to stabilize the scraped surface of the polyethylene pipe, even if some operator scrape the surface of the polyethylene pipe. In Japan this automatic saddle scraper is widely used for improving workability and plumbing quality.Tags: Polyethylene pipes, Scrape, Saddle, Electro-fusion, Surface LATEST TECHNOLOGY OF SADDLE SCRAPER FOR POLYETHYLENE PIPE
  • Residual stresses can significantly influence the lifetime of polymer pipes. Therefore, realistic estimation of residual hoop stress can contribute to accurate lifetime estimations. The previously used “accurate method” is quite time consuming and needs a lot of specimens to be prepared and treated. A simplified method was so far used, based on the assumption of a linear distribution, with the drawback that the results were too conservative. In this paper, a new simplified methodology for determining the residual hoop stress in polyolefin pipes is proposed. This new methodology, based on the assumption of an exponential shape which has been experimentally predefined, provides a more precise estimation of residual hoop stress distribution in the pipe wall. This methodology may be used as well for recalculation of some older results of authors that assumed linear stress distribution in the pipe wall.Tags: polyolefin pipes, residual stress, ring slitting method, lifetime estimation RESIDUAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN THE EXTRUDED POLYOLEFIN PIPES
  • This paper describes falling-weight tests as a first step towards determining the effect of residual stresses on the fracture behaviour of old PVC-U gas pipes at impact. Results showed that the level of surrounding pipe support, the quality of the material and the diameter of the striker had a major effect on the extent of deformation and the failure mode (brittle or ductile). Due to the large scatter in the data, it could not be concluded that residual stresses had an effect on the fracture behaviour of well-supported pipes (simulating fine and well-compacted sandy soil).Tags: Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Residual stresses, Falling-weight impact test, Brittle-ductile transition temperature (TBD) THE EFFECT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES AND EXTERNAL EFFECTS ON THE FRACTURE BEHAVIOUR OF PVC PIPES
  • To prevent an enormous surge in the replacement costs of the Dutch PVC gas distribution grid a so-called Exit Assessment programme was started in 2004. This programme determines the actual quality of old excavated PVC-U and PVC-Hi pipes using a tensile-impact test at temperatures varying from -25°C to +47,5°C, whereby the brittle-ductile-transition-temperature is determined. With this research the average remaining quality of the Dutch PVC grid is determined. Also prioritizing pipe replacement becomes possible by distinguishing between pipe populations based on PVC-U types, diameter or installation year. Tags: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Brittle-ductile-transition-temperature (TBD), Remaining Quality Gas Grid, Prioritizing Replacement, Tensile-impact Test THE REMAINING QUALITY OF THE PVC GAS GRID -RESULTS OF 10 YEARS OF ON-GOING RESEARCH
  • In this paper, it is reported the development and product design of CIPP with Biomass resin, “Furan resin”. To satisfy the both properties of Long Pot-life and enough curing speed of resin as the application of CIPP, latest hardener of acid catalyst was very effective to achieve the both properties shown above. And to prevent the cured Furan resin from shrinking largely, low shrinkage agent was found to be useful for promoting Diels-Alder reaction occurred in each Furan molecule itselfTags: Biomass resin, CIPP, Non-styrene, Furan resin THE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT FOR CIPP UTILIZING FURAN RESIN
  • We have developed poly (VC-co-PEGMA). This polymer is obtained from the polymerization with the vinyl chloride monomer and PEGMA (polyoxy ethylene glycol monomethacrylate). Each component of this polymer is chemically-bonded. This polymer shows hydrophilic property, antistatic properties, transparency etc., and, is possible to various processes. We're also considering other usage as well as a pipe. Tags: PVC, PEGMA, Copolymerization, Hydrophilic property, Transparency Development and applications of a novel polymer of polyvinyl chloride having a hydrophilic property
  • Since many years EVOH (ethylene/vinyl alcohol copolymer) is applied in plastic heating systems [cross-linked polyethylene (PEX), polyethylene of raised temperature resistance (PE-RT), polypropylene (PP), polybutylene (PB)], where its excellent gas barrier properties ensure a minimization of corrosion of the metal parts in the heating system. Such multilayer pipe structure is also commonly used for domestic gas supply systems. There are however several other pipe applications where the incorporation of an EVOH barrier layer by coextrusion is beneficial: fuel transport systems, drinking water systems for contaminated soil and pre-insulated pipe systems. In these applications, in addition to gas barrier, the fuel vapour barrier and chemical resistance of EVOH are of particular interest.Tags: Barrier, pipe, EVOH, multilayer, coextrusion BENEFITS OF MULTILAYER PIPE SYSTEMS WITH AN EVAL™EVOH BARRIER LAYER
  • To obtain kinetic data for cyclic crack growth curves, typically three extensometers attached at three angular positions around the specimen circumference are used to measure crack opening displacement values and to deal with the problem of asymmetric crack growth. Hence, a technique has been developed and implemented in our laboratory in which the entire specimen is rotated in a tension-torsion electrodynamic fatigue test machine, which allows for crack length measurements at various circumferential positions of the CRB specimen by an optical technique. Applying this technique, a much finer resolution of crack length measurements can be obtained in steps of 20 angular rotation, allowing for a total of 18 crack length measurements over the whole perimeter.Tags: test, specimen, temperature, cyclic, extensometer A NOVEL PROCEDURE FOR CHARACTERIZING FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH IN CRB SPECIMENS VIA AN OPTICAL TECHNIQUE

5 minute posters

  • This study pursued a quantitative evaluation of “the resistance to third party attacks”, whether pipes are destroyed or not, of two polyethylene pipes (PE80 and PE100) and two polyamide12 (PA) pipes. Two types of tests that simulate the impact from actual digging machine (attack simulation test) and four types of the typical impact test using test pieces were conducted to compare the results. The impact resistance from both two attack simulation tests of PA pipes was higher than that of PE pipes. The order of the puncture impact strength was like the order of the impact resistance from the attack simulation tests. From these results, it is considered that the fracture mode of third party attacks especially by a digging machine is like the fracture mode ofTags: Polyamide, Third party attacks, Gas pipe EVALUATION OF THE RESISTANCE TO THIRD PARTY ATTACKS OF
  • This paper is to verify the impact of different contents of nucleating agent and annealing processes on the content of β-crystal. By using four-parameter equation of PP-RCT with requirements in different application conditions, different temperature coefficients and Miner's rules the design stress of PP-RCT materials under different applications and the calculation process of test pressure of the PP-RCT pipes have been deduced, which can facilitate the better understanding and learning of relevant standards for plastic piping engineers. Moreover, it provides reference for the research and development of plastic pipe materials and quality control method.Tags: crystalline polypropylene, PP-RCT, design stress, test pressure THE INFLUENCE OF BETA CRYSTAL CONTENT IN PPRCT MATERIALS AND CALCULATIONS OF THE TEST PRESSURE OF PIPE
  • It is important to stabilize the scraped surface of the polyethylene pipe, even if some operator scrape the surface of the polyethylene pipe. In Japan this automatic saddle scraper is widely used for improving workability and plumbing quality.Tags: Polyethylene pipes, Scrape, Saddle, Electro-fusion, Surface LATEST TECHNOLOGY OF SADDLE SCRAPER FOR POLYETHYLENE PIPE
  • Residual stresses can significantly influence the lifetime of polymer pipes. Therefore, realistic estimation of residual hoop stress can contribute to accurate lifetime estimations. The previously used “accurate method” is quite time consuming and needs a lot of specimens to be prepared and treated. A simplified method was so far used, based on the assumption of a linear distribution, with the drawback that the results were too conservative. In this paper, a new simplified methodology for determining the residual hoop stress in polyolefin pipes is proposed. This new methodology, based on the assumption of an exponential shape which has been experimentally predefined, provides a more precise estimation of residual hoop stress distribution in the pipe wall. This methodology may be used as well for recalculation of some older results of authors that assumed linear stress distribution in the pipe wall.Tags: polyolefin pipes, residual stress, ring slitting method, lifetime estimation RESIDUAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN THE EXTRUDED POLYOLEFIN PIPES
  • This paper describes falling-weight tests as a first step towards determining the effect of residual stresses on the fracture behaviour of old PVC-U gas pipes at impact. Results showed that the level of surrounding pipe support, the quality of the material and the diameter of the striker had a major effect on the extent of deformation and the failure mode (brittle or ductile). Due to the large scatter in the data, it could not be concluded that residual stresses had an effect on the fracture behaviour of well-supported pipes (simulating fine and well-compacted sandy soil).Tags: Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Residual stress, Falling-weight impact test, Brittle-ductile transition temperature (TBD) THE EFFECT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES AND EXTERNAL EFFECTS ON THE FRACTURE BEHAVIOUR OF PVC PIPES
  • To prevent an enormous surge in the replacement costs of the Dutch PVC gas distribution grid a so-called Exit Assessment programme was started in 2004. This programme determines the actual quality of old excavated PVC-U and PVC-Hi pipes using a tensile-impact test at temperatures varying from -25°C to +47,5°C, whereby the brittle-ductile-transition-temperature is determined. With this research the average remaining quality of the Dutch PVC grid is determined. Also prioritizing pipe replacement becomes possible by distinguishing between pipe populations based on PVC-U types, diameter or installation year. Tags: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Brittle-ductile-transition-temperature (TBD). Remaining Quality Gas Grid, Prioritizing Replacement, Tensile-impact Test THE REMAINING QUALITY OF THE PVC GAS GRID -RESULTS OF 10 YEARS OF ON-GOING RESEARCH
  • Since many years EVOH (ethylene/vinyl alcohol copolymer) is applied in plastic heating systems [cross-linked polyethylene (PEX), polyethylene of raised temperature resistance (PE-RT),polypropylene (PP),polybutylene (PB)], where its excellent gas barrier properties ensure a minimization of corrosion of the metal parts in the heating system. Such multilayer pipe structure are also commonly used for domestic gas supply systems. There are however several other pipe applications where the incorporation of an EVOH barrier layer by coextrusion is beneficial: fuel transport systems, drinking water systems for contaminated soil and pre-insulated pipe systems. In these applications, in addition to gas barrier, the fuel vapour barrier and chemical resistance of EVOH are of particular interest.Tags: barrier; pipe; EVOH; multilayer; coextrusion BENEFITS OF MULTILAYER PIPE SYSTEMS WITH AN EVAL™EVOH BARRIER LAYER
  • The major job challenge involved finding new polyethylene solution with best high modulus and flexibility such as superior performance of polyethylene for world customers. In achieving this, polyethylene resin with glass fibre named PE-GF by spiral cross winding method take us new. Our technical team should be considered a several resolutions not only short term test but also long-term behaviour of this Glass fibre reinforced polyethylene pipes. This paper focuses on long term evaluation test for pipes and fittings. At first, explores will get results RCP (S4) test for pipes. Also, explores estimated welding factor for Butt-welding joint.Tags: Glass fibre reinforced polyethylene, Rapid crack propagation, welding factor, Long term behaviour LONG-TERM BEHAVIOR OF GLASS FIBER REINFORCED POLYETHYLENE


Plastic Pipes (2014) - Chicago

Papers | Posters | 5 minute posters | Other |


  • Opening presentation of PE100+Tags: PE100+ 15 Successful Years of Promoting Consistent High Quality PE100
  • Opening presentation of TEPPFATags: Teppfa, Europe TEPPFA – The European Voice of the Plastic Pipes and Fittings Industry
  • PVC4Pipes opening presentation with overview of members and activities. Covers 10 key reasons for using PVC piping. Presentation is made as a short movie.Tags: PVC4Pipes, lifetime, PVC, pipe, sustainable, lightweight, smooth, recycling, safe, cost efficient PVC Pipes – Lifelines for a New Age
  • Opening presentation of PPITags: PPI, USA Strength Through Diversity
  • Lack of fusion, porosity, inserting defect, foreign material in fusion zone and dislocation of heating wires could be detected by using phase array ultrasonic imaging methods. Also improper fusion could be detected by measuring distances detected indications between heating wires and heat affected zone by NDE . Tags: heating, time, proper, applied, fusion, zone, soil, phase, socket Non Destructive Evaluation of Improper Fusion for Polyethylene Heat Fusion Socket Joint
  • The paper presents the layouts of two testing procedures for the prediction of the long-term performance of composite material. In static loading tests, the 20-year shear strengths of the composites are estimated using the application of the rate process procedure. The results of these tests demonstrated the significant effect of temperature on the strength of the composites.Tags: temperature, test, cyclic, term, process, loading, pressure, material Evaluation of the Long-Term Performance of Composite Plastic Liners
  • A fast and viable polyethylene pipe repair method has been developed that requires minimal tools, preparation, and equipment. Based on the work performed to date the following conclusions can be made: The patch is providing protection for the artificially induced damaged pipes. The repaired SDR 11 MDPE pipe has a projected HDB of 80% of that established for the MDPE pipe material. The repaired SDR 11 MDPE pipe has a theoretical MAOP of 64 psig. The repaired SDR 11 HDPE pipe has a projected HDB of 78% of that established for the HDPE pipe material. The repaired SDR 11 HDPE pipe has a theoretical MAOP of 80 psig.Tags: pipe, hdpe, mdpe, pressure, hydrostatic, damage, repair Polyethylene Pipe Repair
  • All developmental VHMWPE materials in this study show improved abrasion resistance in the solvent slurry testing versus the RT water slurry testing. At elevated temperatures, the Bimodal HDPE suffers severe chemical attack on it’s surface while Sample A and the UHMWPE did not. This would potentially limit the Bimodal HDPE from elevated temperature applications. It can be concluded that within a temperature range of 23°C to 60°C in petroleum slurries, the Sample A provides good abrasion resistance properties. In pipe applications, where the abrasion occurs primarily at corners and bends in the pipe, Sample A material should give better performance than other commercial polyethylene resins. Although Sample A does not perform as well as the UHMWPE, Sample A is melt processible and can be either extruded into pipe or coextruded as a liner material. Sample A has a high load melt index (HLMI) of 0.7 to 2.5 grams per 10 minutes at 190°C and at a load of 21.6 kgs. Despite the high viscosity it can be readily extruded through slit dies with apertures of 0.5mm without edge tear. This allows it to be processed through basket, spiral, or spider dies into a pipe or profile without the need for any special equipment. As the liner material in a pipe used to handle abrasive slurries, such as mining slurries or tar sand slurries, Sample A can provide performance advantages versus other extrudable PE compounds. Tags: sample, melt, weight, resistance, water, slurry, Very High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Resins with Improved Chemical and Abrasion Resistance
  • The data presented herein shows a strong correlation between the conventional and accelerated test methods for both the extrusion grade high-density polyethylene resin and the extrusion grade polypropylene resin. ASTM D6992 has proven to be an acceptable alternative to ASTM D2990 for long-term creep modulus prediction of both the extrusion grade high-density polyethylene resin and the extrusion grade polypropylene resin. It can be further concluded that creep-rupture analysis via SIM offers a precise method for determining the ductile failure creep-rupture envelope for these resins. Tags: creep, data, time, hdpe, stress, year, polyethylene, strain material Comparison of Creep Rupture and Creep Modulus Data for High Density Polyethylene and Polypropylene Pipe Resins Using Traditional and Accelerated Test Methods
  • The HDD technique for installing PE water pipes in Nagpur city in India has so far proved to be very beneficial significantly reducing both the overall cost and the environmental impact. The High Stress Crack Resistance PE 100 material for critical HDD applications will provide the most reliable and enduring service life for the water networks and gives necessary “peace of mind” to utility operator for maintaining them for 25 years. It is excellent case that demonstrates how a utility company can benefit from the joint support of pipe, equipment and raw material suppliers in providing a solution which can meet the objectives of India’s first PPP “24x7” water supply project.Tags: water, supply, India, project, pipe, network, installation, population India’s First Full City “24X7” Water Supply Contract to Use Trenchless Installation with PE100 Pipes
  • There is mounting evidence in certain regions that PE gas distribution pipelines are being exposed to hydrocarbon contamination. Because PE is nonpolar, it is a very poor barrier to nonpolar hydrocarbons as might be found in the natural gas industry. The presence of these hydrocarbons in the plastic matrix can have a negative influence on two important aspects associated with gas operations: thermal fusion quality and pipe strength. The most common issue is that heat joining techniques on hydrocarbon permeated pipes may result in lower strength joints. Also of interest is the impact of impregnated hydrocarbons on slow crack growth (SCG). This paper will provide an update on the status of the two year research project that GTI has undertaken to quantify the effects of hydrocarbon contamination on PE pipe.Tags: hydrocarbon, pipe, gas, impact, data, strength, industry The Impact of Heavy Hydrocarbon Permeation on PE Pipe
  • The information obtained during the dredging season of Guangzhou was sufficient to indication the usefulness of large-diameter HDPE pipe in dredging. Wear, in this case, was more dependent upon dredged material type than upon time or volume of slurry. As the dredging industry expands accompanied by higher operating costs and increased distances to disposal sites, new technology and materials are being introduced. HDPE can be an efficient alternative or supplement to steel discharge lines. The physical and mechanical properties of HDPE are sufficiently different from steel that problems may develop if it is treated as a rigid pipe. Its flexible, lightweight, abrasion-resistant nature offers the dredger new freedom in pipeline design, life, cost, and maintenance. Tags: pipe, hdpe, flow, steel, slurry, pressure, wall, rate, fluid Research on Application of PE Pipelines in Dredging Field
  • Explains why at least 53 cases of RCP have been observed in old PVC water pipes and fittings in Netherland since 2003. The behaviour of water-filled PVC segments is almost binary. At low water pressures, below PC, the segments show complete resistance to any crack initiation, whilst above PCRCP occurs with a crack usually propagating through the entire segment length, up to the end cap at the other end. The wall thickness (SDR value) of water-filled 315 mm pipes has a major influence. This means that the risk of RCP fractures in PVC water pipes decreases if a thicker pipe wall is chosen.Tags: rapid, crack, water pipes, pressure, speed, critical, low, high Designing Against Rapid Crack Propagation in PVC Water Pipes
  • In all of the trials, ploughing did not cause any more surface damage to the pipes than would be expected in normal open trenching. Neither was any significant ovality generated by the ploughing itself. The trials clearly demonstrated that it was possible to plough twin DN315 and single DN450 and DN630 pipes in the soil conditions experienced at the trial sites with the potential to plough even larger diameters. The trial conditions included an area of rock where the trenching machine was initially used to form a trench that was then backfilled and the pipe ploughed in the normal manner. The success of the, modified feeding method has confirmed there is merit in attempting to plough DN710 and perhaps even DN800. The elevated loop approach remains an acceptable method for ploughing the smaller diameter pipes. To date, the plough has been used to successfully and safely install many kilometres of twin DN315, DN450 and DN630 at commercially acceptable rates.Tags: pipe, soil ,diameter, installation, larger, chute, trench, damage, factor, surface Plough-in of Large Diameter Polyethylene Pipes
  • An effective analysis strategy and several working risk models have been developed for assessing the risk in Aldyl A gas distribution piping systems. The models combine elements of RPM testing, detailed material properties knowledge, installation conditions, subject matter expertise and historic data into a coherent risk based approach to system integrity management. The outputs are presented in clear engineering guidelines to help determine the optimum approach to managing the gradual replacement of Aldyl A piping systems that are nearing the end of their design life. The methodology developed enables the operator to target the highest risk systems for immediate action while deferring the replacement of lower risk sections of the system to a later date.Tags: risk, pipe, model, analysis, wall, performance, factors, stress, method Remaining Life Expectancy and Risk Profile of Vintage Aldyl A Piping
  • The extensive knowledge of the mechanical properties at high temperature acquired on PE-RT for the Hot & Cold market benefits for the industrial applications where operating conditions vary as much as there are projects. The ISO 15494 was revised with the introduction of PE-RT and references to appropriate product standards. This opens the doors to new applications, especially for the Oil & Gas industry where the growing demand for hydrocarbons requires the use of “unconventional” production technologies. Those new technologies have in common operating temperatures above the current industry practice where PE-RT becomes the ideal material taking into account the experience already gathered with standard HDPE and, besides the mechanical properties at elevated temperature, characteristics such as the weldability, the access to much larger diameters than allowed by Hot & Cold product standards, the flexibility, creep resistance, toughness, … in one word, all the advantages of HDPE accessible at higher temperature.Tags: iso, temperature, gas, pressure, material, pipe, condition, water PE-RT for Industrial and Oil & Gas Applications: New Opportunities with New Standard
  • Resin architecture had a clear influence on the RCP performance at high temperatures. The bimodal HDPE resin exhibited better overall resistance to RCP as indicated by a lower S4,Tc and a higher S4,Pc compared to the MDPE and HDPE resins. In contrast, the effects of resin architecture were much less pronounced at the very low temperatures. Here, all three resins were found to exhibit a low-temperature plateau region below which the RCP response did not change much with pressure at any given temperature. The overall shapes of the failure envelopes for the three different resins were quite similar and there appeared to be about a 15-30 °C delta (difference) between the S4,Tc temperature and the temperature of the onset of the low-temperature plateau. Perhaps more significantly, our data showed that all three resins were able to sustain some minimal internal pressure without encountering RCP down to the lowest test temperatures of -40 °C to -50 °C. These experimental results question the validity of infrequent reports of RCP failures in non-pressurized pipes during field installations in very low temperature environments. Tags: rcp, pipe, temperature, three, ion, critical, stress Rapid Crack Propagation – Observations of Critical Pressure and Critical Temperature Relationships of Polyethylene Pipes
  • During this first large diameter U-shape relining project, the Chinese engineering company learned a lot and was able to further improve its technology. Clearly the technical solution has to consider all the possible factors in order to provide the optimum solution under all conditions. The use of a high stress crack resistance PE100 material will effectively protect the pipe from failure due to any surface scratches or scores sustained during the installation. The successful development of this and other ‘no-dig’ technologies will surely support the development of the urbanization that is taking place in China and other Asia countries.Tags: pipe, water, china, iron, installation, diameter, temperatures Renovation of Old Water Pipeline and Case Study in China
  • This paper provides data used to assess the quality of medium density polyethylene pipes that have been in service for several decades compared to a recent control. Overall, it can be observed the test data of all the exhumed, aged pipes compare favourably to the recently extruded yellow pipe control when modifications in manufacturing control limits are accounted. There are no apparent signs of ageing of the pipes. As stated earlier, there are no unexplained differences in the physical properties of the pipes in service for thirty years compared to the 2011 control sample, suggesting very clearly that these pipes have exhibited not only extremely robust performance in service, but can also be expected to continue to perform well for several more decades. Only the pipe exposed to outdoor conditions for over twenty five years had any measurable change in test properties, and in that instance the pipes still met the current ASTM D2513 standard requirements.Tags: pipe, yellow, testing, service, natural, crack, years, slow, growth An Evaluation of Aged MDPE Gas Pipes
  • The experimental tests performed to the studied PE-RT Type II pipes with a concentrated oxidizing solution showed very high resistance to such chemicals as indicated by long failure times at elevated temperatures. This indicates the suitability for usage of such material in contact with similar oxidizing substances. Additionally this correlates well with the high resistance to slow crack growth measured on notched specimens which points to a similar performance to that of PE 100RC materials. Swelling of PE-RT Type II samples in contact with oil derivatives at moderates temperatures, allowed theoretical prediction of the diffusion of such chemicals through a pipe wall and indicated also suitability for the oil & gas pipe application.Tags: pipe, material, temperatures, metal, industry, chemical, crack,pe100 Chemical and Temperature Resistance of Polyethylene Pipes for Industrial Applications
  • As with previous work, including Haddad (9), Bass, (10), and Achereiner, (12), data presented in this paper showed that SIM is a valid and comparable method for the determination of the long-term creep properties of polypropylene resins used for corrugated pipe. There should no longer be questions about the appropriateness of using SIM in place of or to supplement conventional long-term creep and creep rupture tests. Additionally, SIM may be considered a superior test method because the key variables of temperature and strain can be controlled better in a 24 hour test than in a 10,000 hr one. Tags: creep, strain, result, stress, temperature, time, term, mpa Comparison Between the Stepped Isothermal Method (SIM) and Conventional Creep and Creep Rupture Tests on Polypropylene Used In Corrugated Drainage Pipe
  • The use of trenchless pipeline installation technology is expected to grow as the need to rehabilitate or replace existing sewer and water pipeline infrastructure increases in importance. The properties and versatility of PVC allow it to be used for a wider range of solutions for trenchless installations than any other material. The advantages of PVC include strength, light weight, hydraulic capacity, crack resistant flexibility, corrosion, chemical resistance including resistance to hydrocarbon permeation, maintainability and environmental performance.Tags: technologies, material, trenchless, installation, infrastructure, grow, corrosion, long length, pipeline, crack resistant PVC – Review of Available Technologies for Trenchless Pipeline Applications
  • A methodology has been proposed to determine the design life of heat fusion fittings used in natural gas applications. This methodology was developed because of the higher pressures that are allowed for PE pipe, and the desire of Canadian gas companies to assure that heat fusion fittings can operate safely at these higher pressures. With this methodology, the gas operator can select their desired maximum operating pressure (stress), their average annual ground temperature, and their desired design life. The example in this Paper was for DR 11 pipe; however, since stress is used any DR pipe may be selected and the internal pressure is converted to the corresponding hoop stress. This methodology allows us to validate the expectation that the heat fusion fittings will achieve a desired performance capability (stress, temperature, time) with the confidence level afforded by the number of replicate specimens. It is important to note that the results of this methodology are dependent on the operator making good quality heat fusion joints. If poor joints are made, the specimens may fail prematurely.Tags: stress, temperature, fusion, heat, fittings, methodology, factor, pressure Methodology to Determine Design Life of Assemblies of PE Pipe, Heat Fusion Fittings, and Heat Fusion Joints
  • Flexible pre-insulated pipes are becoming the alternative to steel pipes for district heating in Europe. Studied PE-RT Type II pipes probed enough thermal stability at 110ºC as to allow time extrapolations over those specified for the applications. Calculations on lifetime expectation of such pipes done using weather statistics from 1981-2010 in Moscow indicate the suitability of such PERT Type pipes for several district heating regimes.Tags: heating, pipe, networks, weather, lifetime, temperature Flexible Plastic Solution for District Heating Network
  • The objective of this paper was to identify the impact of two plaque preparation methods on long-term creep behaviour of extrusion grade polyethylene and polypropylene resins when compared to test specimens taken directly from a pipe wall. Where variation exists between test results taken from the pipe wall and plaques, effort is made to identify direct attributing factors in this phenomenon and suggestions for resolution.Tags: psi, pipe, liner, table, corrugate, result, test, injection, degrees, design Long Term Creep Propterites of High Density Polyethylene and Polypropylene Pipe Grade Resins Based on Specimen Preparation Method
  • The three most common and popular installation methods for whole pipe replacement are horizontal directional drilling (HDD), slip lining, and pipe bursting. FPVCP has provided a material that is both capable and familiar for water and wastewater industry professionals. FPVCP is providing not only a capable material, but one that is stretching the limits of trenchless thermoplastic installations. FPVCP has been used in some of the longest and deepest HDD installations ever completed by an uncased, thermoplastic pipe material, such as the PDX DE-Icing project.Tags: fused, FPVCP, trenchless, installation, underground, infrastructure, construct, materials, methods Thermally Fused PVC Pipe Helps Accelerate Adoption of Trenchless Pipe Installation Techniques in North America
  • With respect to hydrostatic pressure resistance, the investigated PE 100 and PEXc material grades exhibit a 50 % drop in long-term hydrostatic strength (LTHS) under liquid hydrocarbon pressurization compared to water pressurization. As depicted in Figure 8, at low stress levels (corresponding to reduced LTHS values in pipe application) the SCG resistance of PE 100 remains superior in LHC environment compared to water environment. Moreover, the investigated PE 100 model material does not exhibit a characteristic knee under water pressurization according to the ISO 9080 standard extrapolation procedure within 50 years, thus SCG presumably is not supposed to be the bottleneck for the aim of 25 years pipe lifetime in oilfield service.Tags: water, pipe, under, pressure, conditions, results, mental Lifetime Assessment of Polyethylene Pipes in Oil and Gas Infrastructure
  • It is estimated that there is enough thermoplastic lined pipe currently in service to circle the diameter of the earth more than two times. Thermoplastic lined pipe systems continue to prove themselves reliable after more than 25 years in service. Liner systems continue to gain popularity as a technical and commercially effective solution to internal corrosion and abrasion problems. Joining methods for the liner systems play a critical role in the overall reliability and function. Providing a proper seal to adjacent sections is only the first task of the joining system as it also must provide a means to retain the liner while being an integral part of a robust connection. Tags: thermoplastic, system, compression, seal, lined, ring, pipe Joining Methods for Thermoplastic lined pipelines
  • The results of the LCAs indicate that the impact of plastic pipe systems on the environment is relatively lower compared to the environmental footprint of main non-plastic piping materials. The contribution of plastic pipe systems to global warming (CO2 footprint) is for all plastic piping systems that have been studied lower in comparison of pipe systems made out of competing materials for the pipes. Tags: pipe, environmental, system, impact, water, pvc, waste, soil, teppfa The Environmental Footprint of Plastic Pipe Systems Within the Built Environment
  • We are considering improvement countermeasures for various PERT deterioration factors. Without depending on traditional AO increases, we aim to requisite minimum compounds after improving structural defects generated and enlarged by secondary crystallization at the time of moulding and afterward. We think that this is the technology which can be used with non-crosslinked pipes made of olefin resin; we will further pursue research into this technology. First, we will use trial-manufactured resin pipes and implement hydrostatic stress rupture tests, high-temperature running water tests and a comparative review of deterioration in copper ion resistance properties. We also plan on aiming to establish life-extension design methods, including moulding conditions based on their results. Tags: pipe, water, copper, surface, heating, results, cross, added Countermeasures against Deterioration in Non-Cross-Linked Polyethylene Pipes
  • it took just over 2 months to re-establish the diversion of the Morwell River as a semi-permanent solution which kept the mine fully operative. This ensured an uninterrupted supply of power to the 5+ million people of the state of Victoria and prevented a prolonged interruption to the state’s economy that would have been measured in the billions of dollars. The PE100 pipe compound provided a unique package of performance attributes such as the capacity to manufacture pipes of very challenging sizes, withstand significant abuse resistance during installation and end-use and ensure the structural integrity of the pipe network for long-term use. Tags: pipe, mine, river, 1600mm, power, station, below 1600mm PE Pipe Installation Saves Power Supply in Victoria, Australia
  • Observations of pipelines have shown that nothing is completely earthquake proof. Seismic movements are beyond human control, and will happen anyway, hence the need to accommodate them in design. Especially true in highly liquefiable areas; there is simply no such thing as “earthquake proof” pipe! Flexible pipes such as PVC and PE generally performed well, with significantly fewer breaks and leaks observed compared with other commonly used non-flexible pipes. However, the basic fact remains that any pipe in any material, may get broken or damaged in an earthquake event, which places a bigger onus on the practicality and ease of repair as the most vital consideration. Pipes must be compatible with mechanical joints and joints that are actually available and affordable, without needing electrical or heat fusion processes and dry clean site conditions. Use “flexible” pipes, joints, structures and designs that accommodate movement, in any seismic risk area. No pipe material observed, survived totally undamaged where either the compressive or expansive ground movement exceeded the movement capability of the pipe or joint. Design pipelines to manage assumed or certain movement or failure such as near rigid structures, bridges, stream or river banks, or crossing active fault lines, and locations likely to lose road access/bridge access or electrical power resources for substantial periods Tags: pipe, pvc, joints, ground, earthquake, material, joint, bell, spigot Pipeline Performance Experiences during Seismic Events in New Zealand over the Last 27 Years
  • The work presented in this paper shows examples of some of many projects that the 4s-organisation has ongoing with the goal of understanding what is needed to achieve a 150 years lifetime of a PE-pipe system for drinking water. This brings us back to questions in the title: can it be achieved? The answer is that we do not have an answer yet and much more work has to be made in order to answer the question. It is, however, clear from the 7 Copyright © 2014 by PPCA research presented in this paper that improvements can be made and therefore the 4s-organization will in the future continue to have projects with the aim of maximizing the lifetime of PE-pipes and their welds.Tags: testing, water, pipe, standard, joints, digital, test, failures, sewerage 150 Years Lifetime on PE-Piping Systems for Drinking Water, Can It Be Achieved?
  • A Teppfa study that shows that you need 30% less installation time for PVC pipes compared with concrete pipes. Less site transport needed for Plastic pipes, as well a much simpler installation of plastic manholes. Presentation includes 5 minute video showing in parallel the installation of PVC and concrete pipes.Tags: Installation, excavator, alternative material, plastic pipes, trench, thermoplastic Pipes, concrete, system, material Sewer Installation Time – Comparing PVC with concrete
  • Over the last 15-20 years, production of polyolefin pipe materials has grown over 14% per annum in the GCC. Over a similar period sizes of HDPE pressure pipes have grown from “large diameter” 500mm to 2000mm. Meanwhile PP pipes are produced to 3000mm, and even 4000mm is possible Sadly, there is little or no published data in the region regarding the quantities of pipe produced or used in the Middle East region. What is clear, from the experience of UPI, Borouge and others, is that the market will continue to grow and these materials will penetrate further segments of the marketTags: pipe, production, diameter, large, hdpe, water, years The Rapid Spread of Large Diameter PO Pipes in the Middle East and Asia
  • In this paper, plastic pipes such as PEX, PB, and PE-RT for heating and hot water supply were tested by the hot water circulation at the pressure of 0.4 MPa in inlet and 0.2 MPa in outlet, the stress rupture at the pressure of 0.2 MPa and the simple hot water immersion at 110 degrees C for 5000 hours or more. The results are presented in the paper.Tags: PE-RT. Oxidation, PEX, stress, rupture, pressure, antioxidants, IOT Evaluation of Plastic Pipes by Hot Water Circulation, Stress Rupture, and Immersion Tests
  • Continued growth and development of San Antonio, Texas has led to an ever-increasing need for fresh water to serve the city’s requirements. The Regional Carrizo Aquifer Project is one such option for the addition of significant volumes or water from sources outside of the Edwards Aquifer. In this case study, water is gathered within the Buckhorn well field owned and operated by SAWS in Gonzales County approximately 50 miles (80 km) east of San Antonio, Texas. The water is then transported through a 36 inch (914 mm) HDPEPE4710 pipe to a water treatment plant operated by Schertz-Seguin Local Government Corporation (SSLGC) and from there, it is transferred to the SAWS system using an existing pipeline owned and operated by SSLGC. Both the Buckhorn well field and the 36inch (914 mm) supply were constructed of HDPE pipe. This is an innovative approach to effectively solving a complex problem. However, the remote nature of the SAWS well field and pipeline assets presented some unique challenges in their own right. Corrosive soils, combined with moderately corrosive water, elevated service temperatures and overall cost meant that long-term serviceability and low maintenance costs were major considerations that led to the selection of HDPE pipe for this project. Creative productivity enhancing strategies were deployed on this project that insured the project would be completed within the timeline allowed and the system is fully operational as of December, 2013. Tags: water, pipe, san antonio, Texas, fusion, system, saws, city, state Thirsty City Turns to Plastic Pipe
  • A new, conservative validation methodology has been developed for PE piping materials in potable water applications based on multiple connected research programs carried out over the past several years. It is seen that this methodology provides a viable means of validating the long-term aging performance of polyethylene pipe for potable water applications as it: 1. Replicates the long-term aging mechanism observed in the field, 2. Provides projections consistent with observed field behaviour and 3. Is in good agreement with the current ASTM F2263 test methodology projections. Tags: pipe, performance, long, water, material, mode, surface, method An Assessment of the Approach to Validate Polyethylene Pipe in Potable Water Systems
  • The performance advantages of PE piping systems continue to be recognized around the world, and as such, the demand for these high performance products continues to grow on a global basis. The performance requirements by which each PE compound designation (PE100 and PE4710) is listed are similar but have some specific differences. These differences can pose a significant challenge from the perspective of specification, construction code compliance, or third party certification. ISO 4427 places a preference on pre-compound PE feedstock whereas ASTM produced products are frequently produced and evaluated from an in-plant blend of a natural PE compound and an approved color masterbatch or concentrate without sacrificing performance. Differences in how the PE pipe products are pressure-rated within the context of each standard system are a significant factor that can affect project design, logistics and cost in a significant way.Tags: pipe, design, pressure, stress, produced, psi, iso, standards PE100 and PE4710 Sourcing Components in a Global Market
  • A brief introduction has been given to what is believed to be a new concept for providing connections to semi structural polyethylene liners installed in water trunk mains. The concept is in its infancy but offers significant economic benefits and engineering assurances which assist in promoting polyethylene lining technology as a cost effective solution against alternative offerings such as epoxy and polyurethane spray lining technologies.Tags: pipe, polyethylene, saddle, iron, water, air, Reducing Engineering Complexity of Large Diameter Close Fit Polyethylene Liner Installation
  • In a world with increasingly intense competition, and borders being erased opening up doors to trading across countries and regions, increased competition has been placed also on the PP-R pipe market. As the market has matured, there are more producers out there than ever before fighting for their share of the market. It is in this very market where new solutions need to come in to play and to help producers diversify on the market with new capabilities. PP-RCT is opening up doors for exactly that; by allowing for a higher performance it enables producers- and other pipe value chain members to utilise a higher room to manoeuver than is otherwise possible when standard PP-R materials are used.Tags: pipe, water, hot, material, cold, pressure, resistance, class Unlocking New Applications: PP-RCT for Demanding Skyrise Buildings
  • Polyvinyl Chloride water main pipe, manufactured to AWWA Standards C900 and C905 has been in use in Edmonton for more than 35 years. The un-matched reliability of the pipe material for over 35 years has enabled EPCOR to reduce its annual water main break rate to levels not seen since the early 1960’s, when Edmonton’s water system was less than 1/3 of the size it is today. This pipe material continues to be the material of choice in EPCOR’s water distribution network in Edmonton. Testing PVC pipe and finding little to no degradation over 25+ years providesTags: water, main, experience, problems, cast iron, material, AWWA, EPCOR EPCOR’s Continuing Success with PVC Water Main Pipe
  • Piping systems have been used for well over 4’000 years. The first water conveyance systems were developed in wood, clay & straw to bronze and copper in Egypt and lead and aqueducts in the Roman Empire delivering up to 300 million gallons of water daily. Today, some common plastics include PVC [polyvinyl chloride], CPVC [chlorinated polyvinyl chloride], PP [polypropylene], PB [polybutylene], and PE [polyethylene], PEX andmany others including composites. This paper examines the highlights of each era, focusing on the need for innovation and continuous improvement of material and piping system performance and the lessons learned. The current state-of-the-art in plastic piping systems will be reviewed along with our current challenges that will drive future innovation, including the replacement of traditional materials.Tags: piping, system, water, innovation, pipe, material, plastic, nature, Evolution of Piping Systems-A Brief History of Innovation
  • The article provides a detailed consideration of the process steps necessitating new solutions in comparison to the welding of pipes of medium diameters. Welders and planners can learn about a range of new solutions with which we have already worked successfully. This provides assistance with future projects. Furthermore the article investigates the complexity and possible approaches for the determination of the productivity, respectively the time expenditure for a welding project. Using the accumulated experience of the welding machine manufacturer WIDOS GmbH, reference values for typical pipe dimensions will be stated. In addition, the article will also contain practical advice on how to increase the productivity at welding for professional users. Tags: welding, pipe, heating, machine, time, site, required Butt Welding of Big Pipe – Worldwide
  • Trimodal PP-R design enables improved tailoring of the polymer structure and a markedly improved impact performance without a negative effect on modulus. This produces a unique stiffness-toughness balance which cannot be reached with either unimodal or bimodal PP-R grades. Rheological behaviour of trimodal PP-R grade can be optimized to ensure good processability in full scale pipe production. The higher crystallization temperature of BNT-nucleated material enables 20% shorter cycle time in injection moulding of fittings thus enabling significantly higher production rates compared with non-nucleated PP-R material. The dimensional stability of the fittings produced from BNT nucleated material is excellent and independent of cooling time, shape of dimensions of the final article. Tags: sample, pipe, fittings, generation, time, final, enables, color Developing new Multi-modal Polypropylene Random Copolymer (PP-R) pipe grades to meet new market needs
  • This paper briefly introduces the characteristics of steel wire reinforced thermoplastics (PE) composite pipe structure, domestic and foreign sea crossing pipeline laying method, methods and their advantages and disadvantages, welding installation of steel wire reinforced thermoplastics PE composite pipe laying across the sea. The Dalian Changhai cross sea water supply project has seven sea crossing sections of the water supply (de160), the maximum diameter of dn630, a total length of 62 kilometres, All of these created the longest, largest diameter laying the deepest, most concentrated, the difficulty of the construction of the largest technical difficulties and many other records of Steel wire reinforced thermoplastics PE composite pipe cross sea water supply project.Tags: pipe, laying, sea, water, supply, method, cross, underwater, long Steel Wire Reinforced Thermoplastics (PE) Composite Pipe Cross Sea Laying Technology
  • In this current paper the main focus was put on the prediction of residual lifetimes of small diameter water pipes, which have already been in service for several decades. All of the pipes were used for house water supply system. The basic material properties revealed that at the time of exhumation the polyethylene pipes were still in good condition and no thermo-oxidative material degradation was detected even after a long-time operation. The pipe segments were oven aged at four different temperatures up to 1.5 years with analysis of thermal and mechanical properties after different exposure times. Corresponding to the expectation the predicted residual lifetimes based on the conventional Arrhenius concept were significantly shorter for the used pipes. For all samples the results also demonstrate that it can be expected that the design lifetime of 50 years would be reached or even exceeded.Tags: pipe, lifetime material, years, time, sample, aging Prediction of residual lifetimes of small diameter polyethylene pipes
  • This paper has provided an overview of some of the more recent innovations that provide the pipe system designer with more options for making various types of connections in PE and PP pipe systems. From this discussion, one can see that the stage is set for even higher levels of technical performance in the areas of high pressure flanging, fully pressure-rated tees, mechanical connections and large diameter bends or sweeps. These rapidly developing technologies provide the design engineer greater latitude or flexibility by which to address the myriad of system design challenges that may be encountered thus assuring the continued growth and expansion of plastics piping systems on a worldwide basis. Tags: pipe, pressure, system, fittings, wall, pe100, industry Focusing on the Weakest Link
  • Over the last three decades or more, polypropylene has demonstrated its versatility in many application fields. It has been also cost competitive with respect to other materials (steel, wood, other plastics, etc.) as well as environmental friendly. The innovation process dedicated to polypropylene product development has continuously brought into the market new products, enlarging the use of these products in more and more applications. This recent development in LyondellBasell based on well integrated competencies in polymerization processes catalysts and product development led to a new family of random copolymer containing the higher α-olefin 1-hexene made with Ziegler-Natta catalyst. This new family has shown peculiar characteristics due a quite unique morphology and the effect of a short chain entanglement, result of the 1-hexene longer side chains with respect to other lower molecular weight comonomers. This has resulted into breakthrough properties particularly important in certain application segments. In polypropylene pressure pipes higher creep resistance, notably higher hydrostatic pressure resistances (MRS 12.5) than any PP-R available in the market have been measured.Tags: polyprop, higher, strength, higher, pressure, material, different, weight, new Increased Internal Pressure Resistance Polypropylene (MRS 12.5 = PP125): How Polymer Design Has Led to Step-Change Performances and the Implications for PP-R Applications
  • By precise control of molecular architecture using AMSLP, we succeeded to develop new high flow PE100 material (NOVATECTM HD HE222W) with excellent balance between durability and processability. In spite of its high HLMFR of 18g/10min, it has the durability far exceeding the requirements of ISO 4427/4437, and also can exceed the property requirements defined by PE100+ association. The effects and merits gained from using NOVATECTM HE222W: Improved effects: Reduction of material temperature, Reduction of motor load, Reduction of material pressure, Increase of through-put. Merits: Energy saving, Defects reduction by low-temperature moulding, Increase in production rate, Production cost reduction. Improved effects: Reduction of material temperature, Reduction of injection pressure, Increase in the flow length, Improvement of surface finish. Merits: Energy saving, Defects reduction by low-temperature moulding, Increase in production rate, Increase of design freedom of fittings, Extended life of machine and mold, Production cost reduction. Tags: novatectm, pe100, material, resistance, temperature, ability, Advanced PE100 Grade with an Excellent Balance Between Durability and Processability
  • The requirements specified in table 6: Material requirements: Thermo-oxidative degradation, Max. allowable stresses derived from the available reference curves. Pipe requirements: Hydrostatic tests EN12666 and EN1852,Product requirement acc. to EN13476,Microscopic analysis of the strained pipe samples, Installation requirements: Pipe installation, Maximum pipe deflection at commissioning Tags: pipe, structure, year, stress, pressure, temperature, sewer, long, higher, table Polyolefin Sewer Pipes – 100 Year Lifetime Expectancy
  • Studies on the expected life of PVC pipe from researchers around the world consistently has confirmed a 100+ year benchmark for PVC pipes. These results are based on “dig-up” studies of pipe in use and installed by contractors. All pipe installations, regardless of the pipe material, require a quality installation. Attention to installation will pay dividends in terms of extended life.Tags: Infrastructure, 100 years, service, utilities, iron, cost, water, studies, main break, lifetime Validation of the Long Life of PVC Pipes
  • Excellent experience has been gathered with large-sized PE pipes in a variety of applications. The benefits of the material and the joining technique – heating-coil fusion – promise optimal technical and economic characteristics with regard to installation, operation and service life. As shown here with the example of the spigot saddle XL and the vacuum clamping system, new fittings and innovative installation techniques exploit cost-saving potentials and further enhance the appeal of PE pipe systems – including large pipe diameters.Tags: pipe, saddle, tapping, spigot, installation, pressure, vacuum Easy Branches : Avoid Pressure Derating for Fabricated Tees in Your Pipe System
  • It is critical that all applications require material properties that meet the minimum service lives of a project, whether it is for agricultural drainage, storm drainage, storm sewers, highway culverts or sanitary sewers. In the past, there has been a disconnect between the short-term material properties specified in the various cell class designations in ASTM D3350 and those long-term material engineering properties necessary for structural performance. If both of these requirements are achieved for a specific application, structurally, it does not matter if the material is composed of 100% virgin resin or a combination of recycled and virgin resin materials. If this main requirement is achieved, the issue that must ultimately be determined is whether the material will provide long-term performance for Stage II failures, stress-crack resistance. A considerable amount of research has been conducted on the stress-crack resistance in corrugated HDPE pipe. Since the assessment of stress-crack resistance already includes production induced stresses and contaminants, the requirements for all pipe for a specific application should have the same stress-crack performance regardless if it is manufactured with no recycled materials or 100% post-consumer resin. If the stress-crack test is truly an assessment of the Stage II performance of a material, the only difference in the NCLS value for a material should be based on the different service lives for each project. Tags: pipe, recycled, stress, material, crack, performance, test, applications Required Engineering Properties for High Density Polyethylene Pipe Utilizing Recycled Materials
  • Polyethylene pipes with their widely prized benefits, such as low weight, high flexibility and high pressure resistance to 16 bar, have become state of the art in dimensions up to d 630 mm (24”). Today, pipelines up to outer diameters of d 2000 mm (80”) or more are getting used frequently within different applications. For a lateral connection to existing and new large pipes and fittings, a complicated procedure was required. With the help of the branch saddle system and electrofusion couplers with active reinforcement installation becomes easier, faster and more economically. Tags: installation, saddle, branch, fusion, pipe, fittings, large, pressure, time Active reinforcement for PE- electrofusion couplers/ Off-takes on large diameter PE mains
  • To simplify the problem, mechanical properties of the multi-layer pipe have been approximated by using a substitute single-layer pipe with averaged mechanical values. Crack growth kinetics, which are needed for the lifetime-concepts were measured for the rather stiff middle layer material, which is responsible for mechanical strength of the pipe and accounts for approx. 70-80% of the pipe wall. Interestingly, crack growth kinetic parameters A and m seem to be rather uninfluenced by the applied loading ratio R, which is in stark contrast to other tested pipe materials, like PE. The calculation of the crack driving force, in this case KI , has been performed for a rather critical, but still valid trenching situation, according to the Austrian standard ÖNorm B 5012. When only the soil load is considered, even in this case, the resulting constant stress in the pipe walls is only around 0.5 MPa. Consequently, the concept based on LEFM results in high calculated lifetime-expectancies, above 100 years. It seems likely, that global material ageing or collapse due to exorbitant high loads due to improper trenching in the beginning have a bigger impact on the total lifetime of these pipes, than failure due to SCG. Nevertheless, since the crack growth kinetic curves of the mineral reinforced polypropylene materials are quite steep, compared to unfilled PP-B or PE, high local loads (e.g. point loads due to improper trenching etc.) could bring SCG back into play as a possible failure modeTags: crack, pipe, failure, growth, fracture, used, term, different Polypropylene Multi Layer Pipe Lifetime Assessment Under Realistic Loading Conditions
  • There can be no doubt that standardisation has underpinned the success of the plastics pipes industry. The industry has strongly supported standardisation, and the involvement of the complete value chain from raw material suppliers to end users has resulted in higher performing materials and products. The involvement of gas and water engineers has given them the confidence to specify these materials, speeding up the penetration of plastics systems in the market. The concept of multi-part system standards in CEN and ISO has been very successful. Pipeline components are manufactured to standards, and system standards are written to encompass every aspect for specific applications. The high rate of growth of the plastics pipes industry is expected to continue, fuelled by increasing market share for many applications, investment in infrastructure in emerging countries, and renovation of corroding metal systems in mature countries. Standardisation is in place to support this and will continue to react to encompass new developments and innovations for further promotion of the industry. Tags: iso, material, standard, plastic, pressure, system, water, years, products, growth Standardisation Driving the Success of Polyethylene Pressure Piping Systems
  • The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) published the final rule establishing integrity management requirements for gas distribution pipeline systems on December 4, 2009 (Distribution Integrity Management Programs - DIMP).The regulation requires operators, such as natural gas distribution companies to develop, write, and implement a distribution integrity management program with the following elements: Maintain System Knowledge, Identify Threats, Evaluate and Rank Risks, Identify and Implement Measures to Address Risks, Measure Performance, Monitor Results, and Evaluate Effectiveness. Tags: data, fusion, technology, distribution, quality Standardization of Data Capture for Fusion Operations
  • Modified PENT test with a stricter condition of stress and temperature (90ºC, 2.8 MPa) than standard (80ºC, 2.4 MPa) is a potentially good alternative to evaluate the SCG resistance of PE resins. The method is especially useful for the higher PE resistance grades since the aging effect observed in the standard conditions is eliminated. Strain hardening (SH) modulus has proved to be an excellent method to estimate SCG resistance of the PE resins for pipe applications in a rapid way. Additionally, the modification of the SH modulus conditions, using thicker specimens and reducing the strain rate values (2 mm and 10 mm/min) respecting the standard SH test conditions (0.3 mm and 20 mm/min), significantly improved the relationship with both PENT and FNCT test. Tags: test, strain, standard, resistance, modules, process Alternative Fast Methods to Evaluate the Long-Term Performance in Polyethylene Resins with High Resistance to Crack
  • Barari have successfully set up their own production of high quality irrigation pipes with support from Borouge. These pipes will last for many years reducing the water losses and the amount of waste that is generated. The present joint study is designed to help Barari fulfil their mandate to minimize waste and maximizing recycling efforts by using their recycled material without significantly reducing the performance of the pipes. Clearly the study shows that whilst a virgin compound is the best choice, some recycled material can still be added with a minimal loss of performance. At much higher levels of recycled material the performance starts to decline significantly and additional additives or better control of the origin or source of the recycled material will be required to make acceptable pipes, thus making the process more difficult to control. Based on the data shown above, a reasonable recommendation is to limit the amount of recyclates to no more than 30% to ensure that the pipes will not fail before their expected lifetime.Tags: recycled, pipes, material, irrigation, samples, Helping Abu Dhabi Achieve its Environmental Vision to “Green The Desert”
  • For “mass” faults, PA UT scanning leads to a POD of 100% and an FCR of 0 and to the possibility of detecting the ISO standard threshold transition (25% “mass”) with a good reliability. Nevertheless any attempt to measure the strip dimensions in seven cases leads to an overestimate of the non-welded surfaces. For “cross” faults, PA UT scanning leads to a mean POD of around 80.6% and an FCR of 0 for the configurations T1 and T2. An individual POD of only 71% is obtained with configuration T2, due to the presence of both the fusion indicator and the connectors which disrupt the access of the ultrasonic probe. if the cross configurations (T1 and T2) are above 27.3%, the POD becomes close to 100%, enabling correct detection at the ISO 13956 standard requirement threshold transition (50% “cross”). Finally, comparing the PA UT evaluation with the destructive test results revealed an interesting degree of correlation between these two totally independent methods. For “mass” faults, the revelatory power of the destructive test is less than but close to the probability of detection of PA UT. For the T1 “cross” configuration, the revelatory power of the destructive test is still less than the POD of the PA UT technique, except for the highest percentages of non-welded zones, where non destructive and destructive testing align. For the T2 “cross” configuration, the revelatory power of the destructive test is comparable to the POD of the PA UT technique, or even higher in some cases. Tags: strips, saddle, test, configuration, grinded, cross, mass, detection, copyright Ultrasonic Phased Array Inspection of Polyethylene Pipelines & Fittings Used for Gas Distribution
  • Within the current study a fracture mechanics extrapolation procedure for an accelerated prediction of PE pressure pipes was applied for a PE-HD pipe grade. With three different specimen geometries, CRB, CT and SCK, crack growth rates were determined under cyclic loading at R=0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 and subsequently extrapolated to R=1.0, which represents static loading. With CT and SCK specimens SCG rates were additionally measured at statically loading to check the extrapolated data. Extrapolated and measured SCG rates for both specimens were in good agreement confirming the validity of the fracture mechanics extrapolation procedure. However, the measured and extrapolated crack kinetic curves show a high dependency of the specimen geometry resulting in significantly different material laws. The material laws determined with the different specimen geometries were used for a fracture mechanics based lifetime prediction of an internally pressurized pre-notched pipe. On the one hand, material laws based on CT and SCK specimens led to unrealistically lifetime calculations. Although significant quasi-brittle fracture was observed on the fracture surfaces, large plastic zone deformations during testing, especially on the edges of the notches, led to a retardation of SCG and to crack kinetic curves unsuitable for lifetime prediction of pipes. On the other hand, the material law determined with CRB specimens led to predicted pipe lifetimes with an excellent agreement with real failure times of internally prenotched pipes. The primary advantage of the CRB specimen is the circumferential notch that creates an extraordinary constraint along the crack tip due to plain strain conditions. These conditions, which are believed to be very similar to those of real cracks in pipes or components, prevent from significant plastic zone formation and ensures the existence of the physical boundary conditions for SCG in PE.Tags: crack, pipe, lifetime, conditions, pressure, test, material, Correlation of Fracture Mechanics Based Lifetime Prediction and Internal Pipe Pressure Tests
  • A quality certified plastic piping system installed by a qualified professional offers a valuable guarantee for the contractor and contributes to a more effective management of the networks, reducing their maintenance and repairing cost and consequently increasing the confidence and satisfaction of our clients. The success of the AseTUB plastic pipes installer accreditation and training scheme put in place in Spain reflects the need and the importance of knowledge transfer in the correct handling and installation of plastic piping systems. It also shows the key role national associations can play to contribute to the quality of plastic pipes networks. This initiative contributes to improve the image of plastic piping systems, to gain knowledge and confidence on our products and to reduce costs through quality installationsTags: training, water, plastic, pipe, quality, installation, work, repairing, Spain Cost Savings Through Quality Installations
  • Beyond DIMP it is unclear what specific direction federal regulations will take on the issue of tracking and traceability, but it is fairly certain that additional regulations are forthcoming. These new regulations will help drive the implementation of tracking and traceability systems further. Manufacturers will continue to develop marking capabilities as gas operators develop their ability to utilize the marking technology in their systems. Newer technologies in printing and barcode recognition such as: Laser or RFID may provide better ways of marking, reading, and recording data. It is expected that Operator tracking & traceability systems will become more sophisticated as they transition from manual operations to electronic. While there is no current technology that will assure that ASTM F2897 markings on installed products will be legible in whole or in part after installation, future developments should improve marking capabilities, readability, and longevity.. Tags: gas, product, tracking, system, technology, marking, operator Tracking and Traceability in Plastic Gas Distribution Systems-Changes and Challenges in Technology
  • Within the current paper the Cyclic CRB Test was applied to characterize the crack initiation and SCG behaviour of modern PE pipe grades. The characterization of the crack initiation and SCG behaviour of ten PE 100 and PE 100-RC pipe grades from five different raw material supplier resulted in a wide range of performance allowing a clear ranking of the material, even within one material class. For a quantitative evaluation of the failure curves single point values at load range of 0=12.5 MPa were determined and compared. Except of supplier 1, for each supplier the results demonstrate that the PE 100-RC grade has significantly improved SCG resistance then the PE 100 grade. For supplier 1 the SCG resistance of the PE 100 and the PE 100 were almost similar. The results of a second study are dedicated to 35 different PE pipe grades which have been characterized with Cyclic CRB Test in the laboratory of the authors during the last years. The determined failure curves and single point values demonstrate the potential of this test method to differentiate different materials. While the PE 80 materials were on the lower performance range, the data of PE 100 and PE 100-RC clearly show an overlap in their performance, at least at room temperature. However, based on the definition and specification of PE 100-RC in PAS 1075, a clearly higher SCG resistance should be expected for PE 100-RC then for PE 100.Tags: crack, pe100, material, based, slow, resistance, mpa, different Characterization of Crack Initiation and Slow Crack Growth Resistance of PE100 and PE100-RC pipe Grades with Cyclic Cracked Round Bar Tests
  • Idea to create VinylPlus label for sustainable like PVC pipes. Guide to make intelligent and more sustainable choices, help companies market successfully “sustainable PVC solutions”. Explains the overall concept, what is required and what is needed to get this label.Tags: VinylPlus, BRE, scheme, sustainable, product, label, market, certification The VinylPlus label for sustainable plastic piping systems
  • The draft specification is well advanced and will be circulated for public comment at the end of September. It is hoped that the full specification will be published before the end of 2014. The publication of a national training specification, which has a very strong basis on assessment of the competency of welders under site conditions before they are permitted to start installing pipelines, will improve the quality of on-site welding and reduce the potential for service failures and leakage. Water Utilities will be able to ensure that the welding personnel installing their PE pipelines have the highest level of competency by requiring training to the specification in their procurement documents. Tags: welding, pipe, fusion, water, person, failure, pressure, industry A Training and Certification Standard for Fusion Welding of PE Pipes
  • In lieu of the stress rupture test, the tensile creep test with ring-shaped specimens was studied as a possibly newer, simpler evaluation method of long-term performance for composite pipes. The fracture surfaces of the plastic pipes were observed, as well as crack propagation and interface delamination in composite pipes. As a result, it was found that the failure time of stress rupture tests occurred earlier than that of the ring tensile creep tests for EB and SMX pipes due to layer detachment. It was also found that the failure time of ring tensile creep tests occurred faster than that of the stress rupture tests for PE pipes due to the notch effect. In conclusion, it is considered that the ring tensile creep test method is a feasible alternative for the stress rupture test. In addition, it was found that the failure times of PE and EB pipes were almost the same regardless of the different notch types for these specimens. In next step, we must try to estimate the effects of notch shapes and patterns on pipe specimens as well as the effects of pipe materials and multilayer structures. Tags: test, creep, pipe, tensile, ring, fracture, crack, method results Development of the Ring Creep Test Method for Composite Pipes
  • In order to make it easy for the PVC pipe manufacturers to train their sales forces in a professional and consistent way across Europe and to give them a set of clear reference data, PVC4Pipes has taken a first initiative in developing a Training Toolkit, a set of Power Point slides, which provide information about PVC-U and PVC-C Pipe Systems, both on General Aspects and on key Application Sectors (sewage, fresh water, soil & waste, hot & cold, rainwater, industrial). PVC4Pipes is now developing several Presentation Packages which will allow the key stakeholders in the market to be better informed: A Presentation Package aimed at distributors and installers, A Presentation Package aimed at specifiers and public procurement officers. A Presentation Package aimed at the educational worldTags: Training, presentation, manufacturers, train, Training Toolkit, Presentation Package, PVC pipe, PVC4Pipes PVC4Pipes Training and Presentation Packages
  • Mechanistic-probability models were developed for Aldyl piping materials that were shown to provide accurate projections of future leak rates. This allows for optimization of asset management decisions based on sound projections of future system performance. The amount of Aldyl piping requiring replacement to achieve specific risk objectives can be determined along with the priority with which different segments within the overall network should be replaced.Tags: risk, piping, leak, model, pipeline, based, system, gas A Risk Based Approach to Prioritizing Aldyl Piping Replacements in Gas Distribution Systems
  • Two PE100 and two PE100 RC taken from the PE100+ Association list have been tested by means of the NCBT procedure designed by GDF SUEZ R&T. All he curves have the expected shape with a well-marked inflection that corresponds to the initiation time for crack growth. A refined observation of the failure surfaces shows that the initiation of the slow crack growth occurs in a brittle mode. An overall mean value of the ratio of the initiation time and the failure time can be reasonably considered in between 0.50 and 0.60. Such a result suggests that initiation and propagation have roughly the same weight on the overall SCG process on the one hand, and that the materials can be ranked with regard to either their failure times or their initiation times on the other hand. In this case, the 2/3 of the total curve is necessary to evaluate the initiation time accurately from the overall curve. Nevertheless, a correct calculation of the true initial stress level is required for purpose of correlation with the initiation time. Up-to-now the poor accuracy of such a calculation before testing the specimen implies to recalculate the true stress after failure and to compare it to the targeted initial stress. Taking into account all the uncertainties linked to both the fabrication and notching of the cylindrical bars and the measurement devices, makes it possible to fit correctly the recalculated stress and the failure time with a power law. The overall procedure has been proposed to the ISO TC138 SC5 as a new work item in July 2013 and the working draft was sent for comments in May 2014 Tags: pe100, time, stress, initiation, times, level, crack The “Notched Cylindrical Bars Under Constant Load Test” (NCBT) as a Means to Assess the Resistance to Crack Initiation and to Slow Crack Growth of PE100 and PE100 RC
  • Reviewing the development of PVC-U based tubular PBRs it can clearly be said that the use of transparent PVC-U has made a tremendous step forward in the past three years into a state of being recognized as material concept of “Generation II” PBR-plants for indoor-use. The global market has now started to field test the material in many smaller PBR-plants and already qualified it for large-scale commercial use in some cases. Backed by innovative and variable jointing technologies and the access to very energy- and cost efficient process-technologies for the algae cultivation and biomass refining, all lights are set green to further commercialization of PVC-U based tubular PBRs in large scale.Tags: Transparent, fuel, food, commercial, cultivation, market, production, algae, green, biomass technology How Transparent PVC-U Turns Green to Produce Food and Fuel
  • This paper presents principal findings of the research. The data are summarised as: Extensive testing shows failures associated with fatigue are possible in a relatively short space of time for contaminated EF tapping tees. Note: joints made to best practice principles did not fail under this test regime. The predictability of fatigue-failure dramatically reduces as pressure range decreases. Post-failure analysis of joints using the crushing decohesion test showed similar bonding patterns. SEM analysis of specimen X revealed that bonding is most apparent where the filament wires interact with the parent pipe and is likely to be a function of the force applied by the clamping device and the heat applied during the fusion process. Novel ultrasonic rigs designed to capture the failure mechanism of EF tapping tees during live fatigue tests were unsuccessful. It is recommended that a phased array method of analysis should be adopted to confirm the failure mechanism. Tags: pipe, failure, figure, joints, water, analysis, fitting, industry Analysing the Performance of Electrofusion Tapping Tees When Subject to Contamination
  • The results show that it is very difficult to make correct accelerated testing of chlorine dioxide exposure. When using temperatures higher than around 70°C (for PP) the physical loss of stabilizer is much higher than in service conditions of around 50°C. When using concentration as the accelerating parameter, the linearity within the concentration range used must be investigated for the tested material since this can also be far from linear. It must also be taken into account that there can be oxidation of the polymer even if there is still stabilizer present in the material. Tags: chlorine, dioxide, pipe, water, oxidation, ppca, polyethylene Prediction of Long Term Performance of Polyolefin Pipes in Contact with Chlorine Dioxide as Disinfectant
  • The list of alleged problems presented to us remains much the same as it was twenty years ago. There are no guidelines specific to Gulf conditions that the water and sanitation oil and gas engineer can use However the TEPPFA approach provides a possible starting point for a Middle East PE pipe industry approved design manual. The unfortunate perception of a general ‘relaxation’ of design specifications is now our major problem as we become more involved with the oil and process industries. The inevitable misunderstandings can be tackled decisively by creating a suitable simple design manual written specifically for the Middle East design engineer. The ISO 4427 reduction table appears in many publications, seldom if ever emphasizing the accompanying statement on how to use specific resin data so avoiding unnecessarily expensive solutions. We also need easy to use guidelines on how to deal with our higher temperatures. We need a coordinated regional program of workshops to stop the use of transient maxima in design of PO pipes. In conjunction with a program of workshops this will be a powerful tool for the future.Tags: design, pipe, deflection, pressure, iso, soil, based, term, installation, temperature Introducing PO Pipes into the Middle East – Rising to the Technical Challenges
  • In conclusion, the industry is dealing with the legacy distribution system threats via DIMP processes. Now, the industry can proactively examine its current practices in installation of new pipelines to ensure a proud legacy for future generations. JANAcquire55™ provides the tools and processes to do just that.Tags: risk, pipeline, gas, years, lifecycle, system, product PAS-55 / ISO 55000 As a New Asset Management Approach to Achieving Long-Term Reliability and Risk Reduction in Gas Distribution Pipelines
  • Using small test pieces taken directly from short regions of pipe without heat treatment the room temperature strain hardening test can compare the yield stress and strain, natural draw ratio, energy absorbed during strain hardening, failure stress and strain, and the exponential coefficients within the strain hardening region. This test is suitable for testing pipe material taken from different positions within a pipe wall, and test pieces can easily be taken at different positions along a pipe length or around a pipe diameter due to their small size, with different test piece sizes not appearing to affect the results obtained. This may lead to the possibility of testing material from coupons or thin scrapings taken directly from pipe in-service, with a short test duration and simple test preparation. Additionally, as this test has been undertaken at room temperature no custom built or non-standard equipment or test piece stamps have been required. However no clear link has been seen between materials which are expected to have superior slow crack growth resistance and earlier pipe materials that are likely to have poorer slow crack growth performance and the coefficients of the exponential curve fit within the strain hardening region. Therefore this test appears unsuitable for predicting the slow crack growth resistance of polyethylene materials and was unable to produce a risk ranking of such materials. Additionally, the residual stress within pipe walls prevents testing of test pieces taken directly from pipe at 80°C and testing at low test speeds produced unexpected results, preventing analysis of the natural draw ratio or strain hardening exponential coefficients under either of these test conditions. Tags: test, strain, crack, material, slow, stress, growth, seen Development of a Slow Crack Growth Resistance (Strain Hardening) Test for Assessment of Ageing PE Pipeline Materials
  • Over the past 7 years the Water for the World initiative has demonstrated how an effectively managed corporate social responsibility programme can make a major impact on the lives of people in the poorest communities. Such projects, when undertaken using high quality materials and in cooperation with the right partners can provide sustainable water supply and sanitation projects that should still be serving the project communities in 50 years time. With good project selection and management, a great deal can be achieved with limited resources. The projects discussed in this paper were undertaken at a cost of between US$ 25 and 38 per head, based on the community populations at the time of completion.Tags: water, project, pipe, Borouge, supply, world, people, community High Quality PE Pipe Systems and Local Partnerships – Key Elements in Undertaking Sustainable Development Project
  • Heat fusion joining method has been widely used for thermoplastic piping materials such as polyethylene to form the “one-material” pipeline system. First, to form a joint that behaves like one uniform material, it is essential to have sufficient molecular chain entanglements and cocrystallization of the molecular chains from both sides of the pipe to be fused. Second, the melt flow behaviours as a function of temperature and shear rates are measured and modelled to understand the fusion procedures for various pipe diameters and wall thickness. Third, for a standard fusion procedure that is used for unimodal and bimodal polyethylene as well as high, medium and low density polyethylene, the essential material variables of these polyethylene materials must support the mutual heat fusion procedureTags: fusion, material, pipe, procedures, heat, quality, material, different Essential Variables of Heat Fusion Joining of Polyethylene Pipe
  • The PANT-method has several advantages. Indeed, it is possible to assess the notch resistance of the pipes in a quick way, certainly for batch release purposes. Tests can be performed at e.g. 20°C (in air). Large and very large diameter pipes can easily be evaluated using this PANT-technique. These test results demonstrate that the various PE qualities can be differentiated with respect to their notch resistance through this PANT-method.Tags: test, pipe, iso, resistant, material, thickness, failure, results, method Evolution of the Pipe Accelerated Notch Test – PANT-Method
  • Compared with sample 2# , the relative molecular weight of sample 1# is lower and molecular weight distribution is wider. As a result, crystallization rate of sample 1# is higher than the one of sample 2#. Compared with sample 2# , crystallinity degree (Xc) of sample 1# is higher, but its degree of crystalline perfection is poorer. Hence, despite tensile modulus of sample 1# is bigger than the one of sample 2# , its yield tensile stress is smaller. Dynamic viscosity of sample 1# and sample 2# obviously depends on frequency and temperature, which belongs to typical shear-thinning non-Newtonian fluids. In order to guarantee sample 2# plasticizing uniformly and possess equivalent rheological property as sample 1# , the die head temperature of sample 2# must be at least 10 ℃ higher than the one of sample 1#. Tags: sample, weight, molecular, temperature, produce, table, lower, flow Influence of Additives on Structure and Property of Bimodal Polyethylene Pipe Material YGH041T
  • After research on the status of China urban water supply networks it is clear that the market will continue to grow for some time to come. Plastic pipes offer a number of advantages compared to other materials and will have great opportunities in this application. Increases in the use of trenchless technology to protect the environment and cut costs will further open opportunities for HSCR PE100 pipes. Tags: pipe, water, supply, plastic, china, system, pe100, iron Application of Plastics Pipe in Municipal Water Supply, China
  • The latest Round Robin of the SH test, in which each laboratory prepared its own samples, shows very low scatter between the seven different laboratories. Due to the preparation by compression moulding of the test specimens, the SH test is a resin test and gives no information about the residual quality of the pipe. Experiments in which specimens are prepared directly from pipes should give insight into whether the SH test can also be used for the remaining quality of the pipe. The PLT has been developed as a pipe test for PE 100-RC. Using the detergent Dehyton inside the pipe leads to less scatter than in Arkopal and also speeds up the failure process. Increasing the temperature would accelerate it even further. Lowering the internal pressure of old first generation pipelines in practice makes them less prone to failure due to point loading. Multiple cracking occurs in a circular region around the bulge in the internal pipe surface as a result of the point loading. This is due to the high stresses, which are however necessary in order to speed up the failure process. Tags: test, pipe, quality, strain, pressure, crack, stress Two Complementary Tests to Determine the Quality of PE 100RC
  • The track record of PE-Xc now extend over a period of several decades, and this is essentially due to the three dimensional network being created during crosslinking by ß- beam irradiation. The crosslinking changes the properties positively of PE-Xc in terms of stress cracking, chemical resistance, pressure –and temperature resistance. The ISO 9080 test specimens were terminated after approximately 1 year of testing at 70°C (158°F) and 20°C (68°F). Samples at the temperatures 95°C (203°F) and 110°C (230°F) were kept running until failure in order to obtain additional benefits and information out of the testing schedule. Some failure times exceeded the requirements by far, e.g. required testing time of 1000h and real failure time of >114000h, which shows the benefits of using PE-Xc piping materials compared to non-crosslinked and non-plastic piping solutions. The presented notch pipe testing results which requires e.g. a testing time of 5000h, can be found in the PEX gas standard ISO 14531 have been terminated after >59000h. Tags: iso, cross, testing, pipe, failure, material, brittle, crack, resistant, years, water Exploring Boundries: Prolonged ISO 9080 Testing Revealing the Full Capabilities of PE-X
  • Color masterbatches provide more than color pigment to color-code plastic pipes so that they can be identified by application or be more visible. Color masterbatches also contain ingredients that enhance the long-term durability of the pipe. Carbon black, which has been in use for over a hundred years, has proven to be an economical means of increasing the UV resistance of the pipe material and extending the life of the pipe. For pipe colors other than black, masterbatches can be formulated with additional additives to ensure that performance properties still meet the desired requirements, including UV resistance. Rigorous testing per API standards has confirmed that pipe manufactured using masterbatch colorants has the necessary performance properties. Field data reinforces test data conclusions that masterbatch additive packages assure that optimum properties are maintained or enhanced in the final pipe product after the plastic is processed.Tags: pipe, color, gas, plastic, material, steel, installation, polymer, Designing Color Masterbatches to Meet the Demands of the Application
  • This presentation describes the basis for selection of the load level for testing to determine the creep modulus of thermoplastic corrugated wall pipe for design in accordance with the AASHTO LRFD specification. This basis includes evaluation of the specific design checks that use the creep modulus. The presentation will also provide an explanation of the linear viscoelastic material behaviour assumed in the design process. Finally, this presentation will describe the test methods currently used to evaluate the long-term behaviour, including conventional creep testing, use of the Boltzman Superposition Principle to account for loading history, and testing using the stepped isothermal method (SIM). Tags: testing, creep, thermoplastic, modulus, load Selection of a Load Level for Testing to Determine the Creep Modulus of Thermoplastic Corrugated Wall Pipe for AASHTO LRFD Thermoplastic Pipe Design
  • The PVC pipe market is the significant global PVC application and is increasingly seen in the developing regions. Ca-based solutions are the norm in Europe, and other regions are following this trend. Different stabilizer systems are available worldwide which fulfil the needed regional requirements.Tags: Trends, worldwide, Ca-based, production, system, global, solutions, stabilizer, market Highlight on PVC Stabiliser for Pipes – Comparison and Trends
  • The solution-phase technique reported here provides useful specific information on the resistance of antioxidants to chlorinating agents, and can act as a significant supplementary technique to the more time-consuming traditional approach of monitoring OIT and physical property retention of moulded or extruded samples. The technique can be used to monitor the chlorine resistance of individual components of an antioxidant mixture that cannot be monitored by OIT retention (such as many secondary antioxidants), as well as to examine the synergistic effects of antioxidant mixtures. The value of the LC-MS technique is the simplicity of the sample preparation and the speed to results, as meaningful data are returned in days as opposed to weeks when analysing aged moulded parts for OIT or GPC. The LC-MS technique could also be extended to hydrocarbon liquids that would allow elucidation of the chemical mechanism of polyethylene degradation in the presence of chlorinating agents. Tags: polyethylene, water, resistant, chlorine, sodium, package, time, solution, Application of a Rapid LC-MS Technique to the Development of an Enhanced Chlorine Resistant Antioxidant Package for Polyethylene: Comparison to Oit and Resin Property Retention
  • In order to correctly design fittings made of PVC-O it is fundamental to reach a final product complying with the mechanical properties and therefore to maintain the greatest orientation degree already obtained in pipes (CLASS 500). After a thorough analysis the conclusion is that the effect of the axial stretch has a negative impact on the mechanical properties enhanced by the hoop stretch. PVC-O fittings will be tested according the standard ISO TC 138/SC 4/WG1 N1203 (4) which is under development and already refers to PVC-O fittings for the first time.Tags: fittings, molecular orientation, design, final product, analysis, PVC-O, development, stretch PVC-O Fittings
  • According to the present study, PP-B HM corrugated pipes have a lot of advantages for non-pressure underground applications, such as: Higher stiffness, Tough and flexible to resist external loading, Flexible easy to assemble joints and forgiving for pipe/coupling deflection, Corrosion resistant, Light weight and easy to handle and install, High durability in difficult conditions, Lowest “Whole Life Cost”Tags: pipe, ring, stiffness, material, pass, sewage, wall, higher, china Development of Large Diameter PP-B HM Corrugated Pipe in China
  • A two- stage cross-linking process was developed to change the structure of a high density polyethylene in order to test if there was an improvement in abrasion resistance of the material, as this property is of importance for pipes carrying mine tailings. A competitive phenomenon between the increase in level of cross-linking and the loss of crystallinity was observed. When the right balance between crystallinity and the formation of three-dimensional structure was achieved it resulted in a decrease in wear index, which happened for formulations with low peroxide content.Tags: cross, peroxide, linking, process, effect, time, Abraison Resistance Improvement of a High Density Polyethylene by Cross-Linking for Manufacture of Mine Tailings Transportation Pipes
  • There is a significant interest in the US nuclear industry to use HDPE piping in essential service water applications at commercial power plants. The current study investigates the effect of presence of critical flaws in the butt-fusion zone and how they affect the stress intensity in the joint region and impact the structural integrity of the HDPE piping.Tags: hdpe, fusion, joints, pipe, butt, flaw, service Critical Flaw Size in Butt-Fusion Joints for Service Life Prediction of HDPE Pipes
  • PVC-O is expanding in both, technology and in application. In regard to the technology, higher MRS values, higher pressure ratings and bigger diameters are realized. Solvent cemented (demountable) tensile resistant joints can be used in combination with PVC-O BiAx pipe. Due to prefabrication in the factory and fast installation at site, considerable installation costs savings can be realized. PVC-O pipe extrusion by means of a continuous in-line extrusion process allows for manufacturing of plain-ended PVC-O pipe of any length, from e.g. 6m up to 24m. Due to this continuous in-line process there are no pipe length limitations. There are big logistical advantages using long pipe lengths.Tags: PVC-O, in-line, expanding, technology, water, pressure, joints., tensile, strength, installation PVC-O: Expanding in Technology and Application
  • The data from the instrumented pipes indicates that the dynamic wall strains and deflections in the pipe due to the shallow cover rail loading are very low (less than 0.2% strain was measured in the pipe wall). However, the frequency of loading can be high, with many pipes seeing over 1,000,000 cycles per year and up to 200 cycles per train. The peak tensile wall strains were observed between the crown and spring line of the pipe. At the time of this paper, the laboratory testing is not complete, but the methodology for testing and evaluation is being presented along with the live load data evaluation and preliminary results of our research.Tags: pipe, recycled, railroad, wall, live, data Live Load Fatigue Evaluation of Corrugated Pipes with Virgin and Recycled PE
  • This study is a part of the project“Cost effective and reliable use of plastic and other non-metallic in pickling plants – Corrosion resistance and long-term performance” carried out at Swerea KIMAB. The overall aim for this study has been to reach a deeper understanding of the corrosion behaviour of polypropylene in mixed acid (HF+ HNO3). In our study it was found that PPH-β and PPB has a better resistance to the mixed acid environment both regarding corrosion rate and retained impact strength compared to PPH-α and PPR. Tags: acid, piping, steel, mixed, pvc, material, cpvc, system Plastic Pipes Used in the Steel Pickling Industry
  • The following study offers following conclusions: 1. The use of a dual cooling procedure that uses forced air and water to cool the interior and exterior surfaces, respectively, results in the same general residual stress distribution as the standard cooling procedure using stationary air and water to cool the interior and exterior surfaces, respectively. This residual stress distribution corresponds to tensile and compressive stresses on the interior and exterior pipe surfaces, respectively. 2. The cool down procedure employing forced air and water on the interior and exterior pipe surfaces, respectively, in combination with standard and increased extrusion rates, had no significant effect on the RCP performance of the unimodal solid wall MDPE pipe, relative to the same pipe manufactured using the standard cool down process. 3. The cool down procedure employing forced air and water on the interior and exterior pipe surfaces, respectively, at the standard extrusion rate, had a significant detrimental effect on the RCP performance of the unimodal solid wall HDPE pipe, relative to the same pipe manufactured using the standard cool down process.Tags: pipe, cooling, dual, water, mdpe, stress, results, standard The Effects of Dual Cooling on the Rapid Crack Propagation Performance of Polyethylene Pipes
  • External interference remains the main cause of incidents to pipelines, and there is still a lack of information about how these new solutions behaviour when subjected to those interferences. The present study was developed in order to help bridge this gap. It was based on a standardized method that determinates the resistance of thermoplastic pipes to external blows, but it was verified that the method was not directly applicable to pipes made of PE80, PE100 or PA-U 12. When the same conditions are defined, PE80 and PE100 have demonstrated to be very similarly resistant to external blows. The E50 value, it means, the energy that provokes failure of 50% of the test pieces, was calculated as 49,44 Joules for PE80 and 46,30 Joules for PE100. The difference of 6,8% between them could be considered inside the confidence limits. On the other hand, PA-U 12 has demonstrated to be much more resistant to external blows than both PE compounds. The E50 value was calculated as 93,39 Joules, which was 88,9% higher than PE80 and 101,7% higher than PE100Tags: test, striker, gas, pipe, impact, results, table, drop The Resistance to Impact of Unplasticized Polyamide 12 (PA-U 12) Pipes
  • The reinforcing ribs of bottom runner are very important to injection moulding plastic inspection chambers. Plastic inspection chambers without reinforcing ribs of bottom runner will be unable to withstand the external pressure generated by the geological subsidence and groundwater levels. . The structure of reinforcing ribs will directly affect the chambers’ ability to resist external pressure, and therefore plastic inspection chambers with fewer reinforcing ribs can be used for drainage piping systems with groundwater level no deeper than 3m. Plastic inspection chambers with fewer reinforcing ribs and inadequate structure cannot withstand the external pressure generated by deep groundwater, and therefore cannot be used for drainage piping systems with groundwater level deeper than 5m. Tags: chambers, test, inspection, plastic, deformation, system Study on Structural Integrity of Plastic Inspection Chambers
  • The results obtained employing the model develops here show that the pressure induced by the seal on the spike and bell: a) Can be controlled via the variation of the Young modulus of the bell and spike relationship (E2/E1) b) Depend proportionally to internal pressure applied to the spike c) Should be controlled, for ensure to it not get cero during vacuum tests.Tags: pressure, spike, bell, problem, applied, bodies, system Analytical study of the mechanical behavior of gasket type: spike-bell
  • DSC has been determined by many to be the best potential method for studying the percent gelation of processed PVC materials, due to its sensitivity and ability to describe crystallite melting. The lack of a standard procedure that clearly sets out the integration limits for the method, sample preparation issues and instrument-related issues has limited its usefulness to the PVC pipe industry. The following recommendations, including many that closely follow the recommendations of Fillot, Hajji and Gauthier, are needed in order to properly utilize the DSC test method to assess the percent gelation and the resulting quality of the processing of PVC pipes. Tags: Processing, gelation, ability, standard, integration, DSC, determination, quality, test, temperature Determining the Processing Quality of PVC Pipe by DSC – How Precise?
  • This study focused on three key factors, (a) market analysis, (b) technical analysis, and (c) country analysis. In terms of PA12 pipes, this study’s data suggest that it is premature for the pipes to move in on Japanese market. It is apparent that the market is very specific one due to how mature Japanese market has become so far and how sensitive Japanese Gas business act are to technical standards and geographical characteristics. However, this study can provide some approaches and considerations about a new market. It is hope that this study contributes to new product development and to better prepare to make a competitive global strategy in the near future.Tags: market, pipe, iso, product, pressure, Japanese, analysis Exploring the Japanese Market for Polyamide 12 Pipes
  • Products for waste water discharge especially infiltration boxes are part of a growing market. Product requirements have been translated into the corresponding material requirements and defined as target setting for a dedicated material development. Tailor made materials for infiltration boxes combine excellent processability for the injection moulding of large parts with superior load bearing resistance and long term thermal stability. It was demonstrated that creep testing and subsequent modelling are valuable tools during product development in order to compare the long term performance of different materials under load, similar to real life operation conditions. Storm water boxes are installed in a high demanding application. Therefore the need for qualified materials in combination with proper product design is essential to ensure the long-term performance. Ideally these requirements and characteristics should be implemented in an international standard, which is currently not yet available for this application. Tags: high, material, water, grade, time, properties, system, Stormwater Boxes – A Solution for Climate Change Impact on Water Management
  • Contamination was found on the weld plane of electro fused joints that failed in a brittle manner in the Peel test. Silicones, silicate (sand and clay) particles and cement (calcium carbonate) particles were found most often (in 77 % of 39 cases). In 13 % of cases the presence of sweat, hand balm and detergent was suspected. It is advised that welders should wear gloves of an appropriate type. In 15 % of cases the identification was inconclusive. The investigation showed that assessing the Energy-to-Failure (Failure Energy) in the Peel test on test bars is an attractive and quantitative method and hence less subjective than visual examination. It is advised to take pipe ovality into consideration when testing electro fused joints. Tags: pipe, joint, peel, energy, electro, fusion, conditions Energy-to-Failure to Assess the Quality of Electro Fusion Joints in PE Pipes
  • In this paper, we will report the ligament stress regression evaluation of notched PE80/PE3608 pipe. Hydrostatic test was conducted at various temperatures and stresses on notched PE80/PE3608 black pipe specimens with various notch depths. The standard stress regression in accordance to ISO 9080 and ASTM D 2837 ensures the lifetime of non-flawed pipe for at least 100 years design life under standard conditions. The ligament stress regression of flawed PE80/PE3608 pipe indicated that it can still have 100+ year lifetime if the flaw sizes are below the validated maximum wall thickness reduction limit.Tags: pipe, stress, regression, stress, pe Performance Evaluation of Notched PE80/PE3608 Pipe Using Ligament Stress Regression Methodology
  • 2 components for saving→ cost of the PVC pipe and Overall Equipment Effectiveness. Way to lower costs→ sustainable solutions, using less material, using less energy. OEE of an installation→ lowering the losses in a PVC production lineTags: cost, solutions, saving, PVC-O, production, producing, OEE, pipe price, Cost Saving Solutions in Pipe Production


  • This paper introduces a method to improve the productivity of PVC drainage pipe fittings, by optimizing the structure of product and mould. It proves after test that, product design and mould design optimization can lead to pipe fitting production efficiency improvement, and to lay a good foundation for fully automatic production.Tags: optimization, design, drainage, fittings, method, structure, product, quality, mould Optimization Design of PVC Drainage Pipe Fittings
  • This paper presents an overview of the numerous polyamide natural gas plastic pipe field installations with operating pressures up to 250 psig. The overview includes the Special Permit requirements, layout, materials, and operating pressures, as well as the installation methods employed to complete the installations.Tags: material, gas, pressure, pipi, natural, Polyamide (PA11 and PA12) Use in High Pressure Natural Gas Distribution Systems – Installations and Performance Review
  • It can be concluded that the Popular shift factors are not suitable for modern materials, especially for determining shifted pipeline pressures or operating stresses. The simplicity of the Mavridis method makes it feasible to determine individual shift factors for batches of pipe, fittings or material in general. Shift factors determined by DTMA testing of product could be introduced as a quality control test. At a minimum the industry should sponsor a broader investigation of shift factors and revisit standardized validation test parameters for modern polyethylene materials. Tags: shift, material, factors, method, pipe, pressure Bi-Directional Shift Factors Revisited
  • Here are a few things to consider. First, thicker walls will slow down the cooling rate of the resin and thereby help to improve the appearance and strength of any weld lines. Second, the resin you select may make a difference. Lubricants and mold releases can further exacerbate the problem. Third, it may be possible to improve the situation by working with simulation software to optimally place the gate(s) so that the weld line are minimized or moved to a less critical area.Tags: fittings, pipe, diameter, thickness, wall, fusion, Design Study on Wall Thickness and Structure of Polyolefin Socket Fusion Fittings
  • After 3 months short-term test as above, its shows the major factor which can influence the PE-X pipe performances is cross linking content and cross linking degree , the quantity, stability of the Antioxidant and UV absorber additive, So below management is necessary ,including- the scientific, reasonable formula and strict management, To prevent the pipe direct exposure in the sun and Away from the heat together with normative installation and maintenance, can ensure all the strength performance of PE - X pipes meets requirements, Ensure not rapid aging, ensure the service life. The meantime also shows, compare the Ultraviolet light absorption Additive, the antioxygen has much better effect in Prevent sun damage for the pipe, under the light and temperature(heat) conditions, The oxidation of pipe is one of the biggest factors affecting the product performance, So it is very important to make better sun protection.Tags: pipe, cross, standard, damage, strength, linking, resistance The Influence of Additive Levels on PE-Xa Pipe Performance
  • GSP pipe not only has an extraordinary anti-corrosive and mechanic characteristics over iron pipe, plastic pipe, steel pipe and steel reinforced plastic pipe(TPEP pipe),but also reduces the investment and operation cost during the entire project, especially for long distance transportation. So GSP pipe has high competitiveness and is also recommended product in modern water conveyance project. Of course, no products come with perfection. Therefore, the following conditions should be taken into consideration as selecting water conveyance pipe: geographic condition, soil and surrounding environment, requirements on anti-corrosion and investment and operation cost. GSP pipe is better than other pipes at anti-corrosive and mechanic characteristics, and makes investment and operation cost have a great reduction, which is going to lead water conveyance pipe a drastic development by comprehensive advantages. Tags: pipe, steel, pressure, water, plastic, gsp, large, cost, supply Innovative Multi Layer Composite GSP Pressure Pipe
  • According to the causes of noise of architectural water drainage system, the generation and transmission of noise is controlled by controlling the flow state, improving the sound insulation ability of system, reasonably designing the water drainage system and other ways, so as to achieve the purpose of reducing noise. But the noise control of water drainage pipe is system engineering. The measures shall be adjusted according to the local conditions and various factors shall be comprehensive considered, so as to achieve the harmony between economic benefit and social benefit.Tags: Noise, reduction, architectural, water, plastic , drainage, system Analysis of Noise in Architectural Water Drainage Systems and the Application of Noise Reduction Technology
  • The following case study examines the unique challenges that come with power challenged jobsites and describes a battery powered approach which enables the installer to apply butt fusion while producing detailed joining records for long term traceability and vastly simplifying jobsite logistics.Tags: power, fusion, butt, such, following Butt Fusion in Logistically Challenging Jobsites
  • In recent years the Chinese plastic pipe industry has maintained a high growth rate and in 2012 the production of plastic pipe in China amounted to over 11 million tons which makes it one of main pipe materials. This has been due to the increasing investment in production capacity and the development of a wider range of products and advances in technology and strengthening standardization. This increasing demand has been mainly for municipal engineering, engineering construction, water conservancy and agriculture and industrial development. During the next few years, PVC-U and PE pipes will still be the main development focus of the plastic pipe industry.Tags: plastic, water, pipe, new, year, industry, products, The Current Situation of China Plastic Pipe Industry and Market Opportunities for Further Economic Development in the Future

5 minute posters

  • After some months the direct exposure to the sun has a negative effect on the brittle-ductile-transition temperature for both PVC-U, and PVC-HI (CPE). PVC-HI (A) does not seem to be influenced during the first year. The observed degradation effect seems to increase with increasing exposure times. For PVC-U the simple rule applies that longer exposure time leads to more degradation. For PVC-HI (A) and PVC-HI (CPE) this effect is not as clear in the first 12 months. Within 7 years PVC-HI turns very brittle, but in the course of a year, especially in winter there can be a temperature induced rejuvenating effect on PVC-HI which counteracts the chemical degradation effect. This disguises the positive effect of protective sheets somewhat in the first year for PVC-HI (A). However when the discolouration is considered, the sheet material is effectively preventing chemical degradation.Tags: plastic, sheet, sun, brittle, fracture, specimens, exposure, programme, chemical, effect Plastic Sheet Material: an Excellent Protection of PVC Pipes Against UV-Degradation
  • This paper has focused on critical design elements of the Birkdale B project, and evaluation of the plastics pipeline material selection process, arising from the limited capacity HDD drilling equipment available to the contractor. The use of Fusible PVCTM pipe required a lower pull force to install, which allowed the contractor to complete the pull-back with the available Vermeer HD100-120 Directional Drill. The new Fusible PVCTM pipeline was pulled into final position on December 14th 2010. (Figure V) It became New Zealand’s longest HDD thermoplastic pipeline installed in a single continuous drill-shot to date.Tags: pipe, drill, fusion, pull, pipeline, hole Challenges and Solutions of a Difficult HDD Shot Employing Limited Capacity Equipment Resources
  • PP-HM is an innovative plastic pipe material for non-pressure underground pipe applications with superior properties, such as: Higher stiffness, Tough and flexible to resist external loading, Flexible easy to assemble joints and forgiving of pipe/coupling deflection, Corrosion resistant, Light weight and easy to handle and install, High durability in difficult conditions, Lowest “Whole Life Cost” Through modifications of the manufacturing equipment, structural design and processing conditions and by taking advantages of PP-B HM’s properties, stronger and lighter PP-B HM spiral wound pipes can be produced.Tags: pipe, wound, spiral, stiffness, diameter, wall Meeting the Need for Stiffer Large Diameter Plastics Pipes in China
  • This article is the impact study on general plastic pipe performance when using Liquid Crystal Polymer ( hereinafter LCP ) and LCP alloy, the soaking extrusion in-situ composite technique and the coat-moulding technique for plastic pipe extrusion. It turns out that the high barrier property of TLCP can help us manufacture 2-layer Oxygen barrier plastic pipe without the adhesive layer or waterproof anti-scratch layer when we use TLCP/TP alloy as barrier material. The heat resistance of this oil well pumping pipe can reach to approx. 250℃ and it can be applied to approx. 8000-meter deep oil well.Tags: Liquid crystal polymer, alloy, molecular orientation, plastic pipe, soaking extrusion Liquid Crystal Polymer in the Manufacture of Plastic Pipes
  • It has been found that RTP really has the unique advantage in domestic and abroad, RTP is adopted by many application areas compatibly, and even some areas have to adopt the RTP. For the current development of Chinese plastic pipe, exploiting new application fields and developing plastic pipe with high technology content and high added value is the request of the ages. RTP has formed the scale and opened the market in China, preliminary has the ability of independent technology innovation. We believe that huge development is the inevitable trend in China Tags: pipe, thermoplastic, high, ppca, pressure, water, oil, gas Latest Technology in Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipe (RTP)
  • This study shows that the spiral cross winding method can be circumferential orientation of glass fibre. With this way, the quite unique performance of it has highly hoop stress as like GRP nevertheless flexibility for longitudinal direction as like polyethylene. This is in ideal performance with both combination into new pipes. This mean one can conclude that it has quite unique balance of properties between high modulus for circumferential and flexibility for longitudinal.Tags: pipe, glass, strain, fibre, pressure, high, water Performance of Polyethylene Pipes with Glass Fiber
  • The development of enhanced PE pipe formulations for the continued growth of PE pipe in potable water applications is an important aspect for pipe producers, installers, utilities and ultimately the water consumer. As a leader in high performance bimodal pipe resins, TOTAL has developed new piping solutions to meet the growing need of the water market in even the most aggressive environments, exceeding the highest performance levels defined by the industry.Tags: pipe, water, hdpe, polyethylene, time, utilities, condition Development of Pipe-Grade Polyethylenes with Enhanced Chlorine Resistance for Drinking Water Applications in NA
  • The butt fusion portion of this phase of the project was completed on time with all the aforementioned benefits being realized by all parties involved in the project. Electronic data collection, wireless transmission, and could-based storage with advanced analytics have become part of standard QA/QC procedure for this project and countless others to follow.Tags: fusion, joint, data, based, time, record, job Benefits Gained Through Electronic Collection, Wireless Transmission and Analysis of Butt Fusion Joint Data
  • The use of GRP jacking pipe in large diameter is still very less in China, especially the application of large diameter jacking pipe, mainly concrete jacking pipe. The example of a 2,800 mm diameter GRP jacking pipe was adopted in the Jizhuangzi supporting pipe network project. The design and specification of the pipe was based on the Specification for Structural Design of Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic Mortar Pipeline. The theoretical calculations proved that all the design requirements would be met. The engineering has verified the advantages of ultra large diameter GRP jacking pipe in the field of trenchless technologyTags: pipe, force, wall, value, large, pressure, soil, resistance Ultra Large Diameter DN2800 GRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic Mortar) Jacking Pipe in the Relocation Project of Jizhuangzi Sewage Treatment Plant in Tianjin
  • PE100 pipes are being introduced to the coalbed methane industry in China, and it will be a major new application market for PE100 pipes in the next few years, especially for the gas pipes. Standards and technical specification for PE100 pipes and fittings have been proposed through the collaborative work between CBM industry and plastic pipe industry in the past two years, which makes the basis for both the expanding and development of CBM and for the increase of PE100 pipe application market. The experience from the CBM projects in the past two years lead to spread the acceptance of PE100 pipes in CBM industry, and the lessons from those projects also provide experience for the future projects. Established pipe design and systematic tests show that PE100 pipes and fittings can meet the requirements for CBM pipeline application. SDR 21 pipes are reliable and suggested to CBM project, and the use of SDR 21 series pipes can save the project budget.Tags: pipe, gas, pe100, industry, project, plastic, pressure, fittings, cost, diameter PE100 Pipes Joining in Coalbed Methane Industry in China


  • Abstract book with info on the conference, all the abstracts, info on the organisers, sponsors and exhibitersTags: papers, abstract, PPCA, PE, PP, PVC Abstract Book

Plastic Pipes (2012) - Barcelona

Papers | Posters | 5 minute posters | Other |


  • The conclusions of the EPD studies carried out till 2012 show that when considering all the categories of the LCA, the average environmental impact of Plastic pipe systems are lower than of comparable other materials. The CO2 footprint which is one of the parameters in the LCA and environmental impacts is as well lower than of comparable other materials.Tags: EPD, CO2 footprint, LCA, Teppfa, environmental performance The CO2 footprint of plastic pipe systems
  • Modern micro irrigation systems are far more water efficient as they deliver water directly to the plant through a network of pipelines - main lines and lateral lines with emission points along their length, which results in increased yields whilst using considerably less water which is essential if India is to feed its growing population.Tags: Food supply, micro irrigation, water scarcity, polyethylene compound Addressing India’s food needs with modern PE micro-irrigation systems
  • As plastic pipes industry committed to quality it is important not only to offer quality certified pipes and fittings but also to ensure their installation is done properly. The skill of the operator is essential for the assurance of the quality of his work and to avoid deficiencies in the installation which could affect water, environment and the image of plastic pipes.Tags: Installation, operator, card, skills, quality Specialized training on plastic pipes installation. AseTUB professional installer card contributes to quality
  • For drinking water, gas, waste water systems, domestic installations, conduit pipe and for many other applications thermoplastic pipes allow appropriate systems to be designed.Tags: Pipe water pressure large applications LARGE PIPES – CHANCES AND CHALLENGES
  • More recently technological advancements and environmental awareness have resulted in renewed interest in small-scale hydroelectric projects. Regardless of the type of hydroelectric system, whether it is pico-, micro- or run-of-the-river, each project is different and must be carefully analyzed for the selection and specification of the appropriate piping materials given the construction and operational requirements.Tags: Construction systems scale energy project hdpe pipe hydroelectric Polyethylene Pipe and Hydroelectric Development
  • The Oil and Gas Industry uses many kilometres of pipe work to transport fluids from the wellhead to storage and processing units. These conventional steel pipes suffer from corrosion and other related problems and have to be replaced regularly to avoid spillage, but now some operators are considering more cost effective solutions using PE pipes. Clearly using PE pipes in various situations such as lining carbon steel pipes will eliminate corrosion and thereby eliminate the release of hydrocarbons to the environmentTags: PE pipes, PE liners, Oil and Gas, Corrosion, Middle East PE Pipes in the Oil and Gas Industry
  • Teppfa is the European plastic pipes and fittings association consisting of 15 national associations and 11 company members with a output of 3 million tons of plastic pipes and fittings and turnover of over 9,5 billion euro. Its main contribution to the VC has been an intensified national collection scheme which has allowed the use of 50 ktons of recycled PVC, Cd is not used as a stabilizer anymore but is allowed in waste up to a level of 1000ppm. The use of Pb stabilizer has been reduced and all company members will be lead free by end of 2012Tags: VinylPlus, plastic pipe, Teppfa, VC, stabilizer Waste, Pb, Cd Contribution of the Plastic Pipe Industry to the PVC Voluntary Commitment
  • The success of thermoplastic valves is due to the fact that they are in some cases the only solution to the water treatment industry, while in other instances offer a viable replacement for traditional materials like metal when one factors in total cost of ownership, safety, reliability, efficiency and carbon footprint. The typical tater treatment plant is comprised of many sub-systems each requiring unique solutions for day-to-day operations. These sub-systems typically include: raw water inlet, pretreatment, filtration, water finishing, disinfection, storage, waste disposal, maintenance and distribution to the grid or point of use amongst others.Tags: Piping thermoplastic systems water valve plastic treatment materials Success of thermoplastic piping systems in the water treatment industry
  • PVC O has become more popular after international and national standards have been developed and put in place and after production equipment has become more widely available. For low pressure pipes it is therefore recommended to consider not making use of the full strength, but allowing some overdesign of the pipe. It means that although the advantages of the higher strength are not fully utilized, the advantages of higher robustness and higher axial flexibility nevertheless remain. Experience with application of PVCO has yielded good reliable and sound experience and confirms that the advantages as painted above are recognized and appreciated by the users.Tags: Water, quality, high strength, material, plastic, standards, PVCO PVC-O pipes for water and waste water applications: Standardisation, Quality and Applications
  • In order to minimise the risks and costs associated with developing such extensive piping systems the major energy companies, engineering consultants and plastics pipes industry combined resources to prepare a code of practice specifically for the application. The development of the Code was a collaborative effort resourced with members of two industry associations - APIA and PIPA. A key lesson from this process has been the importance of early intervention and early collaboration. Tags: PE100, Coal Seam Gas, Water PE100 Pipeline Systems In The Coal Seam Gas Industry
  • The double loop technology has inspired many engineers as Total produces their PE100-RC pressure pipe compounds on an proprietary Advanced Double Loop process which allows to combine a well controlled high molecular weight PE fraction rich of tie molecules ensuring high resistance to slow crack growth to a high stiffness PE fraction allowing a high resistance to hydrostatic strength.Tags: Installation pe100 geothermal energy, heat, pipes, loop, resistance From double loop to double loop: PE100-RC, the perfect fit for geothermal probes
  • The recently standardized CRB test was applied to mineral filled polypropylene. To further study the mechanisms which govern SCG in polypropylene tests with GCT specimen were performed. A clear dominance of initiation time over crack growth was found in CRB specimen and GCT specimen, respectively. The applicability of LEFM was examined by SEM and LM micrographs which showed long and slander plastic zones which increase over time until a critical value is reached at which point crack growth starts. To examine the growing plastic zones more thoroughly static testing at elevated temperatures was performed. In this test an almost linear trend between plastic zone growth and testing time could be established..Tags: Fracture mechanics, Polypropylene, Slow Crack Growth, Cracked Round Bar, Plastic Zone Comparison of long-term properties of polyolefin pipe grades using linear elastic fracture mechanics
  • In case of fire, the installation of CPVC sprinkler systems contributes to the reduction of CO2 by up to 97.8% and to the building’s overall increase of life expectancy. The favorable energy balance of CPVC compared to steel fire sprinkler systems contribute further to CO2 reduction. The total energy requirements for CPVC fire sprinkler systems are low. Tags: Fire, water, emissions, CPVC/steel, Sprinklers, CO2, system, environment CPVC in Fire Sprinkler Systems
  • Large diameter PE pipelines are being increasingly used in industrial projects in China with great success. They are reducing the costs to industry of the corrosion of metal pipelines and saving large quantities of precious water in recycling schemes. In the case of mining, such as the copper mine of Shouwangfen, Chengde Hebei and many coal mines, PE pipes are also extending the life of their slurry transportation pipelines by providing greater resistance to abrasion. In the paper we have described the special precautions we have taken at Chinaust in raw material selection and process and quality control to ensure that these PE100 pipes are of the highest quality and will continue to operate successfully for many years to come Tags: PE pipe, industrial application, process improvement, product quality control Industrial Application of PE pipes and Production Quality Control
  • While for modern PE pipe grades with FNCT and PENT testing times of several months or even years are required or tests are stopped after an abort time of 104 h, with Cyclic CRB Tests a material characterization is possible within a week which is 60 times faster. The fact of short testing times, which allows a determination of a failure curve within one week, and a testing temperature of 23 °C, which is very close t o real pipe application temperatures, makes the Cyclic CRB Test attractive for material development and quality assurance as an alternative tool for accelerated material testing without any additional media which may influence the SCG behavior. Tags: Polyethylene, pipe, test method, lifetime, slow crack growth Accelerated Material Ranking with Cyclic CRB Tests
  • A preliminary correlation between the strain hardening modulus and an application test confirms moreover that the mechanism responsible for ESCR failure in HDPE pipe applications was translated to a simple, fast and elegant small scale reliable test method using the strain hardening modulus. Advantages of the strain hardening method are the very low experimental spread, absence of surfactants and notches, the limited amount of required testing material and, above all, testing times of only a few hours on a simple tensil machine. The use of elevated temperature of 80 ºC for the strain hardening modulus is required to reflect the correct value of the strain hardening modulus to the long term phenomena that is reflected in the traditional SCG methods.Tags: Strain hardening, test, pipe, modulus, sample, scg, tensile, hdpe, crack, Strain Hardening Modulus: An Accurate Measure For Slow Crack Growth Behavior Of HDPE Pipe Materials
  • A master curve of ligament stresses exists for notched black pipe made from modern gas phase bimodal PE100/PE4710 material with >10,000h PENT. Ligament stress regression was performed on the notched pipe specimens. The extrapolated LTHS data support 100-year life for the notched pipe from 20 to 60°C with a wall thickness reduction from 12%-42% for water pipe and 43%-70% for gas pipeTags: Polyethylene pipe, ligament stress, regression, notch depth, lifetime Ligament Stress Regression of Notched PE100/PE4710 Pipe
  • The organoleptic tests performed to DOWLEXTM PE-RT samples in pellet form indicate a very low taste and odor intensity for those samples. In order to analyze the worst case scenario, the water exposed to the samples was directly evaluated by the panelists without being diluted, confirming the excellent organoleptic properties of our material. The results of the T&O test performed on DOWLEXTM PE-RT pipes at 60ºC gives low values of TON/TFN (2 vs. 4 in the requirement) confirming the suitability of DOWLEXTM PE-RT for hot & cold water pipes. The use of an electronic-nose which has been trained with the inputs provided previously by our panelists provides a fast and reproducible way to generate organoleptic results.Tags: Organoleptics, PE-RT, drinking water, e-Nose Investigations on drinking water in contact with PE-RT materials
  • A detailed analysis demostrated that the new method can be a good candidate for point loading test though further experiment investigations need to be carried out. The new method seems to be sensitive to pipe extruding process and pipe material quality, so it can be very useful for evaluating the pipe performance as well as the resin property. Theoretical and computational studies on fracture mechanics of the new model, experimental comparison and correlation with other SCG evaluation results should also be conducted for the industry in the future. Tags: Point, pe100, pressure, notch, pipe, test, stress A new point loading test method
  • A fracture-mechanics based approach has been developed for determining critical allowable flaw depths in HDPE piping and resins Simplified formulation for both the linear and nonlinear crack driving force KI and JI have been derived. A procedure to analyzed notched pipe test (NPT) data using a fracture mechanics approach has been demonstrated. A methodology to establish safety margins for the prediction of service life of HDPE piping with surface flaws has been proposed. Tags: Flaw, pipe, hdpe, service, fracture, piping, crack, time, material A Methodology to Predict Critical Flaw Size in HDPE Piping and Joints in Nuclear Safety-Related Applications
  • Finite element results of the two joints confirmed the laboratory experiments by showing that the induced equivalent stress at the welds is indeed lower than that of the pipe indicating that burst failure can take place on the pipe and not the welds if welding is done properly. In the fusion of straight pipes we have ample evidence to show that the welds are stronger than the main pipe provided the beads are left in place. Experimental investigation Fabricated elbows and tees are manufactured by butt-fusion welding segments of pipes in accordance with ISO 4427 Part 3 Annex B. For elbows, pipe sections are cut at an angle and then placed in a CNC welding machine.Tags: Pipe, tees, failure, derating, element, pressure, finite, burst, results Stress analysis of elbows and tees of plastic pipes using finite element analysis
  • As demonstrated in the multi-scale analysis, the specific microstructure thus obtained largely enhances the long term performance at high temperature compared to conventional chromium or Ziegler polyethylene copolymers. The outstanding resistance to slow crack growth is believed to be strongly related to the particular product microstructure and the reverse comonomer repartition. In addition to ESCR properties, the excellent resistance to chlorine oxidation also makes this material particularly suitable for the most demanding applications at high temperature.Tags: Single, high, site, monomodal, temperature Recent advances in PE-RT developments: unleashing the potential of metallocene technology for pressure pipes
  • Management of available water resources is, and continues to be, a critical issue on a global basis. HDPE 1000SDR11 pipe made with Qenos PE100 grade Centrene® HDF145B was used to meet key objectives in this complex water resource project, which secured long-term viable water supply to customers whilst preserving and enhancing the environment. Centrene HDF145B, with its unique rheological characteristics, was able to produce pipe with the necessary dimensional tolerances to allow robust welds to be formed, a critical feature to allow an 80 tonne pipe string to be horizontally directionally drilled. Due to the unique properties of PE100, both in terms of engineering and converting into pipe, PE100 continues to play a major role in meeting current and future challenges in the management of water resources. Tags: Pipe, installation, hdd, pe100, water, project Challenging installation of large diameter HDPE pipe by directional drilling provides a comprehensive water management solution and an improved environmental outcome
  • Acceleration of ranking for Region I failure behaviour of pressurized pipes is limited at lower temperatures due to the change in deformation mode. Performing tensile and/or creep tests at elevated temperatures (e.g. 80°C) and low strain rates guarantees testing in the relevant deformation mode and hence may perhaps allow for a quick ranking. However, the effect of the test inherent annealing and thus the question of transferability of the ranking achieved at 80°C to application temperature need to be addressed. Furthermore, a more profound understanding of the parameters governing failure Region Ib is needed.Tags: Region, tests, pipe, stress, tensile, temperature Molecular and morphological parameters governing yield failure of PE pipe materials
  • The fatigue resistance of PE4710 materials in force main applications is seen to be excellent. Both the current design approaches for occasional (short-term) surge resistance and for repetitive (long-term) fatigue resistance for PE4710 materials in force main applications are conservative and appear appropriate. Tags: PE, Pressure Surge, Force Main Resistance of PE4710 Piping Materials to Pressure Surge Events in Force Main Applications
  • The results of the simulation tests and field tests that were conducted have been collected together and are shown in Table VI. As a result of conducting the simulation tests assuming excavation work by heavy machinery on plastic piping that has actually been used in a variety of applications, we could confirm the following in regards to each of the pipes. In addition to durability against other construction damage, earthquake resistance, corrosion resistance, chemical resistance, flexibility, workability, reliability, economic efficiency and more are the conditions that gas pipes should be provided with. Depending on the material, it is necessary to have construction method development on each type of pipe material, such as contact and severance to existing pipes and the joints of pipes. Tags: Pipes, materials, test, pipe, penetration, machinery Estimation concerning damage tolerance of plastic pipes by third parties
  • Catalysts derived from a heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta or Phillips catalyst and single site catalyst component represent some of the most interesting examples of binary catalysis. The socalled Phillips-type catalysts are basically silica-supported chromium oxide catalysts and silylchromate-on-silica catalysts. Taking the advantage of the different behavior to the hydrogen presence of Phillips and metallocenes, Phillips catalysts very little affected by the presence of hydrogen and metallocenes largely affected not only on the product molecular weight but also on the catalyst activity, a tailor-made catalyst by combination of 3 such systems has to be developed in order to adjust the amount, molecular weight distribution and hydrogen response with the goal of achieving a bimodal polyethylene.Tags: bimodal polyethylene, PE-100, binary catalysts, chromium, metallocene Bimodal polyethylene for pipe applications obtained by chromium oxide/metallocene binary catalysts
  • Ovalisation allows polyethylene pipe >DN160, up to DN315 to be coiled tightly without buckling, Ovalised pipe occupies 35% less space on a bulk reel than a circular pipe, permitting longer length to be continuously coiled on a fixed reel size, Ovalised pipe can be effectively re-rounded in the field without significant compromise to its hydraulic capacity, Substantial cost savings may be realised by eliminating up to 90% of field welds, Spider-plough installation will not be constrained by frequent jointing whilst pipeline security may be similarly enhanced, Providing pipe on compact, low centre of gravity reels will reduce the risk of contacting overhead power cables and enhance safety by minimising pipe handling operations.Tags: Pipe, metres, diameter, polyethylene, reel, process, dn315 Development of innovative pipe coiling process minimises field welding in HDPE gas pipelines
  • Barium sulfate is active, high density filler for Polypropylene base of polymer. Using from two sizes of Mineral Particle Nano and Micro sizes can improve the Impact behaviour of system. One of the main reasons for increasing the Impact Strength is the plastic deformation we could see around the impact point and this extensive plastic deformation could absorb the high energy of impact. Barium sulfate enhances the acoustical transmission loss of the composite by adding to its density and changing the extent of coincidence minimums in TL frequency diagram and shift it to higher range of frequencies. Tags: Composites, filler, impact, fig, properties, sound, polymer PP-MD pushfit silent piping system reinforced with nano composite
  • New installation materials, such as multilayer and PEX pipes, are an attractive, competitive solution. Moreover, ML systems are very safe if installation rules and skills are respected. Incidents statistics are quite positive on domestic pipework even when manipulation and wrong human involvement have been taken into account. The ratio of fatal incident due to causes without human involvement are extremely low. The consequences of fire on pipework systems are of minor importance. Incident Statistics do support this statement. ML pipework does not form an extra risk. After a period of ten years installing this material on a large scale no increase of the number of incidents has been detected in the Netherlands. standards and regulation could be modified in order to allow ML pipework. Tags: Pipework, gas, domestic, safety, installation, incident, data, countries Plastic pipework for gas in buildings and the consequences of fire
  • The Automatic SPR is new trenchless pipeline renewal method avoided works in the host pipe. This method is consisting of two original systems, the winding and grouting system. Since 2010, the winding system, including the machines and equipment, has been installed Japanese constructions, and proven the algorithmic formula of the speed in these constructions. These machines and equipments will be developed, solved some problems, and then applied to another construction. Even though the grouting system was not worked in 2010, it has been also applied to some constructions since 2011. Tags: Spr, pipe, winding, profile, machine, figure, host, system The Automatic SPR, new trenchless pipeline renewal method
  • The fitting fills in the empty spaces caused by the differences between the radii using the resin foaming mechanism, which none of the existing pipe connection methods could solve. The EFF wrap fitting consists of a foaming sheet embedded with heating wire, designed to prevent water penetration. The tests confirmed that there was no damage to the connecting pipe and no sign of fitting fracture or transformation. The fitting was investigated when the pipe fitting was pressed up to 50% of inner diametric deflection. The EFF wrap was confirmed to be economically profitable because its installation time was shorter and its installation cost was cheaper than Butt welding or Stainless steel band fitting. Tags: Foaming, sheet, pipe, fusion, fitting, wrap, temperature A study of electro-foaming fusion wrap fitting for Polyethylene sewer pipe
  • Pipe is supplied in coils with less than 5% ovality in the pipe ready to install or pipe is supplied in coils or reels which are much smaller than normal coiling processes can achieve. Low Ovality Technology is a unique way of coiling HDPE pipe which enables pipe to be coiled with greatly reduced ovality, or to be coiled at much smaller diameters while maintaining acceptable levels of ovality. The present UK specification for potable water pipes BS EN 12201 has no particular reference to amounts of ovailty in a coiled pipe whereas the superseded WIS 4-32-17 required that coiled pipe have less than 12% ovality after un-coiling. Tags: Pipe, ovality, coil, costs, length, installation Redefining Pipe Installations
  • For the water engineer the main concern is that this expansion or shrinkage of the PE pipe could cause leakage where the PE pipe joins the metal pipe system. Therefore when the two types of pipe are connected the linear expansion of PE pipes must be considered and the axial expansion or shrinkage created by the environmental temperature should be "Restricted". When the ambient temperature for PE installation is different to the operation one the pipe should be allowed to relax prior to connecting to the DI pipe.Tags: PE water supply pipe, joint pull out, temperature changes, water leakage, axial shrinkage Effect of Environmental Temperatures on PE Water Pipe Application
  • Additional opportunities are identified with both solid wall and structured-wall pipe systems, such as ribbed, twin-wall or spirally wound solutions, especially in larger pipe sizes through the substitution of the old generation rigid systems made of concrete and clay. The PP polymer development has supported the progress of plastics pipes both for solid wall and for structured-wall pipe systems and will do so also in the years to come, as long as the inherent capabilities of the material, compounds or pipe designs are not fully and efficiently utilised. As long as the plastics pipes community continue to support and push the sustainability principles, cost savings and other natural benefits with plastics pipes, the development of PP pipe systems will continue to be a success story.Tags: Polypropylene, Sewage, Sustainability, Durability, High-modulus Stiff, Stiffer, PP3000 MPa – an impressive journey through 30 years of PP development for underground sewage applications
  • The FEA modeling tool facilitates examination of multiple pipe installations. Conventional’ linear elastic models predicted similar deflections, and stresses within the pipe. Neither model predicted the local wall buckling. Since neither model includes an assessment of shape deformation and its’ contribution to local buckling, that result is not unexpected. The methodology recommended by AASHTO’s NCHRP 631 appears to be appropriate for the analysis of large diameter pipes of this structure with the exception that reduction of the effective wall area based on the presumption of local wall buckling, is generally not warranted unless special conditions such as the use of marginal embedment materials are proposed.Tags: Wall, pipe, local, buckling, profile, materials Large Diameter PE Pipes for Combined Sewer Overflow Applications
  • There is no reason to doubt that large diameter pipe will perform equal to or better than the 24-inch diameter samples as noted and evaluated in this paper, but additional testing should be undertaken to confirm the anvil test is as consistent and predictable for large diameter pipe. 9 The continuous flattening or buckling criteria that is currently used for assessing the acceptable performance of profile wall pipe in the noted ASTM, AASHTO and ISO standards should be modified to accommodate high stiffness, profile wall pipe. There is a long history of successful field performance with high stiffness, flexible thermoplastic pipe; we should not be penalizing good designs and field performance with laboratory tests that undermine these efforts. Tags: Pipe, test, stiffness, strain, buckling, profile, deflection, plate, wa Replacement Test for Current Buckling and Ring Flexibility Tests
  • The DVS Technical Guides provide a methodology for welding and testing welds in thermoplastic materials. The weld parameters quoted by DVS 2207-11 do not appear to provide satisfactory results for this material. The results of weld tests obtained using the UPI method indicate an average strength of around 25 N/mm2 for the optimum weld parameters, or a weld factor of 0.92. On average, this meets the DVS figure and is well in excess of the proposed ITP acceptance figure of 15N/mm2 derived from design considerations The UPI dual pressure welding method allows the molten polymer to cool with minimal shear stress, thus allowing the crystal structure to develop without distortion leading to improved weld factor. Tags: Welding, test, dvs, weld, pressure, pipes, results, parameter Butt Fusion Welding of Large Diameter Spiral Wound PP-HM Pipes
  • Of the 34 pipe samples, 24 were helical type pipe, 7 were annular pipe, and 3 were honeycomb profile pipe. Of these 14 commercially available pipes, 12 were Type S annular pipes, 1 was a Type S helical pipe, and 1 was a Type S honeycomb profile pipe. The carbon black content of these pipes ranged from 0.09% to 3.2%, and 8 samples tested below 2%. Figure 2: SP-NCTL values for 13 new commercially available annular and honeycomb corrugated HDPE pipe profiles in 1999, as published in NCHRP Report 429 As is evident from the chart, the majority of the resins used in corrugated HDPE pipe during this time had SP-NCTL values of less than 10 hours, with a few outliers that had relatively high values. Tags: Samples, hdpe, corrugated, nchrp, test, ncls, pipe The Evolution of Corrugated HDPE Pipe Materials
  • HDPE Pipe EC value based on the ICE database The provided ICE database conversion coefficient for HDPE pipes of 2.52kgCO2e/kg, was applied directly to standard structural wall HDPE pipe weights supplied by Asset International Ltd. Thus, enabling the determination of the HDPE pipe‟s EC in terms kgCO2e/m illustrated in Figure 1a. It should be noted that the aforementioned conversion coefficient was devised for solid wall HDPE pipes, as opposed to the structural wall HDPE pipes manufactured by Asset International Ltd. The latter are generally considered to be produced in a less intensive manner, in terms of GHG emissions. Tags: Carbon Footprint, Climate Change, Large Diameter Pipes, Concrete, HDPE. A Comparative analysis of the Carbon Footprint of Large Diameter Concrete and HDPE pipes
  • Several different ageing studies were performed on PE-X and PP-RCT materials, confirming the suitability of these materials for hot water applications. Both materials have morphological uniqueness, the cross-linking in the case of PE-X and ß-crystal structure in the case of PP-RCT combined with state-of-the-art stabilisation packages. Different ageing studies with different test times, which can be seen as accumulative operating or stagnating temperature, representing the requirements for potential solar absorbers were considered. Polyolefin materials (PE-X and PP-RCT) which are known as best in class in the hot water application segment are clearly materials which can be seen as candidates for polymeric solar absorbers allowing cost reduction versus todays used systems.Tags: PE-X, PP-RCT, demanding applications, solar absorbers High performing polyolefin materials for demanding applications like solar absorbers
  • The paper explains the work done in Australia to use the BEP (Best Environmental Practice) for PVC. The outcome was the establishment of good working relationships with the GBCA. Complete revision of the previous rating tool credit to a product basis where not only was the PVC minimization approach abandoned but where the use of BEP PVC products was rewarded. The availability of BEP PVC improves the environmental outcomes for the material. Motivates best practice in the Australian PVC industryTags: PVC, Green Building, environmental, material, recycling, BEP Best Environmental Practice PVC pipes and fittings for the Green Building Industry
  • The Paper shows that it is possible to recycle rigid PVC into foam core pipes numerous times. Given the service life of a foam core pipe of least 50 years, the overall life of the PVC material used could be in excess of 300 years. If windows or pipes are recycled, the PVC will have a k-value of 67. This places limitations on the type of recyclate (ground versus micronized) and quantity that can be used in foam core pipes cause it must meet the requirements for the European standards. Use of recycled PVC at a level of only 25% in foam core pipes would consume more recycled rigid PVC than is currently available on the market.Tags: Recyclable, foam, pipe, sustainability, window, quality, How much recycled PVC in PVC pipes?
  • However the harmonized standards for plastics piping systems are still under development voluntary quality marks can coexist next to CE marking based on the provisions given above. The scope of the existing voluntary quality marks will be minimized when CE-marking will come into force unless additional values can be added in a transparent way provided it will not act as barrier of trade. Tags: Systems, harmonize, dpiping, voluntary, marking, standards, product Do voluntary Quality Marks have a future next to CE-marking?
  • The present study indicates that the new high performance tie-layer has significantly high adhesion both before and after thermal cycling compared to tested reference tie-layers. HP-Tie exhibited initial improved adhesion at 60°C and in the early stages of thermal cycling that lead to maintained adhesion after thermal cycling. Process also proved to have a main influence on tie-layer performance where initial micro delamination was found to produce blisters after thermal cycling. In addition, choice of the right material for the Substrat, such as Aluminium, can significantly improve adhesion performance. It was concluded that the combined effect of tie-layer performance, process optimization and material selection significantly influence MLP adhesion performance both before and after thermal cycling and reduce or eliminate blisters.Tags: pipe, multi-layer pipe, tie-layer, adhesive, adhesion New High Performance Tie-Layer Adhesives Selected for Multilayer Pipe Applications
  • The polyethylene corrugated pipe with ribbed steel reinforcement and spirally wound is a new kind of drainage pipeline. The product with ribbed steel reinforcement and spirally wound in Λ between two polyethylene layers, which is combined with high stiffness, high strength of steel and flexibility, corrosion resistance,wear-resisting of polyethylene, can be reach SN12.5. The product is high strength and low weight.This thesis introduce project on the understanding that DN1500mm, top of the pipe cover depth only 740mm, how can compute strength and check the pipe maximum vertical deformation under action of the combination.Tags: ribbed steel reinforcement, corrugated pipe, design, calculation, test The Design, Calculation and Test of Drainage Pipe Project in Yong Yang East Road, Wuqing District Tianjin China
  • In this study, for the purpose of the evaluation of seismic durability of the whole PE piping system for city-gas supply in Japan, tensile tests for commercial PE pipes having outer diameter of 60 mm jointed using a socket type of an EF fitting, whose fusion-bonded area was controlled at the target value, were conducted under the several tensile-velocities and environmental temperatures. The critical axial fusion-bonded length tended to be longer as increasing tensile-velocity and as decreasing environmental temperature. From the extrapolation of the calculated critical fusion-bonded length, it was concluded that the specification in corresponding JIS standard regarding the fusion-bonded length is reasonable because it was pointed out that the specified value includes sufficient safety factor. Tags: Fusion, tensile, bonded, length, test, figure Tensile-velocity and temperature dependence of the critical axial fusion-bonded length for a polyethylene city-gas distribution piping jointed using an electro-fusion socket
  • The use of plastic pipes is very common in many applications such as pressure less sewer pipes as well as pressure pipes up to a limited pressure level. This limit is naturally given by the moderate strength of plastic materials compared to metallic materials such as steel. Polyethylene pipes have been in service for over 50 years now. They are easy to handle because of their low weight and being very flexible they can be formed into coils which are highly convenient during installation work. The high ductility, resistance to corrosion and the easy and safe weldability allow long service lives of over 100 years.Tags: Strength, monocomposite, polyethylene, pipe, pressur CUSTOM-MADE PLASTIC PIPES AND FITTINGS PRODUCED FROM POLYETHYLENE MONOCOPOSITE OPEN NEW APPLICATIONS
  • RTP has proven to be an excellent solution for corrosion resistant rapid deployment pipe line applications. This proven design coupled with a high temperature HDPE-RT resin has allowed the same performance benefits associated with RTP, and expands the operating rage up to 82°C (180°F) and 25% aromatic content by volume for continuous operation. These performance capabilities have been extensively tested and validated using standard ASTM test methods as well as additional manufacturer specified test methods. RTP-HT meets the requirements of API RP 15S Recommended Practice for the Qualification of Reinforced Plastic Line Pipe.Tags: pipe, samples, aromatic, test, temperature An Enhanced Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipe (RTP) for High Temperature Applications in the Upstream Oil & Gas Industry
  • In this study, the pipe made of braided FRTP prepreg materials was developed. It was suggested that this pipe can be applied to the high pressure pipe, because the tensile strength of this pipe with thin-walled was higher than that of the plastic pipe. In addition, curved parts (elbow, etc.) can be reinforced by this material with high flexible property. Figuring out the required performance in the actual use such as flexural strength and chemical resistance is important in the future. Moreover, the connection method between this pipe and joints should be studied.Tags: Prepreg, material, pipe, fiber, braided, frtp The Pipe Made of Braided FRTP Prepreg Materials
  • Several well established procedures are used for butt fusion welding of PE pipes globally. The most widely used are the European Single Pressure, UK Dual Pressure, and the USA High Pressure procedures. In the future it may be possible to rationalise these procedures. Materials and machinery developments are resulting in an increasing size range of pipe. Confirmation of the appropriate test methods is required to assure weld quality, to fully understand the properties of the welds, and to confirm the suitability of the fusion procedure used for such pipes. The PE 100+ Association established this project to evaluate welds in large diameter thick walled pipe. The results of this programme are discussed and conclusions made.Tags: Polyethlyene, Pipes, Buttfusion, Joining, Testing HARMONISATION OF POLYETHYLENE PIPE BUTTFUSION PROCEDURES AND TEST METHODS – FINAL CONCLUSIONS
  • The wedge coupler technology revolutionises the joining technology in the field of large pipes. The assemblability of the fitting is fundamentally simplified as compared to traditional cylindrical couplers. A reproducible good joint quality is achieved. Only a fracture of the hitherto required time is necessary for processing. The assembly is made according to clearly defined and simple rules. Anybody able to assemble a flange will also be able to handle the clamping system of the wedge coupler.Tags: Coupler, fusion, wedge, pipe, figure, joint Jointing of large bore PE pipes: Think big...and evenbigger!
  • Just as suggested by British colleagues, the cooling times used by the British Standards GIS and WIS are quite adequate and cooling times quite reasonable when used at their lower ambient temperatures. While the previous paper stated that various standards had not established a target cooling temperature, it is apparent that most are designed to keep the interface temperature after cooling time has elapsed, to under 80° C. Cooling ambient conditions also affect higher interfacial pressure fusion but not to the same extent. The question remains, what about using the same times in Hong Kong, South Africa, and other warm climates? It is obvious that ambient conditions affect cooling times, especially on lower interfacial fusion because of the massive amount of molten material left in the interface after fusion. Tags: Cooling, time, temperature, ambient, times, joint, fusion Butt Fusion Cooling Times, Speeding Up the Process – Effect of Ambient Temperatures
  • Different joining conditions were prepared to investigate welding property. Among several welding conditions, this paper focuses on the effect of pressure and temperature of welding process to slow crack growth. Besides short term test we designed and conducted long term integrity tests, and these experiments will reveal more profound effect of welding conditions. PREPARATION OF SPECIMENS To study welding conditions, we prepared polyethylene pipe extruded with high density polyethylene made by KPIC, Korea. These pipes were welded with welding machine, and specimens for notched tensile tests and slow crack growth are made. With high speed pulling test and PENT, we can assess optimum welding conditions, especially for temperature and pressure. Tags: Welding, conditions, slow, crack, pressure Enhancement of butt fusion joints integrety against slow crack growth
  • Various non-destructive methods, based on different physical principles, were investigated for their ability to differentiate between uPVC pipes having various levels of gelation. It was found that the micro-hardness method was not able to differentiate between uPVC samples of different levels of gelation. The Profile NMR-MOUSE is able to scan through the thickness of the pipe wall. However, the amounts and relaxation rates show no significant differences between uPVC samples of different levels of gelation. The NMR results can be explained from DSC measurements, where no detectable differences in crystallinity have been observed for the different ways of processing.Tags: pipe, PVC, gelation, non-destructive Non-destructive and in-situ determination of gelation in pvc pipe networks
  • If the tightening is performed to bolt forces assumed in recommendations for different flanges and gasket designs, the joints should remain tight, in spite of a relaxation to around 40% of the original bolt forces. Such general recommendations are given in e g. The risks are that procedures are mixed up, that tightening in the field is not performed according to recommendations, or that the relationship between torque and bolt forces is not the one assumed, due to high friction between bolts, nuts and backing rings. Through the quick time-response of the plastic, and since the relationship between torque and bolt force is not uniform, much lower and more un-evenly distributed bolt forces than expected are obtained. Tags: Flange, bolt, tightening, pressure, forces, Are methods for tightness testing fit for purpose?
  • The goal of the training toolkit is improve the understanding of all relevant issues of PVC pipes and is intended for the salesforce of the PVC pipe manufacturers. The proposal is to make training sessions organized by each pipe & fittings manufacturer for their own sales force e.g. (2 times a year).The trainer must select the relevant training Package that he/she wants to cover. It is not possible to cover all of the topics with one session. Tags: Training, Toolkit, PVC pipe, PVC4Pipes, package, sales Training Toolkit for Training the Sales Forces of PVC Pipe Manufacturers across Europe
  • The new full dry system for PVCO today has widen the range of products up to 800 mm and PN25, and this will facilitate the general implementation of these products in a large number of projects. New socketing systems bring benefits for all pipe manufacturers and end users. Today, PVCO and its manufacturing process are as flexible and complete as the process of any other plastic system and therefore a brilliant future is forecasted.Tags: PVCO, system, pipes, socketing, manufacturing, limitation New developments in PVC-O
  • Field failure studies have shown that the lack of ductile behaviour is the most important reason for incidents involving PVC-U. Therefore the ductility of the excavated pipes is tested using a tensile impact test. By adding cooling and heating equipment to the tensile impact test equipment, the PVC-U material can be tested at a temperatures ranging from -27ºC to 50ºC. The tensile impact tester is also equipped with a piezo-electric load cell. Visual inspections of the test material support these findings. From the 11 PVC-U pipes tested so far using this new method, three pipes could be identified as having poor material properties. Finally a specially developed sawing test was performed to establish a link with practical experience.Tags: Test, pvc, pipes, fracture, material, impact TENSILE IMPACT EXPERIMENTS OF PVC-U AT A WIDE RANGE OF TEMPERATURES
  • Take full advantages of PVC resin in China, promote standardization and technical innovation; enhance the research on the comprehensive performance improvement of PVC pipe by the means of various technology, such as grafting composite materials and bi-orientation, to broaden the application of PVC and increase the market share. Further develop and improve PVC pipeline systems in building drainage at same floor, collection and utilization of rain water and recycled water, and indoor ventilation. Complete lead-free promotion by using environmental friendly heat stabilizers for PVC-U pipe. Strengthen the R&D and application on the ultra-high molecular weight of PVC resin, heat-resistant PVC resin, and high apparent density PVC resin for large diameter pipe development. Tags: PVC-U pipe, material modification, biaxial orientation, PVC-O, PVC-M The Status And The Next Five-Year Development Outlook Of The China Plastic Pipe Industry
  • The PVDF bore layer gives the required ongoing chemical resistance but owing to trace permeation of chlorine dioxide, continued exposure would be expected eventually to deplete any reserve of antioxidant, and attack the functional polyolefin layer, thus permanently reducing pipe physical properties, risking failure. Clearly using a fluoropolymer to provide the required chemical resistance is costly in terms of increased unit cost per metre of pipe; even though we have done everything we could to mitigate that cost by controlling and limiting thickness of functional layers to the minimum necessary. Into account, the cost of the pipe remains but a small part of the overall cost of pipe installation. Tags: Pipe, layer, fig, dioxide, chlorine, pvdf, test Performance of Multilayer PE100 pipes upon ageing to chlorine dioxide disinfectants
  • Additives, especially antioxidant chemicals play a key role to provide polyolefin longer service life under ambient condition. In our search for better solution we avoided this crude approach and stepped into understanding structure-property relationship of additive structure under oxidative environment. We followed such synergistic effect also in ternary combination of additives and ultimately were able to design optimized additive combination that showed significant improvement in stabilization against chlorine dioxide compared to reference sample. We strongly believe and are confident that, this approach of improving stability of additive package for polyethylene against oxidative degradation would take the performance of polyolefin pipe to the next level and further strengthen the success of polyethylene as the material of choice in plastic pipe industry. Tags: Water disinfectant, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, additive, polyethylene pipe POLYETHYLENE PIPES: PE WATER PIPES AND CHLORINATED DISINFECTANTS: A PRAGMATIC APPROACH TO EVEN SAFER SOLUTIONS
  • It is clear that chlorine dioxide will accelerate the oxidative degradation of polyolefins such as polyethylene and polypropylene. The degradation mechanism is believed not to be by a direct attack of the chlorine dioxide on the polymer but rather a chain branching reaction in the propagation stage of the oxidation accelerating the degradation. Analyses of pipes that have been exposed in service connected to ClO2 disinfection systems show oxidation of the inner surface with cracks that can propagate through the pipe wall. The stabiliser has been consumed by diffusing ClO2 but only to a limited depth. The bulk of the pipe is still well stabilised. Pipe samples tested according to ASTM F2023, on the contrary show a substantial loss of stabilizer also in the bulk of the material and this is only partly due to diffusing ClO2. Most of it is due to physical loss into the flowing media. Tags: Pipe, chlorine, dioxide, figure, water, clo2, reaction Investivation And Comparison Of Accelerated Pipe Testing Data With True Pipe Installations In Conanct With Chlorine Dioxide As Disinfectant
  • The solution-phase assessment of phenolic antioxidant resistance to chlorine bleach exposure reported here offers numerous benefits over the traditional approaches of OIT coupled with physical pipe testing. Oxidationinduction time testing, which can be influenced by the secondary antioxidant, is also essentially a macro-scale test because it only reflects on the overall loading of phenolic antioxidant in a sample and not the specific chlorine resistance. Most singly-hindered phenols that exhibited reactive chlorine chemistry in the solution phase also performed poorly in the traditional physical testingbased chlorine resistance testing, thus validating the LC-MS screening process as a useful tool in designing additive packages intended for chlorine resistance.Tags: Chlorine, antioxidant, ring, data, addition Development of an enhanced chlorine resistant antioxidant package for potential use in polyethylene using a rapid LC-MS technique
  • So far the project was proposed to the Municipality, but its implementation can only take place contextually to the city’s reconstruction, which is currently posing significant challenges and is proceeding quite slowly. The proposed project, for its modularity and the technical choices adopted, does provide a solution to realize a system capable of ensuring a rapid reactivation of the service after any seismic events and it also allows a quick check of the conditions of safety and tightness of the plant, minimizing the need for massive remaking of the pipes due to the better resilience features of the PE100-RC. Tags: Pipes, gas, sand, cost, network, installation Securing the durability of gas distribution network in earthquake sensitive area of l’Aquila (Italy) with PE100-RC
  • Cyclic Cracked Round Bar tests were performed in order to determine the impact of ClO2 on the resistance of the materials against Slow Crack Growth and SCG initiation. Within all of these tests an increase of the impact of ClO2 was established with increasing exposure time. Although a higher impact of ClO2 at elevated exposure temperatures was detectable, the effect did not increase with increasing temperature. Cyclic CRB tests did not show any impact of ClO2 on the crack resistance of the materials. The results of the tests in air with exposed and unexposed specimens, as well as the results of the environmental tests within the media cell were in the same range for all exposure temperatures. Tags: polyethylene for raised temperature resistance, chlorine dioxide, oxidative resistance, degradation, embrittlement Accelerated Investigation of the Effect of Chlorine Dioxide on the Long-Term Failure Behavior and the Material Aging of Polyethylene for Raised Temperature Resistance
  • According to test method of “Resistance of polyethylene pipes to chlorinated water” of JWWA K144 (1997), the life of void initiation was longer than that of 4, 640,000 hours (about 529 years , 97.5% confidential lower limit level) if the conditions of the chlorine concentration and temperature was 1ppm, and 20°C, respectively. The resistance of polyethylene pipes to chlorinated water of PE100 blue pipes (the mean value of about 710 years) have more than 230% performance in comparison with two-layered LLDPE pipes. We tried to perform the immersion test by using modified specimen deformed flatly to make clear the effect of the applied stress. It might be estimated that the life of void initiation under load was longer than that of about 260 years, if the conditions of the chlorine concentration and temperature was 1ppm, and 20°C, respectively.Tags: PE100, void, acceleration test, 100 years lifetime, chlorinated water ESTIMATION OF SURFACE VOID INITIATION OF POLYETHYLENE PIPES IMMERSED IN CHLORINATED WATER
  • The PE100-NEW resin was already promising due to its lifetime in chlorinated water which is three times higher than that of other resins. The overall chemical, physical and mechanical lab tests now complete the positive evaluation of this product which fully complies with the requested specifications for drinking water application. This methodology ensures best material quality through a full spectrum of skills and tools to provide a tailor-made solution for each network. This new generation of product is perfectly in line with the sustainable development policy of water companies. All producers should be encouraged to develop similar products that can meet drinking water networks specifications. Tags: Pe100, new, resin, pipes, dn25 A Solution For Drinking Water Networks: Emerging New Generation PE100 Pipes With Higher Chlorine Resistance
  • This paper is about the benefits that you can get from microalgae and the use of microalgae-concentrates as feed in fish hatcheries. Commercial production of fine chemicals (e.g. beta carotene or omega 3 fatty acids) for the food-industry is growing and all this can be done by using PVC pipes as they have shown to be ideal for microalgae production. All in all we can say this is an ongoing process and the market has just started and will grow.Tags: Microalgae, PVC, water, light, Algae, microalgae, technology Using PVC-pipes to put microalgae in the right light
  • All of the components required to build a leak free fused HDPE 4710 potable water distribution system are currently available in the US. When installed by HDD construction methods savings will be realized in locations where conditions are favorable for directional drilling when compared to traditional open cut construction methods. The combination of extended useful life and reduced construction cost come at a time when investment in our aging water infrastructure must be made to increase system reliability and reduce maintenance costs. Tags: Water, system, replacement, pipe, staff, service, gas US Case Studies in HDPE 4710 Potable Water Distribution Systems
  • For a variety of reasons PVC pipes enjoyed a rapid adoption in the Australian sewer and sanitary drainage market. These included ease of handling and installation, joint performance and commercial incentive. The industry responded to challenges by contributing to research, actively keeping national standards up to date and addressing installation, environmental and commercial issues in a timely manner. There is no reason to doubt the PVC pipes already installed will not continue to provide many more years of satisfactory service. However, the industry has responded successfully to a number of challenges and will no doubt continue to do so in the future.Tags: Pipes, PVC, Australia, joint, industry, environmental, Performance and sustainability advantages of PVC sewer pipes in Australia
  • The case studies of the installations presented confirms that PA-11 piping system can be installed using similar techniques and same tools as PE piping system, and can be safely operated at much higher pressures than Polyethylene (PE) solid wall piping systems. PA-11 high pressure gas piping system is now being installed commercially to replace corrode steel line. Cost analysis of these installations also confirmed that PA-11 piping system offers a significant cost savings over steel system on a total installed cost basis. The lifetime cost savings (Cost of Ownership) of PA-11 piping systems is an additional economic advantage with negligible maintenance cost when compared to steel piping systemsTags: Pipe, cost, gas, steel, system, installations CASE STUDY: TECHNICAL REVIEW OF LARGE SCALE COMMERCIAL INSTALLATIONS USING POLYAMIDE 11 BASED HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPING SYSTEM AND DURABILITY TESTING
  • Based on the extremely positive results of the evaluation, NMGC began field installation of bimodal PE4710 gas pipe in December 2005. To date, a total of 1,200 miles of PE4710 pipe has been installed across New Mexico’s challenging terrain, in urban and rural locations, including 224,741 feet of replacement pipe in 2008 alone. The installed pipes range from ½-inch CTS to 6-inch IPS and 7 to 11 SDR. After more than six years of impressive experience with bimodal PE pipe used in the extreme conditions of New Mexico without incident, New Mexico Gas Company is pleased to report that bimodal PE4710 pipe is proving to be an enduring solution and is the only plastic pipe approved to be used in New Mexico Gas Company’s gas system.Tags: Pipe, fusion, time, bimodal, gas Bimodal PE Pipe Proves an Enduring Solution for Gas Pipe In New Mexico
  • As plastic inspection chambers are pre-produced in factory, branch pipes are not able to connect with chamber body randomly like brick-built chamber. Figure the component parts of plastic inspection chamber for municipal engineering.How to connect branch pipe with chamber body is the first problem we should solve in practice. Structure of chamber base When plastic inspection chamber is buried underground, the vertical load on chamber comprise the dynamic vertical traffic load on cover, the weight of chamber body and the down drag force on riser by soil. Tags: Chamber, pipe, plastic, figure, vertical The Application and Promotion of Plastic Inspection Chambers for Drainage System in China
  • The DSC-SIS technique has proved to be a powerful and reliable tool to characterize the PE resins and notably those returning from the field. Associated to a micro sampling carried out in situ by scraping, the SIS technique allows one to identify easily the origin of the field specimen with respect to reference PE resins in a database, as shown in this paper. The data presented in this paper demonstrate the feasibility of the overall procedure from the field to the laboratory. Further works should be focused on the one hand on the enrichment of the database in order to cover notably the batch-to-batch variations for a given PE resin and, on the other hand, on the refining of the data analysis in order to be able to interpret abnormal variations - others than normal batch-to-batch variations - in the resin signature. Tags: Isothermal, gdf, material, crystallization, figure, pipe IDENTIFICATION OF THE PE RESINS OF THE DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS BY MEANS OF THE DSC-SIS TECHNIQUE APPLIED ON MICRO-SAMPLING
  • Non-destructive techniques for joints in PE piping systems have developed to a mature level. The techniques are field ready and in many cases already applied as such. Ultrasonic TOFD for butt fusions is showing some indication of the joint quality, but the technique needs further development. Regarding the specific techniques for electrofusions that have been investigated in this GERG project, the following conclusions can be drawn: Good results are obtained with Ultrasonic Phased Array techniques. The technique is mature, ready for practice, and already applied as such. As for butt fusions the Microwave technique still has a too high FCR. Further development of the pass/fail criteria is necessary. Tags: Test, destructive, ultrasonic, techniques, results, fusion, butt Suitability of Non Destructive Techniques for Polyethylene Pipe Joints. A GERG investigation into the suitability of current techniques
  • Electrofusion joints, which are joined at the proper fusion process and procedures, may encounter defects due to the difference of ovality between pipes and coupling, improper fusion process or porosity result from electrofusion joining. One case, gas was leaking from electrofusion joint which is 250mm diameter polyethylene pipes and electrofusion coupler. The following figure V is the result of ultrasonic imaging method of electrofusion joint and figure VI is the detailed result of ultrasonic imaging method at a region(200mm to the right on the circumference) of electrofusion joint. SEOND CASE Second case is for electrofusion joint which is 400mm diameter polyethylene pipes and electrofusion coupler. Tags: Electrofusion, joint, figure, pipes, polyethylene, method Inspection results of damaged polyethylene electrofusion joints using ultrasonic imaging method
  • A new fast small scale method to predict materials resistance to RCP was developed. Very light razor blade notched Charpy specimens were tested over a temperature range. The temperature where the first partial break occurs was taken as Charpy critical temperature. This temperature was found to correlate well with the critical temperature of S4 test made from 110 x 10 mm (SDR 11) pipes. As only a few hundred grams of material is needed for the test, it can easily be performed on bench scale samples. This allows us to test materials resistance to RCP already in an early stage of development.Tags: Temperature, rcp, test, notch, charpy, figure Fast small scale method to predict materials resistance to rapid crack propagation
  • The SH test can easily distinguish different PE typ es and even the differences between PE100 and PE100 RC of five different resin manufacturers are very clear. Results of eight laboratories on three materials on the SH test are very similar, with a very low variation coefficient. SH results on five materials of the GERG are comparable to the results of other SCG tests, such as Cone, internal water pressure test, PENT, Notch test and FNCT in particular. ISO/TC138/SC5/WG20 has submitted the Strain Hardening (SH) test method as a New Work Item Proposal for making it an international test standard. Tentative results of S H tests on another semi-crystalline polymer (Polyoxymethylene - POM) show that the test parameters used for PE cannot simply be copied. Tags: test, materials, mpa, results, pe 100, sh, pipe Strain Hardening Tests on PE Pipe Materials
  • Aspects related to process efficiency have gained increased relevance over the last years, driven by macroeconomic factors and sustainability considerations. The plastic pipe sector is a relatively energy intensive industry and therefore any gain in process efficiency has the potential to represent a definite competitive advantage. All influencing factors such as machine, process conditions and raw material need to be considered in order to optimise operational efficiency. New generations of machines with optimised drive and cooling concepts can measurably increase the degree of efficiency. Also raw materials with an advanced polymer design can significantly contribute to enhancing process efficiency.Tags: Energy, efficiency, extrusion, pipe, polymer Introducing PP-HM Materials for Twin Wall Corrugated Pipes in China
  • In this study, a series of acceleration tests was conducted on PP pipe for outside use in order to clarify the appropriate acceleration test method and the evaluation index for it. The major results obtained were as follows; The degradation mechanism for the PP pipe, which was evaluated in this study, was the scission of the molecular chain caused by oxidative degradation. Xenon light irradiation and hot water spray exposure and the cycle process were applicable as the accelerated degradation conditions for the target of this evaluation. The IOT is a valid lifetime evaluation index, which can detect the sign of disintegration in molecular structure and can be obtained by simple analysis. Tags: Samples, molecular, degradation, light, water, weight Determination of an appropriate acceleration test method and evaluation index for polypropylene hot water piping for outside use
  • Aspects related to process efficiency have gained increased relevance over the last years, driven by macroeconomic factors and sustainability considerations. The plastic pipe sector is a relatively energy intensive industry and therefore any gain in process efficiency has the potential to represent a definite competitive advantage. All influencing factors such as machine, process conditions and raw material need to be considered in order to optimise operational efficiency. New generations of machines with optimised drive and cooling concepts can measurably increase the degree of efficiency. Also raw materials with an advanced polymer design can significantly contribute to enhancing process efficiency.Tags: Energy, efficiency, extrusion, pipe, polymer Increasing energy efficiency of pipe extrusion processes through advanced polymer design
  • Finite element analysis combined with appropriate tensile test method provides useful predictions of material performance and structured wall pipe designs Among the three corrugation profiles considered, type 1 and provide the best stiffness and strength performance Use of high-modulus PP allows pipe weight per unit length savings compared to medium-modulus PP and HDPE PP enables higher pipe compression force resistance and ring stiffness (SN classes) Tags: Pipe, thickness, profile, diameter, figure, modulus Polypropylene for structured sewage pipes. Comparative study of materials in use through computer simulation of radial compression
  • European demand in flexible pre-insulated plastic pipes is limited to max 70C@10bar or max 95C@6 bar applications and can be fulfilled by mono layer cross-linked polyethylene carrier pipe with up to 110mm in diameter. Infrastructure of former USSR mega district heating networks require combined higher temperatures, pressures and throughputs. Implementation of reinforced concept allowed to provide a single solution for 95C@10 bar applications and to cover heat exchanger–house (second pipe network loop) demand REINFORCED PIPE SOLUTION Aramid fiber mesh reinforcing layer outside of the PEX pipe was used to provide for necessary strength without increasing pipe wall thickness. Reinforcing makes the pipe stronger and since less wall thickness is required, the pipe becomes more flexible. Tags: Pipe, solution, plastic, flexible, loop, reinforced New generation of pre-insulated plastic heating pipes
  • In the installation and use of piping systems, all components of the value chain have a major role in assuring a successful installation and efficient use of a piping system. Although representing a relatively low percentage in the pipe compound, additives are essential in processing polymers and to assure end-use properties of the finished product. The consistent incorporation of the additive package components into the polymer is critical for protection during pipe compound production and to assure thermal stability and long-term performance properties of the pipe compound and subsequently, the produced pipes and fittings. Use of additive blends is one of the innovative approaches that is available for material suppliers or pipe compounders to incorporate in its process to assure a quality pipe compound designed for the application.Tags: Additive blends, additive types, antioxidants, color pigments, UV absorbers, light stabilizers Innovative Approaches to Assuring Quality Pipe Compounds
  • PE pipe’s pressure capacity will be affected by scratch, so we should pay attention on the protection of pipe in the storage, transportation and construction, to avoid influence of scratch etc. The pressure capacity of pipe decreases with the increasing of temperature, so during the construction, we should backfill according to the national construction standard requirements, to minimize influence of weather (especially hot weather)Tags: PE pipe, high temperature, Hydraulic pressure, Hydraulic pump High Temperatures on PE Pipes for Water Supply Pressure Verification
  • The creation of underground buffer reservoirs to temporarily store storm water using Polypropylene infiltration boxes is gaining in significance at a world-wide level. The long term stress resistance of the materials could be established by performing pressure testing on pipe specimens according to ISO 9080 methodology. The method permits accessing to the long term strain deformation in no more than few testing days. Present work demonstrates the applicability of the methodology to Polypropylene raw materials. It evidences the significant differences of long term strength and deformation depending on the type of Polypropylene. It leads the way to the implementation of standardised criteria for the selection of Polypropylene materials for infiltration crates. Tags: Creep, time, long, term, testing, temperature, water Storm water management: infiltration crates, a sustainable and long term solution
  • With vast reserves and an ample supply, increasingly based on unconventional resources, the competitiveness of gas as a cheap energy source makes it well positioned to benefit the most from the growth in the world energy demand. This exploitation of unconventional fields offers new challenges and opportunities for plastic pipes, in an oil and gas sector that has traditionally preferred metal pipes. On the supply side, the boom in US shale gas also promotes the use of cheap ethanebased ethylene, increasing the competitiveness of plastic solutions in North America and positioning the continent as a polyethylene export hub in the years to comeTags: Gas, production, energy, natural, oil, co2 Cooking on gas, or how future energy sources will shape the pipe industry
  • The reason of this study is to assess the cost of PVC pipes compared to the most popular functional alternatives. Comparing the use of plastic with other materials in the water and wastewater networks through the TCO method. In Italy cements have bigger costs than PE and PVC: from +42% to +65%; in Germany: +42%, +74%. Major cost comes from the installation: Italy, the installation cost is on average 55% of TCO in water networks and 80% in sewerage. Germany it is on average 57% of TCO in water networks and 82% in sewerage. As you can see from this it is clearly that plastic pipes compared to other materials have the best financial performance along the lifetime.Tags: water, total cost of ownership, installation costs, Italy, Germany, lifetime, An assessment of the competitiveness of PVC piping system. The total cost of ownership approach
  • Approximately 164 people are served by utilities per km of installed water main. About 80% of the installed water mains consist of Cast Iron, Ductile Iron, and PVC pipe. Approximately 22% of the installed pipe is over 50 years old. The typical age of a failing water main is 47 years. Utilities exhibit a large variation in failure rates. The behavior of a single utility or a small number of utilities may not be representative of others. PVC was shown to have the lowest overall failure rate of the major pipe materials considered. It is of interest that PVC pipe has the highest number of failures in the 0 to 20 year old range. Failure in this early time range is likely associated with improper installation. Tags: Pipe, figure, failure, survey, water Survey Results of Water Main Failures in the United States and Canada
  • The yield stress of the pipes after the hot water immersion and the hot air exposure increased as the higher immersion temperatures of 60 C or more which was related to molecular relaxation of polymer and crystallization during the hot water immersion and the hot air exposure. While the elongation at break of EVOH pipes decreased due to lack of adhesion between PEX and EVOH layers. The DSC thermogram was useful for investigation of the thermal history of PEX and EVOH pipes as depicted from the first heating cycle. The results from the second heating cycle indicate no change in molecular weight which was reflected the durability and the long-term performance of PEX and EVOH pipes. Tags: Hot, pipes, water, pex, evoh, immersion, air Effect of antioxidants of polyethylene of raised temperature resistance (PE-RT) pipes for a long lifetime for hot water supply and for space heating
  • Reflecting on the past five years we can say that Water for the World has proven that a CSR programme can indeed make a contribution to both business and society. Another important aspect was to find the right balance between a global programme that would yet give enough flexibility for local implementation. Results will not be immediately visible: a programme like Water for the World takes time to grow. If you make sure that whatever you are doing is strongly connected to your core business activities, a CSR programme like Water for the World will strengthen your employee motivation and increase the company's reputation. After five years we can say that we are proud of what we have achieved and we consider this programme a success.Tags: Water, world, sanitation, borealis, access, management, people The Water for The World initiative: Reflection on 5 years of experience
  • This study proves that O-PVC pipes are better than traditional U-PVC. O-PVC pipes have a higher tensile strength (+50%), impact strength (at least doubled) and pressure resistance and impact properties are not negatively affected by notching. In terms of morphology, DSC results did not highlight significant differences in terms of gelation or crystallinity level between O-PVC and U-PVC. Also O-PVC pipes releases 20% less CO2 and energy than conventional plastics used for the same application.Tags: pressure pipe, oriented Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), stretching ratio, tensile properties, environmental indicator A study assessing the performance of O-PVC in pressure pipes
  • Plastic pipes have always been the best option for pressure water nets from small diameters until DN315 (12”) and PN16 (250 psi) and for all diameters (>2000 mm) in pressure nets under 10 bars (150psi). With the new generation of PVCO pipes DN 500 and DN600 these pipes are the best option for pressure nets until 25 bar.Tags: Water, PVC-O, Pressure nets, metal, weight, PVC-O pipes for big pressure nets: DN500 & DN 630
  • This paper is about the Influence of Molecular weight on the properties of molecularly oriented PVC. The study proves that the high level in general mechanical properties brought to the items by the molecular orientation process. No significant differences noticed for molecularly oriented plates made with PVC of K value between K = 63 and K = 69. Means any PVC with the k value between 63- 69 is suitable for improvement by molecular orientation.Tags: Ca-based stabilizers, Pipes, molecular, weight, K value, Gelation Choosing the right molecular weight for oriented PVC pipes
  • This paper is about how the CPVC industrial piping system entered new applications in India. This study proves that CPVC is the best alternative piping material for numerous applications where corrosion is a nuisance. CPVC brought a lot of benefits and features to the industries like resistance to chemical and microbial corrosion, pitting and scaling, temperature resistance up to 93 0C – intermittent can be higher, superior mechanical strength, high heat tolerance, weather able and resistant to UV degradation., optimum flow rates , lightweight and easy installationTags: CPVC, Piping System, India, low cost, industries, How CPVC piping systems made headway in various niche applications in industrial and large building projects in India
  • Not only the carbon footprint of OPVC is by far much better than traditional solutions like Ductile Iron, but also corrosion, a major problem in Ductile Iron piping, is history with OPVC. All other advantages of OPVC are listed and discussed. OPVC is produced from orienting normal UPVC, meaning that the formulation of OPVC is equal to that of normal UPVC implicating that OPVC can be produced independent from the stabilizer used. Although the norms are necessary in each individual country, to get the OPVC pipe accepted, the introduction of the ISO 16422 as a standard in 2006 made it easier to standardize and understand the production of OPVC as a product. The most widely used safety factor in the world is 1,6 for OPVC. OPVC THE RELIABLE AND SUSTAINABLE PRODUCT COMPARED TO DI Besides PVC, the major pipe material used in water transport in the world is Ductile Iron.Tags: Opvc, pipe, line, upvc, mrs, process CUSTOM-MADE PLASTIC PIPES AND FITTINGS PRODUCED FROM POLYETHYLENE MONOCOPOSITE OPEN NEW APPLICATIONS Dr. Thorsten Späth, Dr. Michael Stranz
  • The PVC pipe market is the significant global PVC application and is increasingly seen in the developing regions. Ca-based solutions are the norm in Europe, and other regions are following this trend. Cost is the critical driver is setting development trends for PVC pipes, and there are different solutions in place to achieve the targets. Baerlocher provides tailor-made solutions to support these market trends.Tags: Based, pvc, systems, stabilisers, pipes, cost, solutions Global PVC stabiliser trends for pipes – challenges and practical experience
  • The tests carried out on gutter profiles and down pipes removed from a house in a northern European climate after 25 years of service indicate that, with the exception of some impact properties, the key mechanical and physical properties remain intact. The conclusion, therefore, is that PVC-U rainwater products have a service life of at least 25 years.Tags: Durability, rainwater, gutter, downpipe The long term durability of PVC rainwater systems – performance after 25 years of service
  • A characterization of the resistance against quasi-brittle failure of HDPE materials at application relevant temperatures of 23 °C with cyclic CRB tests was done in an accelerated time frame.Testing time per material was in the range of approx. One week what makes this method interesting, especially for modern highly crack resistant PE pipe grades. A comparison with PENT results revealed that the CRB ranking for the materials with lower failure cycle numbers at 23 °C was not as distinct as the PENT ranking at 80 °C. If using adequate instruments for measuring the crack opening displacement in the CRB tests the clear detection of the crack initiation opens the possibility of partitioning the total failure time into time for crack initiation and time for slow crack growth which potentially may be interesting for material development or conservative lifetime assessment of pressurized PE pipes.Tags: Hdpe, crack, failure, crb, materials, initiation, tests Comparison of accelerated tests for PE grades lifetime assessment
  • This PANT test method has several advantages. Indeed, it is possible to assess the notch resistance of the pipes in a quick way, certainly for batch release purposes. Tests can be performed at e.g. 20°C (in air). Large and very large diameter pipes can easily be evaluated using this PANT-technique. These first test results demonstrate that the various PE qualities can be differentiated with respect to their notch resistance through this PANT-test method.Tags: Test, pant, pipes, notch, resistance Pipe Accelerated Notch Test (PANT) applicable to PE100 RC-pipes (and others).
  • An approach is proposed, combining rheological (frequency sweep and creep analysis at 190°C) and DMA results with a multivariate statistical model to predict the polyethylene stress cracking resistance. This model could be used for a fast and relevant quality control of the production but it could also help speeding-up the development/improvement of polymer designs.Tags: Grades, stress, fnct, escr, crack, failure, resistance A new approach for a fast and relevant evaluation of environmental stress-crack resistance in polyethylene grades
  • Moreover the overall set of FNCT experiments carried out up to now both at 80°C and at 20°C suggests that the initiation time could repres ent - as an average - about half of the total time up to failure. Coupling the FNCT results with the rheological ones allows the numerical simulation of the FNCT curves up to the initiation time with a very good accuracy. The fair agreement between the numerical calculations and the FNCT experiments gives way to the calculation of the damage in the crack tip area at the crack initiation time that represents the trigger for slow crack propagation of a given PE resin. Further, the crack propagation process should be modeled and ranged by means of the observed experimental failure times. Tags: Fnct, time, initiation, test, failure, order, figure Analysis of slow crack initiation of old polyethylene resins by means of an elasto-visco-plastic rheological model: experimental and numerical approach
  • In this work it was shown that molecular weight and SCB data obtained experimentally or digitally generated can be combined into a single, primary structural parameter and used to rapidly screen the slow crack growth resistance of a variety of polyethylene resins. Most notably is the ability of this parameter to successfully predict the effects of SCB placement along the MWD on SCG properties. Since the introduction of this approach in 2006, a number of SCG short term tests have shown linear correlations to PSP2 values. We found that PSP2 values corresponded well for the slow crack growth resistance in all types of polyethylene resins as reflected by power law correlations to PENT values, SP-NCTL and ESCR results, as well as a linear correlation to NDR tensile testing and power law correlations to pipe hoop stress data. Even when the cited limitations for this method are considered, our results demonstrate that PSP2 values can be used to screen resins for potential SCG performance using resin microstructure.Tags: polyethylene, slow crack growth, primary structural parameter Predicting slow crack growth resistance in polyethylene resins using a single, primary structural parameter (PSP2)


  • Generally PE-RT type II materials as defined in ISO 22391 will meet the material requirements of ASTM 2769 with four possible exceptions. The oxidative resistance test found in ASTM 2769 is very rigorous and there is no analogous requirement in ISO 22391. The excessive temperature and pressure test found in ASTM F2769 is another test that is very rigorous and some PE-RT type II materials may not be able to pass this test requirement. Materials designed to meet ASTM 2769 in general will meet the requirements of ISO 22391. If hydrostatic testing is planned carefully it is possible to share data in order to meet the requirements of both standards. Virtually all the other test requirements are different enough that they will have to be repeated. Tags: Test, astm, iso, psi, tube, mpa Comparison of ASTM and ISO Requirements for PE-RT in Potable Water Applications
  • This study shows that the overall electrofusion process can be fairly modeled. With this model, one can compute the properly welded area, the melted zone, and the temperature evolution in the fitting as well as in the pipe. In order to validate this model the numerical results will be compared with experimental investigations through destructive mechanical T-Peel tests on welded plates (micromacro samples) and microscopic observations. Further works in progress aim at optimizing the welding time and input power. Moreover Inverse analyses will be used to optimize the properly welded area as a function of heating time and input power. Then a thermo-mechanical model is currently developed and coupled with the physicochemical model. Tags: Electrofusion, Finite Element, Heat transfer, Interdiffusion, crystallisation and melting Kinetics, Micro-sampling 3D FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION OF ELECTROFUSION POLYETHYLENE JOINTS FOR GAS DISTRIBUTION
  • In recent years, Steel reinforced Plastic Pipes for Sewerage Engineering developed rapidly in China. There are many different structures of pipes which have own characteristics. We should control the quality of steel plastic composite pipe, conjunction method, construction quality and focus on the theory studying. Tags: The large diameter; steel reinforced plastic pipes; pipes for sewerage engineering; application The Evolution And Application Of Large Diameter Steel Reinforced Plastic Pipes Fpr Sewerage Engineering In China
  • The capability of the PA UT for the detection of faults in PE pipes from 20mm to 110mm was proven through a series of tests including artificial notches located at the inner surface of the pipe.Consequently it was decided to evaluate such a technique for detecting the initiation time for Slow Crack Growth on both a notch-free and a notched 90mm old pipe. The preliminary tests carried out in a water/water environment failed in detecting the initiation time. Changing the test environment seems to be better for damage detection in terms of ultrasonic response, but at the time being the available data do not permit to detect any clear evolution with time of the dimensions of the notches machined at the inner surface of the pipe. Tags: Polyethylene, Non destructive technique, Ultrasonic Phased Array, Slow Crack initiation time THE CAPABILITY OF THE ULTRASONIC PHASED ARRAY TECHNIQUE FOR DETECTING AND MEASURING DEFECTS AT THE INNER SURFACE OF A POLYETHYLENE PIPE THROUGH AN OUTSIDE ANALYSIS
  • In the context of the high demand for production systems with low levels of energy consumption, small footprints and minimal environmental impact, the design and implementation of the Duet system in indoor sewage pipe production has achieved undeniably important results. The operational limitations associated with traditional cutting machines in high-speed extrusion lines producing short pipes, have been overcome. Therefore, in production plants multiple extrusion lines used with low output production can now be replaced by fewer extrusion lines operating at higher and optimised extrusion speeds with the maximum output rateTags: Cutting, pipe, extrusion, duet, length Machine Amd Cutting Process For PP And PVC-U Extrusion Lines Producion Short Pipes For Indoor Sewage
  • Residual stresses existing in pipes alter conditions for both crack initiation and propagation. To describe the possible influence of the circumferential residual stresses on pipe's damage, the simple expression for the stress intensity factor KI corresponding to plane axial crack in the pipe wall is presented. The accuracy of the simple expression for the stress intensity factor under combination of inner working pressure and internal pressure is discussed. The resulting values of the stress intensity factor and methodology presented can be powerful tool for estimation of the plastic pipe lifetime based on experiments describing slow crack growth kinetics.Tags: Stress, residual, pipe, crack, intensity, factor, mpa Effect Of The Residual Stresses On The Slow Crack Growth
  • Polyethylene has been used successfully for microirrigation tubing for decades. Proper selections of resins and carbon black master batches are critical components to achieve the long-term service life of polyethylene tubing expected by the industry. Including both components in the qualification process is imperative for quality focused manufacturers. Remember, "You can make good pipe from good materials; you can make bad pipe from good materials; but you can't make good pipe from bad materials". Ensuring long-term service life is essential as microirrigation technology is a water conservation best practice. Tags: ultra-violet (UV) stabilization, irrigation tubing, irrigation pipe, microirrigation, polyethylene laterals The Impact of Material Components in Irrogation Pipe Applications
  • An environmental friendly organic pigment is being successfully developed. This pigment, as formulated for this series of trials with process and UV stabilization, offers equivalent pipe coloration with heavy metal incumbents, and easy dispersability under typical pipe fabrication conditions. There were no unexpected losses of stabilizing additives during the processing of the pipe. While color retention in both lab accelerated and real-time outdoor exposures is not equivalent to the heavy metal based pigments, it is clearly adequate in visual comparisons to un-exposed controls. Tags: pressure, polyethylene, pigment, weathering HEAVY-METAL-FREE YELLOW COLORANT FOR GAS DISTRIBUTION PIPE
  • Pipe fittings is mainly used to connect, control and support the pipe system in the pipeline system, and welding pipe fittings mainly connect with pipe by the way of the hot-melt welding. The new welding pipe fittings, include the new shape of the pipe fittings, the column indications in the pipe wall and the concave surface from outside the pipe wall to inside. The welding pipe fittings mainly connect with pipe by the way of the hot-melt welding. In order to solve the problem of melt residues, the new welding pipe fitting was designed,the concave surface from outside the pipe wall to inside,and the concave surface was concave cambered or inclined plane. Tags: Pipe, fittings, welding, melt ,concave The Research of New PP-R Welding Pipe Fittings
  • Abstract Polyethylene pipes for gas supply, which have been widely used in recent years, have superiority in installability, seismic performance and corrosion resistance, while their resistivity against external force such as from strikes by excavator bucket edges is inferior to metal pipes.Against a background of prevailing public acceptance of PE pipes, because of their corrosion resistance and seismic performance, application of PE pipes for not only LP but also for medium pressure ranging from 0.1MPa up to 0.3MPa were demanded by gas suppliers. Protective sheeting materials To protect PE pipes from mechanical shock or external force such as that received when being struck by an excavator bucket edge, protective sheeting is required to have a mechanism capable of dispersing or mitigating such damage so that applied external force is not directly transmitted to PE pipe surface. Tags: Pipe, sheeting, protective, load, fiber, wall, thickness Protective Sheeting For Polyethylene Pipe
  • Since 2010 Borouge has successfully introduced their HSCR PE100. Whilst the current sales of the material are still only a fraction of our regular PE100 grade it is anticipated that the volume will continue to gradually increase as more pipe producers and especially end users become familiar with its benefits. As explained earlier in this paper, Borouge believe that the key to success is the education of end user organisations and design engineers in the subjects of correct PE pipeline design and implementation, together with emphasizing the benefits of using pipes produced using HSCR PE100 when faced with challenging conditionsTags: PE100RC, HSCR, Stress, Asia, Middle East The Introduction of High Stress Crack Resistant PE100 and its use in several demanding projects in Asia and the Middle East
  • Different structure wall pipes such as solid-wall pipes, double wall corrugated pipes, ribbed pipes, spirally enwound structure-wall pipes, pipes with a cellular core, pipes with inner-spiral structure are all produced and applied. The producing cost of plastic pipes is only 1/4 of the traditional metal pipes such as steel pipe and cast iron pipe. The plastic pipes produced with new materials, modified and composite plastic pipes, environment-friendly plastic pipes, and novel plastic pipes system will be prior researched and produced. Tags: Plastic, pipe, industry, products, quality, application The Status And The Next Five-Year Development Outlook Of The China Plastic Pipe Industry
  • At present the heat conduction performance way to improve plastics have two kinds: first: synthesis has the high thermal conductivity structure, such as polymer with good thermal conductivity, the gathering together of the acetylene polyaniline, such as polypyrrole intercalative, mainly through the electronic heat conduction system, or have a complete thermal conductivity crystalline, through the phonon realize the thermal conductivity of polymer; Second:through the high thermal conductivity of inorganic filling out the plastic polymer/inorganic preparation, thermal conductivity composite materials. Tags: polyethylene pipe; thermal conductivity; scaly graphite; composites; surface treatment; inorganic filler High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Pipe
  • Steel reinforced plastic complex pipes, flexible complex pipes and plastic alloy pipes and other non-metallic pipes also come to use with the application of high pressure glass fiber reinforced plastic pipes in oil field. Non-metallic pipes are sorted by the fabricating technology of the non-metallic pipes, which are: a. GFR: GFR pipes include cured by amines, GFR pipes cured by anhydrides b. SR: SR pipes include steel reinforced PE pipes, steel wire reinforced plastic composite pipes and plastic composite pipes with porous steel strips c. FC: FC pipes include flexible high pressure complex pipes, reinforced thermoplastic composite pipes, continuously reinforced composite pipes and plastic-steel complex high pressure pipes special for oil field. Tags: Non-metallic piping; Technical progress; ASP compound flooding; technical standard STATUS AND SUGGESTIONS ON THE APPLICATION OF NON-METALLIC PIPING TECHNOLOGY IN OIL FIELD

5 minute posters

  • In the pipe extrusion, shark skin phenomenon is relevant to the ratio of L/T. L is the length of the land of extruder die and T is the gap between the die and the mandrel. Pipe producers can make corresponding modification on the equipment to increase the value of L/T to make the equipment better compatible with varies pipe raw materials. Tags: shark skin, extrusion, die head, polyethylene pipe Approach to the solution for removing “sharkskin” of PE pipe through extruder die modification
  • Foam extrusion with environmentally friendly physical blowing agents offer various advantages to the processor. In the past, either chemical foaming agents or special extrusion lines were necessary to utilize foaming technologies. Optifoam offers an attractive solution to retrofit existing extruders for the use of physical blowing fluids. The concept of the fluid injection nozzle in combination with an arrangement of static mixers allows for precise metering and homogenization of physical blowing agents in the extrusion process. Conventional extruders can now be turned easily into foam extrusion lines.Tags: Foam, extrusion, blowing, physical, pipes, production A novel technology to reduce production costs for underground sewerage pipes by physical foaming
  • An environmental friendly organic pigment is being successfully developed. This pigment, as formulated for this series of trials with process and UV stabilization, offers equivalent pipe coloration with heavy metal incumbents, and easy dispersability under typical pipe fabrication conditions. There were no unexpected losses of stabilizing additives during the processing of the pipe. While color retention in both lab accelerated and real-time outdoor exposures is not equivalent to the heavy metal based pigments, it is clearly adequate in visual comparisons to un-exposed controls.Tags: pressure, polyethylene, pigment, weathering HEAVY-METAL-FREE YELLOW COLORANT FOR GAS DISTRIBUTION PIPE
  • The main source of the problems is, however to be found in the sensitivity of the methods when large size pipelines and thin pipe walls are concerned. The Swedish method should be better verified and performance description and acceptance criteria should be modified, especially regarding large diameter pipes, to make the method more robust. All methods should be better described with regard to choice of parameters and criteria, not least in order to allow inclusion of improved material qualities, larger sizes and thinner pipe walls as is forecasted to be used in future pipelines.Tags: Methods, testing, tightness, pressure, water, pipeline Are methods for tightness testing fit for purpose?
  • A Consortium led by NSF International including the American Water Works Association Research Foundation, the Association of State Drinking Water Administrators, the Conference of State Health and Environmental Managers, and the American Water Works Association was awarded the contract to develop the standard. The standard requires a formulation review of all ingredients in each water contact material and development of a test battery to detect any chemical that may leach from water contact materials. Pass/fail criteria for drinking water contaminants in NSF 61 may be based on US EPA standards, advisories or risk levels; or Health Canada Drinking Water Guidelines. Tags: Water, nsf, drinking, standard, health, components, products Evaluation Of Material Safety For Plastic Pipe In North America Impacts Of NSF/ANSI Standard 61
  • With the way of reciprocating type spiral winding, the pipe will be made by one time-but 3 steps: Inner pipe winding-steel wire layers winding-outer HDPE layer winding, while the temperature and steel wire winding density must be precisely controlled. There are several connection styles available to connect the pipe according to different application POCC, pipe welding technology is adopted in Large Caliber PE Steel Wire Reinforced pipe water supply pipe, which is sealed with double rubber ring. Tags: Steel wire reinforced water pipe, HDPE, Large Caliber. Production Technology Of Large Caliber Reinforced Polyethylene Pipe
  • The specimens of polyethylene of raised temperature resistance were prepared by injection molding in this study, the long-term degradation test of the PE-RT compounded with additional amount of antioxidants was conducted to investigate the effect of antioxidants. The tensile strength of the PE-RT after immersed in hot water and exposed to the hot air increased as the higher elevated temperatures at 80 C and more which was related to molecular relaxation of polymer and crystallization during the hot water immersion and the hot air exposure. Tags: Hot, compound, exposed, air, tensile, water Effect of antioxidants of polyethylene of raised temperature resistance (PE-RT) pipes for a long lifetime for hot water supply and for space heating
  • Despite the progress with the availability and use of more efficient technologies, the US utilities are constantly being challenged in managing a large and fragmented water system due to growth in demand, population increase, drought, pipe failures, regulations, water loss and outdated pricing, design and procurement practices. In the US, the utilities in the Northeast reported the highest water loss of 16%. The utilities in the West reported the lowest water loss rate of 10.4% and the highest residential monthly bill of .35. While the US utilities offer water at unsustainable average prices of 0.48 cents/gallon, Denmark, Germany, and the UK have adopted rates supporting infrastructure replacement and the associated reduction of lost water. Tags: water loss, water distribution, potable water, HDPE, water WATER LOSS MANAGEMENT IN THE US
  • Polyethylene pipes offer significant advantages over other materials such as cast iron, steel, copper and concrete, for the transporttaion of fluids. However, their use in safety cirtical enviroments is being restricted by the lack of a proven, reilable non-destructive testing method for welded joints. But new methods of phased narrow ultrasonic testing (Paut) can offer a slolution to this problem.Tags: polyethylene, butt fusion, electrofusion, inspection, ultrasonic Development of an automated phased array ultrasonic inspection system and flaw acceptance criteria for welded joints in polyethylene pipes


  • Abstract book with info on the conference, all the abstracts, info on the organisers, sponsors and exhibitersTags: abstract, PPCA, paper, PVC,PE ,PP Abstract Book Final

Plastic Pipes (2010) - Vancouver

Papers | Posters | Other |


  • All available solutions like soft SUDS or underground attenuation or infiltration tanks, to manage storm water locally can be used like “Lego” building blocks. That means depending on a volume of storm water which should be managed, available space to place the solution, adequate equipment like building blocks can be proposed as complete solution to solve a problem.. This can fit to local project or even a district of a city as well as fulfill local requirements in terms of building rules or environmental protection.Tags: Water, storm, natural, volume, solutions, infiltration Storm Water Management - is it still a need or already a must?
  • Access to fresh water and sanitation should be the basic right of everyone but even if the UN Millennium Goals are achieved by 2015 this will still many millions of people without these basic amenities. In addition pollution, rising population and climate change are putting many of our existing systems at risk. This paper shows that there are solutions to many of these problems using modern plastics materials but it also requires a will and some dedicated groups of people to make it happen. Indeed Tags: Water, systems, pipes, people, irrigation PE pipes making a real difference to people's lives around the world
  • As this article was being prepared, the HDPE pipe is undergoing installation. The progress of the project can be tracked at . We look forward to sharing the successes and the lessons learned from this creative new application for HDPE pipes at the next Plastic Pipes conference. We wish to express special thanks to the Lake Oswego Interceptor Sewer Project Team, and to Jeff Selby, the Citizen Information Coordinator. Tags: Lake, system, pipe, sewer, interceptor, pipeline CASE STUDY CITY OF LAKE OSWEGO OREGON USA NOVEL USE OF HDPE PIPE AS A SUBMERGED GRAVITY FLOW SEWER INTERCEPTOR
  • This paper is showing that CPVC is one of the best alternative materiel for the plumbing industry. So you can put a end to the Problem of Corrosion, Leakages and overall maintenance problems which enhanced the life cycle of CPVC in Plumbing application for Hot and Cold Potable Water Distribution system. There are a lot of factors you need to look at before selecting a Material for Transportation of Potable Water. In India the CPVC is readily and easily made available due to the strong and intense Distribution Channels across the Country. The drawbacks which had been faced in especially Metallic Pipes had been successfully overcome by the introduction of CPVC.Tags: Water, cpvc, India, corrosion, potable HOW CPVC HELPED TO SOLVE CRITICAL ISSUES IN HOUSEHOLD PIPING AND PLUMBING APPLICATIONS IN INDIA?
  • This paper is about the Molecular influence weight on the properties of bioriented PVC. We confirm the high level in general mechanical properties brought to the items by the molecular orientation process. K≤ 57 limited improvement of mechanical properties and generally a poor behavior in creep tests. No significant differences for bioriented plates made with PVC of K between K = 63 and K = 69. We observed significant influence on the level of mechanical properties from the degree of gelation. Tags: Pvc, mpa, properties, creep stress bioriented, molecular, plates, tensile Influence of Molecular weight on the properties of bioriented PVC
  • The intent of this paper is to share experimental observations of factors affecting the measurement of RCP performance via the S4 test.Tags: Pipe, rcp, test, pressure, sdr, temperature Experimental Investigations of the Rapid Crack Propagation Performance of Polyethylene Pipes
  • When a pressurized PE pipe in gas service is subjected to an instantaneous and intense impact, a pre-existing or consequently initiated crack or flaw may propagate axially at high speeds. Such an event is referred to as RCP, or Rapid Crack Propagation. While RCP occurrence in PE pipes is extremely rare, its consequences can be significant. Because of this, gas pipe applications should be designed to avoid conditions which could lead to RCP. This has led to the development of the Full-Scale and the Small-ScaleSteady-State tests to evaluate the pipe and the pipe material’s resistance to RCP. Tags: Rcp, pipe, pressure, test, critical, gas, temperature USING RCP DATA TO DESIGN POLYETHYLENE GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES
  • This paper is explaining why Twin wall pipes are made for sewage. 2 main properties: Ring Stiffness and impact resistance. By using modified PVC only to the inner layer, it is possible to improve the mechanical properties of the pipe while keeping the other properties at a good level and with a reduction of the material cost of the pipe.Tags: Pvc, layer, modification, impact, standard, energy, break, international, external PVC Twin wall pipes, a new concept
  • The plastic pipe industry needs software for virtual RCP tests. We have developed a system, built around a relatively simple semi-analytical model, which seems to work well and whose modular form should facilitate further experimentation. Simulations throw light on issues concerning both S4 test (whose gauge length may be too short and whose containment cage isprobablyresponsiblefortheclocheeffect)andthefull-scaletest(whichmaybeexcessively sensitivetobackfilltypeanddepth). Residualstrainmayaffectpipeperformancemarginally for low-modulus or high-SDR pipe at the low pressures used in the S4 test, and less in the FS test. Overall, the success of the standard FS/S4 correlation factor now appears to be somewhat fortuitous.Tags: Crack, pipe, pressure, outflow, test, rcp, fracture S4 to full-scale test correlation: new insights from an open source RCP model
  • The ploughed wire fittings require special care during handling, storage & cleaning of EF fittings.Cleaning of pipe and fittings: All the contact surfaces of pipes and fittings shall be cleaned using a small amount of alcohol.Scraping of pipe is performed to remove the oxide layer, when done properly the print line disappears and on HD stripe pipe, the stripe width becomes narrower.Alignment of joining pipes, pipe roundness and clamps: The pipes and the coupling must be aligned and clamped to avoid stress on the coupling.Insufficient power would not allow the electrofuse a larger size fitting, as the larger fittings normally require higher current for the fusion. Tags: Fittings, pipe, fusion, wire, electrofusion Is electrofusion joining considered a fool-proof process?
  • The S4 critical temperature TcS4 for a newly developed pipe grade PE can be estimated for various pipe sizes by comparing its calculated GD to the pressure-generated crack driving force. The scheme outlined here allows GD to be calculated from basic properties via intermediate material tests on small-scale samples; at their most basic, the methodology could be applied at reactor batch scale. As it stands, TcS4 predictions tend to be over-conservative; better modelling of ductile hingeing during RCP in pipe is the first priority for further development.Tags: Crack, plane, fracture, temperature, pipe, rcp Towards a methodology for designing RCP-resistant polyethylenes using batch scale test methods
  • The tensile test using a test specimen cut out from an EF joint was conducted for evaluation of the EF zone with a water drop adhesion. It was found that the fusion strength at the electrofusion interface decreased with the total defect length. The allowable total defect length for EF joints was suggested. Tags: Test, electrofusion, fusion, strength, pipe, peel Evaluation of Electrofusion Joints Strength of Polyethylene Pipes for Gas Distribution
  • Ultrasonic Phased Array continues to be at the forefront for volumetric examination of HDPE butt-fusion joints due to its proven detection and resolution capabilities.NDE development efforts must continue to optimize examination techniques, and quantify detection capabilities.Tandem Phased Array in particular has proven capable of detecting LOF conditions, but further testing is required to quantify the detection threshold.Based on testing performed and knowledge gained to date, there likely will not be one technique capable of providing a "Total solution" for volumetric examination of butt-fusion joints in HDPE. Therefore, these complimentary techniques must be optimized to achieve the best results attainable.Tags: Fusion, figure, joint, hdpe, detection, ultrasonic DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF DETRIMENTAL CONDITIONS IN HDPE USING ULTRASONIC PHASED ARRAY
  • In the past a reliable non destructive testing (NDT) technique for polymer piping systems has not been available. However the increased use of polymer piping systems in an ever increasing range of services and applications has resulted in the call for and development of a reliable NDT method to inspect polymer piping materials. Inspection of polymer piping systems and joints, mainly polyethylene butt welds and electrofusion joints, has been attempted using conventional NDT methods.Tags: Joints, weld, butt, fusion, figure, microwave, pipe, ndt Evaluation of a novel Microwave based NDT inspection method for Polyethylene joints
  • Over 200 fusion specimens have been prepared and evaluated using three different test methods: the TI test of ASTM F2634, the RB test of ASTM F2620 and the GSB test as summarized in this paper.With additional experience and analysis of more test data, an ASTM GSB test method or standard practice may be developed as an alternative method for qualifying heat fusion joints made in PE pipe.While the testing program is not complete at this point, it has been determined from this research that the GSB test protocol may be a safe, cost-effective test method that is adaptable to the jobsite for purposes of fusion joint qualification as an alternative to RB or TI testing.Tags: Test, fusion, pass, pipe, method, gsb A New Qualification Method for Butt Fusion Joining of Polyethylene PE Pipe and Fittings in the United States
  • In PENT it is possible to follow the kinetic of SCG and from the dependence between COD vs. time other relevant parameters can be obtained in relatively short time.Three parametric equation seems to be suitable for fitting the experimental data.Stress intensity factor, K, is a good correlating parameter if a SEN specimen geometry and single method of loading are considered.The region of stable crack growth can be described by an exponential relationship.The data of d(COD)/dt and the calculated stress intensity K factor can be used for creating the dependence da/dt versus K. The dependence da/dt versus K can be utilized in construction of time to rupture curve.Tags: Time, test, crack, pe100, cod, pent PENT test versus time to rupture curve for HDPE
  • Three models for projecting time-to-failure of PE pipe based on relatively short-term testing were applied to new test data obtained on exhumed old pipe and to a large set of historical test data on similar pipe. RPM projections from small data sets of exhumed pipe can vary widely due to the influence of a small number of non-representative specimens or results. Because the PSF method is based on shifting specific test data in an average way, it appears to have the smallest chance of producing grossly unreliable projections from small data sets. The BPM projections for the materials examined appear to be overly conservative relative the PSF and RPM approach and observed field performance.Tags: Pipe, data, rpm, stress, shift, projections, service POPELAR SHIFTING, RATE-PROCESS METHOD, AND BROWN PROJECTIONS OF SERVICE LIFE OF POLYETHYLENE PE GAS PIPE
  • Although a strong correlation is not obtained between PENT and FNCT, the present study suggests that it is feasible to use the FNCT test Method as an accelerated proxy method for PENT for specific materials, as the NORth American industry moves towards higher Pent requirements. The data also suggests that the FNCT-PENT correlation is strongly material dependent, and there does not appear to be a way to obtain a universal correlation between PENT and FNCTTags: Pent, Fnct, test Pipe, hdpe, polyethylen Comparison of FNCT vs. PENT as Commonly Used Test Methods for ESCR Performance of HDPE
  • The result of the regression analysis elegantly demonstrates that the FNCT test data correlate very well with as it was predicted by the theoretical deformation mechanism considerations. Advantages of the strain hardening method are the very low measurement variation, absence of surfactants and notches, the limited amount of required testing material and, above all, testing times of only a few hours. The use of a universal test set up allows for an easy and cost effective implementation at all accredited testing laboratories for HDPE pressure pipe applications. Tags: Strain, test, hardening, fnct, pipe, grades AN ELEGANT AND FAST METHOD TO PREDICT THE SLOW CRACK GROWTH BEHAVIOUR OF HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE PIPE MATERIALS
  • The constant quest for higher performing resins often puts a commensurate strain on developing the right methods and tests to forecast long term performance and develop predictive capabilities. Such is the case for polyethylene (PE) resins used in pipe applications such as gas, water, mining, etc., where often a 50+ year lifetime is desired. This is because of the fact that pipe installations and field remediation/repairs are very expensive.Tags: Pent, test, failure, pipe, scg, resins, specimen ASSESSING THE SLOW CRACK GROWTH RESISTANCE OF POLYETHYLENE RESINS AND PIPE SERVICE LIFETIMES PREDICTIONS
  • The fronter of natural gas distibution is to improve the safty and intergrity of pipeline systems. In comparison to the aging metallic gas pipe the polyethylene pipe has exhibited an outstanding field service for about five decades, and has became the material of choice for natural gas distribution. Tags: Gas, biomodal, pe 2708, pipe, infrastructure, THE NEW FRONTIER OF NATURAL GAS DISTRIBUTION: A CASE STUDY OF BIMODAL PE 2708 GAS PIPE APPLICATIONS
  • In this paper we have discussed several revisions that have been made to the Standard for Canadian gas applications described in CSA Z662 Clause12. Like : Added RCP required value of a full-scale critical pressure greater than 1.5 times the maximum operating pressure for PE materials. Added the MRS design equation so that PE 100 pipe could be installed and pressure rated using the ISO pressure rating method. Specified stringent SCG requirement of 2000 hours PENT and S4 RCP critical pressure of 10 bar for bimodal PE 100 materials. Added a higher design factor of 0.45 so that the pressure rating for HDB-rated and MRS-rated pipes would be the same. Introduced “PLUS” marking to indicate that the 0.45 design factor could be used. Tags: Pipe, design, pressure, materials, rcp, gas CHANGES TO CSA Z662 OIL AND GAS PIPELINE SYSTEMS TO INCORPORATE HIGHER PERFORMANCE PLASTIC PIPE
  • It is worth the investment to learn more about the behavior of new PE compounds. Selection of newer materials can extend service life, eliminate concern over some failure modes, and reduce installation costs. Participation on industry associations and standards development committees is an excellent means of staying informed and promoting positive changes. It would be beneficial for pipe manufacturers to work closely with fitting suppliers to ensure fittings are available for new pipes or pipe sizes at the time they are introduced to consumers. Our experiences with the introduction of DR 17 HDPE have been positive, but there were some hurdles that we needed to overcome.Tags: Pipe, material, new, gas, design, hdpe 12 INCH 323 mm DR 17 PE 100 PE 4710 PIPE INSTALLATION IN CALGARY, ALBERTA
  • Meriones and Nesokia are the two most aggressive species attacking the polyethylene pipes in Iran. To protect these pipes physical barriers such as stainless-steel mesh and stones were examined and the findings were analyzed. The two repellents, Thiram and Capsaicin proved to expel rodents considerably and efficiently. Although we assumed that during screening, weight loss in pipes would be the mostly likely change to happen, the tests indicated that while repellents were applied to the pipes, there would be either total protection or the total damage resulting in the pipes being grounded into chips. The following table shows the percentages of repellents used and their impact on the protection of pipes. Tags: Pipes, rodents, figure, species, polyethylene, protection, methods PROTECTION OF POLYETHYLENE PIPES AGAINST RODENTS
  • Manitoba Hydro is the electrical and natural gas utility for the province of Manitoba. A project to expand the existing natural gas system was initiated in 2005 which required the installation of a 29 kilometer main to connect a new town to the existing system. Project financial restrictions could not be met using typical steel or polyethylene materials and the application of the new to North America material PE 100 was investigated. The use of PE 100 with a maximum operating pressure determined through a minimum required strength (MRS) and categorized required strength (CRS) rating was determined to provide a 0,000 advantage over the second best alternative. Tags: Pressure, gas, pipe, required, mrs, manitoba, system USE OF PE 100 WITH A MINIMUM REQUIRED STRENGTH MRS AND CATEGORIZED REQUIRED STRENGTH CRS RATING IN A NATURAL GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
  • This paper summarizes the performance of water and gas piping systems during six earthquakes in the US, Japan, Thailand and Columbia. Also, the paper will present data from the UK and Sweden about the performance of pipes in non-earthquake environments. The paper will assist design engineers and owners in selecting pipe materials based on the past performance of the materials and based on the recommendations from the American Water Works Association and the American Society of Civil Engineers. Tags: Earthquake, pipe, water, gas, leaks, failure, pipes, joint Performance of Pipes during Earthquakes
  • Carbon emissions are an important aspect that should be taken into consideration on every project. It is a fact that plastic pipes can play a leading role towards our ultimate objective, a greener environment. This contradicts and discredits research that was carried out a few years ago and was endorsed/sponsored by the Department of Trade and Industry that concluded that concrete pipes used in gravity sewers were more environmentally sound. That particular piece of work omitted vital carbon contributing factors such as speed of installation, less plant requirements and one of the major offenders, transport to site. Tags: Carbon Footprint, Emissions, Large Diameter HDPE Pipes The War on Climate Change: How Using Large Diameter HDPE Pipes Significantly Reduces Carbon Emissions.
  • The water footprint, introduced in 2002, is a young concept, and the water footprint assessment is a method still in development. Similar material studies presently exist to the author's knowledge only for paper, while water utilities are considering projects on urban water supply and treatment. Water footprint measurement provides a strong approach to analyse water uses, efficiencies and dependencies in production process. In this respect, water footprint will help better focusing sustainable water management actions to maximise improvements and impacts mitigation where those are most relevant Of particular importance to the water footprint assessment and response formulation is to understand where the local water hot spots are and where improvements will have the greatest positive impact. Tags: Water, footprint, borealis, chain, supply, consumption ASSESSING THE POLYOLEFIN WATER FOOTPRINT
  • Geothermal heat pumps, although covering only a tiny fraction of the total potential geothermal energy, have seen a dramatic development during the recent years. Continuous, exponential growth is expected in the next decades. PEX end PE pipe, thanks to their properties, have a key role to play in these demanding applications, provided that a high level of specifications are maintained to ensure that only the best quality materials are chosen in the various situations. It is also highly probable that with the increasing cost of fossil energies, new applications that collect heat at much deeper levels will be developed in the future to further benefit from this renewable energy source.Tags: Heat, energy, geothermal, pipes, resistance, installation, temperature, loops POLYOLEFINS PIPE SOLUTIONS FOR GEOTHERMAL APPLICATIONS
  • The performance of utility pipelines for gas and water during natural disasters such as earthquakes has always been a matter of great concern. In 2008, two unexpected and serious natural disasters occurred in China. The first was the unprecedented cold weather in January and the second was the earthquake in May in Sichuan. Following these events investigations of pipe failures have been actively carried out in these areasTags: Pipes, water, failures, earthquake, fig, systems, plastic Analysis of the pipe failures in the 2008 frozen-rain snow,earthquake in China
  • The failure was investigated and it is believed that the presence of a sharp vee shaped notch on the 'squeeze ear' led to a partial through wall ductile tear. The failure appears largely independent of pipe geometry, material type, depth of notch and temperature. In contrast it shows a strong relationship to the direction of the notch and the shape of the notch. The removal of the notch by scraping until the root of the notch has been removed has been shown to avoid the failure mode manifesting itself, as has the use of peelable skinned pipes where the scoring is contained in a skin layer that is removed prior to squeeze off. Tags: Ductile, pe100, squeeze, failure, notch, pipe Understanding, then avoiding in-service failures linked to the use of the squeeze-off flow stopping technique
  • For SUEZ-ENVIRONNEMENT, optimizing the management of PE networks exposed to chlorinated water is integrating the PE SUSTAINABLE LIFE-CYCLE© approach to each local context and defining an Action Plan adjusted to the Business Unit. The Action Plan proposed consists of: - Verify the procurement policy and the material quality - Review the storage, handling and installation procedures and their implementation on field - Diagnose the degradation level and provide decision support system for Renewal or Rehabilitation -Find the best solution for improving Network Indicators and decreasing leakage rate and interventions: several approaches can be studied focused on, either the disinfection treatment or the use of other materialsTags: Environnement, suez, chlorine, pipe, pe80, conditions, life THE POLYETHYLENE SUSTAINABLE LIFE-CYCLE How To Improve Polyethylene Longevity ?
  • The analysis of whole of life costing is an important approach to the selection of the most cost effective water supply pipe material. As a comprehensive approach,it takes into account various factors, and should be used in the daily selection of pipe materials. Tags: whole life cost, PE water systems, metal pipes. WHOLE LIFE COSTING OF WATER PIPIELINE IN SHANGHAI CHINA
  • Before a new piping system is put into service, it must be shock pressure tested according to EN 805 [1], irrespective of the pipe material employed. The aim of this test is to confirm the tightness of the entire system, and specifically of its joints and fittings, at an elevated internal pressure. The use of SDR 17 pipes made of PE 100 is approved for local distribution piping carrying pressures of up to 10 bar. According to the results of the investigations presented here, the prescribed 'pre-commissioning' shock pressure test has but a minor impact on the properties of PE 100 HDPETags: Test, pressure, shock, pipe, hdpe, strength Influence of shock pressure testing on the service life of HDPE piping systems
  • The mechanical properties of the excavated first generation HDPE gas and water pipes are still remarkably good. The residual "MRS" for an additional 50 years of use of the gas pipes is 5.3 MPa and 3.9 MPa for the HDPE water pipes. Whilst published data on unused first generation pipes show a ductile-brittle transition at around 10,000 hours of testing at 20 °C, the excavated gas pipes go through this transition between 1,400 and 4,300 hours and the excavated water pipes after 1,500 hours. Still, for all excavated pipes, no "Knee" is observed at 20 °C up to 13,800 hours for the gas pipes and 10,000 hours for the water pipes.Tags: Oit, figure, hostalen, gas, water, pipes RESIDUAL QUALITY OF FIRST GENERATION PE GAS AND WATER PIPES
  • Palo Alto has confirmed that HDPE 4710 is a viable material alternative for water distribution in our service territory. HDPE 4710 coupled with HDD installation methods has reduced our installed costs when compared to previously utilized materials and construction techniques with the potential of providing significantly extended service life when compared to previously utilized materials. Continued development of related fittings and tooling will result in greater adoption of this material by water purveyors to the ultimate benefit of all of our customers.Tags: Water, hdpe, system, pipe, palo alto, material City of Palo Alto Adoption of HDPE 4710 for Potable Water Distribution
  • Therefore through its Asian sub-group they have undertaken a series of initiatives to try and increase product knowledge and raise the product standards. These initiatives have taken the form of working openly and closely with a number of individuals and organizations who recognize the need for quality products. Joint seminars and workshops have been organised which have helped people understand the issues and start to develop some of the necessary tools to develop better quality systems. In this way the PE100 Association has become a trusted partner in China and local PE raw material producer SINOPEC has recently applied for membership. Tags: Quality, pe100, association, pipe, china, gas PE100+ Association s Quality Promotional Activities in China
  • While most of the competition in the pipeline business are investing in research and new developments, offering substantial training courses, ensuring that there is an independent and strict inspection regimes, to advance and increase the successful use of their various products, the HDPE pipe industry is, I believe facing major issues because we have, allowed our standards and our controls to drop, while in the rush to expand the demanding and growing market.Tags: Fusion, pipe, machines, training, hdpe, gas, operators Modern Purchasing Practices. A Race to the Bottom.
  • Compared to VTM aATM shows increased crosslinking rates, high curing speed without tin catalyst and lower volatile content of final product. These advantages enable us developing PE-Xb compounds describing a new generation of PE-Xb product quality. Tags: Crosslinking, aatm, vtm, silane, compounds, catalyst Green Solution for PE-Xb in Drinking Water and beyond
  • To date, our findings about the installation of this PE GF-pressure pipe system indicate that it is a promising pipe system material with a high durability. About the installation we can conclude that the efficiency on PE GF pipe laying is too low for pipe systems with DN < 600 when comparing it with the laying of contemporary PE-pipes. For PE GF pipe systems with DN > 600 the efficiency of pipe layering becomes similar with the other pipe system materials. As said before this PE GF pipe system has a very promising future and, for nominal diameters DN > 1000, it can easily compete with more traditional pipe systems such as ductile iron, concrete etc. Tags: Pipe, water, pressure, glass, system, iso, reinforced PE-GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED PIPE SYSTEMS DN 40 – 10 BAR ACCORDING TO ISO CD 29561 – NEW OPPORTUNITES FOR WATER SUPPLY
  • Providing safe drinking water to the population is a important element in the social and economical development of a country ; Ghana, based on a strong voluntary policy, is well on track to meet the United Nations Millenium Development Goals for access to water. PE pipes, used for new installations since more than 10 years, are bringing their contribution to this target by providing a proven, durable, and easy to install pipe solutions. The local production of PE pipes, based on high quality standards, by the company Interplast is of course one essential element to provide the knowledge, expertise and supply flexibility required for cost-effective projects, without compromising the quality. Tags: Water, ghana, supply, construction, pipes PE PIPE PRODUCTION SUPPORTS SAFE WATER SUPPLY IN GHANA
  • The BFF test has proven to be sensitive to the types of contaminants found in postconsumer recycled HDPE. It can be used as a QC test or as a tool to make service lifetime estimates. It can be performed on commercially available equipment and requires a modified open-faced mold. The thin specimen with high surface area is ideal for detecting critically sized defects. A very conservative approach suggests that pipe resin formulations that have an average failure time of 120 hours under the conditions of 80ºC and 4.48 MPa (650 psi) will last in service for 100 years at 20ºC.Tags: Test, stress, crack, mpa, psi, results The BFF Test: An Un-Notched Stress Crack Test for Evaluating Resin Blends Containing Recycled HDPE for Use in Corrugated Drainage Pipe
  • This paper is about PVCO and the economical & environmental analysis for water companies and pipe manufacturers. These days were money resources are limited; PVCO offers great advantages in the water business. Water company: reduction in investment coast, due to the higher hydraulic capacity lower maintenance coast. Installers: high reduction in cost and installation time cause of the light weight and flexibility of the pipe. Also allows a fast machine free installation, including reductions on some fittings. Pipe manufacturer: high reduction of war material that allows excellent profitability even in the hardest competition situation.Tags: Pipe, PVCO, materials, plastic, cost, water, class, MOLECOR????TECNOLOGIA????
  • Corrugated HDPE pipe performed as anticipated thought the TTCI FAST Test. When AASHTO M294 pipe is installed per ASTM D2321 guidelines and under calculated fill heights per AASTHO Section 12, it is a viable material for storm drainage conveyance when exposed to Cooper E-80 loading. Wet soil conditions were not tested at TTCI; however, based on evidence of the substructure’s elastic nature when exposed to extremely high loading conditions, only high quality non-plastic backfill should be used when installing storm drainage pipe under Cooper E-80 loads. Tags: Pipe, test, deflection, strain, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF 48 DIAMETER CORRUGATED HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE PIPE UNDER 315,000 LBS RAIL CAR LOADING
  • Drainage water management and bioreactors represent two conservation systems that have shown great promise to address water quality concerns from agricultural drainage systems. The Agricultural Drainage Management Coalition was awarded a .9 million Conservation Innovation Grant to demonstrate the use of drainage water management in the Midwestern states. Neither of these systems will completely eliminate nitrogen discharges from the drainage system, but the application of these individually or in combination with each other have the potential to significantly improve our water quality in the future which will be a win win for the environment and the agricultural producer.Tags: Drainage, water, nitrogen, management, system, agricultural CONSERVATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS WIN WIN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCER
  • A large amount of hydraulics testing has been done to evaluate the Manning’s “n” coefficient for profile wall high density polyethylene pipe with corrugated exterior. The Manning’s “n” values determined from the testing of profile wall high density polyethylene pipe with corrugated exterior and smooth interior show a majority of values fall below 0.012. There were some instances in which this value was exceeded. In these cases, the interior roughness of the test pipe was considerably higher than the interior roughness of pipes in the same test program. Tags: manning’s, pipe, test, roughness, interior, value HYDRAULIC FLOW PROPERTIES OF PROFILE WALL PIPE
  • The benefits to both the AASHTO member departments and manufacturers participating in this program indicate how important it is to have a nationally recognized audit program. Many manufacturers from other industries, such as manufacturers of geo-textiles and erosion control products, are interested in having AASHTO develop a similar uniform audit program for them. They realize how the NAP program has improved the quality of the HDPE thermoplastic pipe manufacturing industry.Tags: Aashto, program, audit, pipe, quality, manufacturers Understanding the Importance of AASHTO s National Transportation Product Evaluation NTPEP Audit Program
  • As the project from its original idea and design was unique, many challenges especially during installation of the connecting PP pipelines between the ultra pure water plant and the storage tank at the point of use had to be overcome. The installation of such a pipeline was done outdoors for the first time and therefore several unique measures as well as techniques had to be applied. The client has selected PP-R piping as the most suitable material.Tags: Water, picture, pipes, pressure, plant, welding Successful application of PP pipes for Ultra Pure Water pipeline
  • The availability of a high stress crack resistant PE100 grade provides additional security and confidence for critical situations, where the installation can lead to pipe damage. In the mining industry in Australia engineers are already aware of the superior performance of PE pipes for transporting abrasive slurries and therefore the lining of the higher pressure steel transportation lines is more readily accepted. Fully costed examples, such as the Sino Steel pipeline, will always be valuable in convincing engineers that the additional investment pays dividends. The provision of a high stress crack resistant PE100 pipe can provide that additional security that the engineer requires to allow the project to go ahead in PE material.Tags: Pipe,Oil, Pe100, Steel, Kuwait, Industry, material A Tough Initiation for PE100 in Kuwait s Oil Industry
  • In India a lot of industrial plants still have a lot of metal systems in operation such as steel. Because many plants have positive results with CPVC piping system, India is considering replacing their metals with CPVC. CPVC contributes to the improved reliability of Indian steel and chemical plants by providing longer service life, lower maintenance cost and ensuring environmental compliance.Tags: Cpvc, steel, plants, piping, system, chemical, metals, chemicals, How CPVC has improved the Reliability of Acid and Alkali Lines at Cold Rolling Mills of Steel Plants and other Chemical Applications
  • This paper is explaining the problems of Over belled pipe. This is a problem that’s being just ignored, but this problem is actually growing by the increase of the diameter of pipes. When a spigot is inserted past the initial contact point in a bell throat, tensile stresses in the bell quickly increase. For a proper safety factor against failure, pipe stress cannot exceed 2000 psi (13.8 MPa).If stresses exceed 5000 psi (34.5 MPa), failure in 1000 hours could be expected. So we can say as the pipe diameters are growing the bell holes are becoming more and more important. So large diameters pipes need a more careful installation.Tags: Pipe, bell, spigot, stresses, figure, insertion, model, diameter, joint, pvc, force, psi, soil Analytical Model of Stresses Caused by Over-Belling PVC Pipe
  • This paper explains which advantages CPVC offers for the desalination sector. Using CPVC in plants, they must resist the numerous chemicals that are used in them. Also it must be corrosion resistant to sea water and at the same time offer a cost effective and sustainable solution.CPVC is not susceptible to attack from high chloride levels, there is no need for pickling as it is the case with metal pipes. Also no need to buy expensive protection against corrosion. With its ability to resist ozone treated water, high temperatures and UV radiation, CPVC Industrial Systems are a cost-effective solution for providing clean potable water to coastal areas with growing water shortages.Tags: Cpvc, water, chlorine, desalination, piping, pvc, chloride, systems, corrosion CPVC Piping Systems in Desalination Applications
  • Developments in catalyst and process technology have resulte in a new, highly differentiated product family based on ethylene-alpha-olefin copolymers. This paper reports the key attributes of those materials. Tags: PE-RT, Pipe, performence, temperatures The Next Million Kilometers: Use of PE-RT for Industrial Pipe Applications
  • Non conventional pipe installation techniques allow for additional savings during the installation, from a 20% reduction for sand bed free compared to the standard open trench with sand bed method, and up to 50% for advanced trenchless techniques. This lowest Total Cost of Installation combined with the lowest Total Cost of Ownership usually associated with polyethylene pipes provides the best value for money for utility companies. In turn, these techniques significantly decrease indirect or social costs that are more and more taken into account in infrastructure projects. As a result, they benefit not only to the utility companies but to the public as a whole. Tags: Pipe, installation, cost, techniques, sand Non-Conventional Pipe Laying Techniques: Quantitative Modeling of Total Cost of Installation
  • The European Plastics Pipes and Fittings Association deem it important to have an insight into the integral environmental impacts that are encountered during the life-span of particular pipe system applications. With this framework in mind, TEPPFA has set up a project with the Flemish Institute for Technological Research. The aim of this project is to carry out a life cycle assessment from cradle to grave of 4 specific applications of pipe systems. This analysis outlines the various environmental aspects which accompany the 4 pipe systems, from the primary extraction of raw materials up to and including the end of life treatment after their service life time. Tags: System, pipe, environmental, life, water, functional, soil Life Cycle Assessment of Plastic piping systems.
  • Lifetime prediction of pressurized pipes made of polyethylene (PE) under complex loading situations is of special interest. Methods of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) are suitable to characterize the relevant long-term failure mechanisms in such pipes, which is slow crack growth. However, these methods require the knowledge of the creep crack growth (CCG) kinetics and material specific fracture mechanics parameters at application near temperatures. Tags: Failure, crack, pipe, material, tests, growth Fracture Mechanics Lifetime Prediction of PE 80 and PE 100 Pipes under Complex Loading Conditions
  • The hallmark of these various other efforts is an integrated combination of analysis and testing work. This is the porosity for the reinforcement layer of a multi-layer RTCP. This is expected to be accomplished by internal pressure measurements that can be related to the diffusion/permeation analysis model. The pressure measurements will be used to determine the porosity of the reinforcement layer from results like those shown in Figure 6, albeit only in the low pressure regime. Then the permeated gas data can be compared with analysis results obtained using this porosity level to assess the overall validity of the approach. Tags: Pipe, pressure, permeation, rtcp, layer, eqn, gas GAS PERMEATION IN MULTI-LAYERED COMPOSITE PIPE FOR HIGH PRESSURE PIPELINES
  • Over 3 thousand km of pipes installed throughout the world, including 1,3 thousand km of pressure pipelines confirm the versatility of Compact Pipe technology. Using Compact Pipe as an independent liner to renovate pipelines is not the only area of application. Compact Pipe is becoming more and more widely used, especially in gas engineering, as a method of pressure pipelines and recently also high-pressure pipelines renovation. After renovation process CP fits flawlessly inside the old pipeline and separates the structural pipe from the utilities with a PE layer. Applying PE pipes as interactive liners solves the problem of restoring pipelines operating at pressure over 10 bar to good working order. Tags: Pipe, pipeline, pressure, compact, liner, gas Five years of experience in high pressure pipeline renovation using Compact Pipe technology
  • The paper details how confidence has been gained in Germany as a result of a comprehensive testing protocol over the last 15 years. The milestones that have led to the definition of PE 100RC materials and pipes, which represent today about 20 % of the German PE pipe market, are illustrated by key test results. The logic followed to translate this experience into a standard PAS 1075 and technical requirements is explained, focussing on the guarantied safety margin.Tags: Pipe, installation, test, technical, pressure POLYETHYLENE WILL GROW WITH NON-CONVENTIONAL PIPE INSTALLATION TECHNIQUES : PE100-RC DEVEL OPMENT MILESTONES PERSPECTIVES
  • Within the present study, the effects of additional mechanical and thermal treatment caused by the CFL technology on the pipe material have been studied comprehensively. Whereas in conventional extruded pipes residual tensile stresses must be expected, a considerable change of residual pipe stresses was found in the final state of the redeformed pipe. Much rather, the significant reduction of residual pipe stresses may be considered as a significant improvement in the final pipe performance, and may act to even improve the reliability of these pipes in terms of long-term application by retarding potential failure modes such as crack initiation and slow crack growth. Tags: Pipe, cfl, redeformed, pos, wall, material POLYETHYLENE CLOSE-FIT-LINER - MATERIAL PROPERTIES AND LONG-TERM FAILURE BEHAVIOR
  • The availability of high quality PE100 polyethylene pipe in China has lead to a rapid growth in the use of trenchless technology for the renovation and installation of Municipal pipelines. This paper describes a number of examples of trenchless technology projects using PE pipe including the long distance directional drilling for a water pipeline installation and several projects where PE pipe has been used to renovate old concrete and iron pipelines.Tags: Pipe, pipeline, polyethylene, drag, welding, water 1 Trenchless renovation installation of municipal pipelines in China using PE pipes
  • The Trenchless Technology Center (TTC) was commissioned to assist IPEX Inc. in testing a new segmental¸ flash joint PVC pipe compatible with the TIP method. The paper provides a summary of the above described research and testing program, with focus on Phase 2 of the project, the full scale field installation. The results of the study suggest that TIP is an effective method for the rehabilitation of gravity driven sewer pipes in locations where any excavations are undesirable. TIP provides another tool to municipal engineers as seek to maximize the footage of pipe that can be rehabilitated with limited budgets.Tags: Pipe, soil, figure, burst, head, pressure, force, vcp, host, installation, test, diameter, pvc LABORATORY AND FIELD TESTING OF A NEW SEGMENTAL, FLASHJOINT PVC PIPE FOR SLIPLINING AND PIPE BURSTING
  • During the last 20 years, PP has earned a reputation as a high quality plastic piping material. The advance in polymer design to achieve a certain property profile is one of the factors supporting the continued high quality of this material. New standards and qualified installation personnel all contribute to safe, reliable and leak tight installations. Latest and ongoing developments of stiff PP block copolymer grades have contributed to the geographical spread of PP pipe use. Driven by current and planned infrastructure investments, future demand for PP gravity pipes in the Middle East and Asia is set for significant growthTags: Pipes, systems, sewage, middle east, asia, impact PP sewage pipes ensuring a healthier future in Asia and the Middle East
  • The service life of our nations infrastructure has become a topic of increasing focus in recent years. While above-ground infrastructure deterioration is readily apparent, the infrastructure beneath the surface can be much worse and yet is often ignored until it is too late. Since culverts and other buried structures typically are not inspected as frequently as above-ground structures such as bridges, the proper assessment and determination of their service life becomes very important. The definitons for service life is often unclear and every pipe industry seems to have different requirements. This paper will help clarify the definition of service life for drainage pipe, as well as outline aprotocol that has been used to esablish 100-year service life for corrugated high sensity polyethylene pipe. Tags: Hdpe, pipe, polyethylene, underground, infrastructure A Service Life Assessment of Corrugated HDPE Drainage Pipe
  • The time-temperature superposition principle was successfully applied to predict longterm creep behavior of block copolymer polypropylene and high density polyethylene resins, and has conformed to the Arrhenius relationship. Long-term creep deformation and creep modulus of block copolymer polypropylene and high density polyethylene resins were predicted at 50, 75 and 100 years. The polypropylene block copolymer demonstrated lower deformation under load than high density polyethylene, and higher creep modulus exceeding the AASHTO minimum requirement. The study also showed that creep compliance of both PPB and HDPE increased with increasing temperature, and creep rate was highest during the early phase of the test period, and then decreased with time. Tags: Temperature, ppb, hdpe, time, psi, creep Tensile-Creep Behavior of Polypropylene Block Copolymer Resin for Non-pressure, Sanitary Corrugated Pipe for Drainage
  • This paper describes test protocols established for material property determination including Stepped Isothermal Method (SIM) testing for modulus and ultimate tensile strength determination, evaluation of design stress for modulus predictions, and physical product compression stub testing for establishing design strain limits.Tags: Test, modulus, stress, creep, strain, pipe Long Term Material Design Properties for Polypropylene Pipe Grade Resins
  • As trenchless installation techniques and coarse-grained backfill materials are gaining in interest for plastics pipelines, the influence from surface damage on the technical lifetime is becoming more and more important. For non-pressure applications, such as gravity sewers, this aspect is relevant, e.g., when considering severe deflection of pipes with scratched surfaces, or point-loads from stone indentations. The present study investigated the influence from scratches and indentations on the technical lifetime of polypropylene pipes under stress relaxation load cases with constant deformations.Tags: Pipe, wall, material, indentation, deflection, figure DURABILITY OF POLYPROPYLENE PIPES FOR NONPRESSURE APPLICATIONS – INFLUENCE FROM SURFACE DAMAGE AND POINT LOADS
  • The silane grafting followed by the moisture crosslinking of polyethylene is a widely used process for the production of PEX. The efficiency of this process is strongly influenced by the base polymer characteristics, particularly a microstructure allowing the formation of stable free radicals during the grafting step and a high crosslinking rate once in presence of moisture. 2nd generation metallocene high Melt Index HDPE grades show a typical microstructure with a narrow molecular weight distribution, a significant amount of long chain branching and insaturations that allow a hassle-free production of PEXb pipes for H&C applications with high flexibility, high gloss and better organoleptic properties. Tags: Crosslinking, silane, hdpe, grafting, metallocene, molecular THE ADVANTAGES OF METALLOCENE-CATALYSED TECHNOLOGY FOR SILANE GRAFTING AND CROSSLINKING OF POLYETHYLENE
  • Development activities resulted in PE100 materials with high resistance to sagging during pipe extrusion for production of increasingly large diameter pipes without rate penalty. This paper outlines advances reached in Polyethylene structure-properties relationships that supported the development of these new product generations. The information presented shows extensive research work over polyethylene structure property relationship conducted by INEOS Olefins & Polymers Europe till the latest material generation and provides the key building blocks to the development of a universal PE100 material.Tags: Molecular, resins, pe100, reactor, lock, weight NEXT FRONTIER IN PE100 PRODUCT DESIGN: A STRUCTURE-PROPERTIES APPROACH
  • The force required to scratch the pipe wall seems to be more or less proportional to the depth to which the tool (or rock) is pressed into the material, and this proportionality is significantly different for different materials. The force, however, derives partly from producing the actual scratch and partly from elastic deformation of the pipe wall. The scratch force is also proportional to the actual scratch depth, but this relationship is the same for the studied materials. Tags: Scratch, pipe, material, depth, scratches, pressure, materials SCRATCHES IN POLYETHYLENE PIPES – SENSITIVITY TO SCRATCHING AND INFLUENCE ON LIFETIME
  • Thanks to the homogeneous material structure of the pipes the new monocomposite pipes Raised Pressure system represents an ideal expansion of the possible areas of use for tried and tested polyethylene pipes. Without impairing the positive properties of polyethylene pipes that were previously present, it was possible to deploy the monocomposite pipes system with its excellent internal pressure resistance as problem solver to master the most demanding building projects efficiently. This will be achievable not least because of the multilayer pipe structure that enables the internal pressure resistance of the monocomposite pipes to be tailored to specified requirements. Tags: Polyethylene, system, time, rupture, monocomposite, pipes, pressure HIGH-PRESSURE PIPES MADE FROM POLYETHYLENE ONLY – A NEW GENERATION OF PLASTIC PIPES
  • Based on an innovative approach, we explored the potential of a new catalyst family to evaluate the potential for high pressure applications. In order to create differentiation for our customers and to bring high value for the end users, we can propose original resins depending upon the needs of the market. We will follow carefully the coming trends of the pressure market and the concrete needs for new or existing applications in order to provide the best offer. Tags: Pe100, pe125, new, figure, resins, pressure New Routes to high Processing Polyethylene Pipe Grades Is it a way to PE125 ?
  • As presented in this paper, metal reinforced polyethylene drainage pipes have been successful in many projects in China. The composite structure of these pipes combines the best properties of both plastic and metal. However the performance of these pipes under load is difficult to analyze and because they have not been used extensively outside of China there is little experimental data. Therefore over the next few years we intend to carry out detailed analysis in this area and closely monitor and document some typical projects in China. Tags: Pipe, polyethylene, steel, drainage, reinforced, plastic, metal Metal Reinforced Polyethylene Pipes in China
  • This case study demonstrates some of the advantages in using an RTP product for high pressure gas distribution installations. In particular, installations requiring long lengths of pipe where terrain will allow a plowing construction technique RTP has proven to be the pipeline of choice and in some instances the only viable economic alternative. As experience with the product grows in the natural gas distribution industry a greater sense of comfort for its application is being realized. As this technology advances and solutions are uncovered for some of the minor operational concerns, RTP will no doubt expand to become an integral part of the natural gas distribution industry. Tags: Rtp, gas, pipe, pressure, installation, steel, pipeline Using Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipe (RTP) In Natural Gas Distribution Applications
  • Flexible steel pipe offers a method of rehabilitating damaged, aging, or abandoned pipelines. Flexible steel pipe offers significant advantages over alternatives including ease of installation, corrosion protection, improved flow efficiency and reduced number of leak paths. The case study provides an example of a 4.5 mile pipeline successfully rehabilitated with zero impact to coastal marshlands. Tags: Pipe, steel, flexible, pipeline, figure, rehabilitation Offshore Flowline Rehabilitation with Spoolable Steel-Reinforced Bi-Modal HDPE Pipe
  • With increased awareness of environmental and health and safety risks involved the piping has developed from unlined polyethylene piping to advanced multi-layer products where new tooling and extrusion processes have emerged allowing for combinations of EVOH and electrically conductive materials that allow both for the prevention of hydrocarbon permeation as well as safe dissipation of static electricity to earth. The combination of materials has made possible a PE-based pipe with extremely low permeation; the permeation results are so low that in 2010 German authorities accepted the pipe as having zero permeation and since the first installations of plastic piping for petrol fillings stations have been made. Tags: Pipe, permeation, petrol, plastic, authorities PLASTIC PIPE SYSTEMS FOR PETROL STATIONS AND BEYOND STRETCHING THE BOUNDARIES OF PLASTIC PIPE APPLICATIONS
  • The successful development of a material depends on reliable test methods to evaluate its suitability for the end use conditions. The use of existing thermo oxidative chlorine resistance method may serve as a tool for evaluating the variability of chlorine resistance on materials of the same type as long as no significant scatter, stress dependency or temperature dependency of results is observed. However, this paper discusses limitations of the method when comparing performance of different hot and cold water polyolefine piping materials and if not correct test temperatures and/or hoop stresses are appliedTags: Stress, temperature, astm, materials Improvement of Existing Chlorine Resistance Method and Discussion of Method’s Suitability for Different Polyolefin Materials
  • Polyethylene piping materials have been used in potable water applications for more than 50 years with considerable success and have enjoyed a consistently high satisfaction rating from Water Utilities. Since the introduction of these first materials, material performance has evolved significantly. To demonstrate and validate the long-term performance of these newer materials, the industry has been proactively working to develop accelerated test and analysis methodologies through the last decade. This article provides a summary of the current state of those efforts, detailing the mechanisms of long-term aging of PE materials in potable water applications and reporting on a methodology to project long-term performance of PE piping materials in potable water applications.Tags: Water, performance, pipe, long term, materials Ensuring Long-Term Performance of Polyethylene in Potable Water Applications
  • The goal of this work is to set up a mathematical model which describes the influence of the various parameters and predicts the consequence of a change in liner pipe material. This paper describes the theory of permeation and permeation in the presence of a temperature gradient, followed by a case study where the liner pipe is changed.Tags: Pipe, pressure, temperature, liner, layer, equation COVER BLOW-OFF RESISTANCE OF REINFORCED THERMOPLASTIC PIPES FOR GAS SERVICE
  • We have proposed and verified our design concept on the minimum 100 years lifetime of Polyethylene Piping System for Water Supply. Within the range of the results clarified up to the present, we are of the opinion that Polyethylene Piping System for Water Supply is equipped with sufficient durability for 100 years and longer.Tags: Stress, test, water, pressure, pipe, coefficient Studies to Theorize on the Minimum 100 Years Lifetime of the Polyethylene Piping System for Water Supply
  • ASTM F2023 and ASTM F2263 have been used to evaluate the oxidative resistance of plastic piping materials to potable water. As a potential method to accelerate this testing, the use of internally notched pipe has been investigated and preliminary research has shown that the method appears to be able to generate the same aging mechanism as observed with un-notched pipe specimens and significantly reduce test times in chlorine dioxide treated water. In this paper, the method is further explored in a chlorinated water environment and the applicability and validity of the methodology to evaluate the oxidative resistance of plastic piping materials is examined. Tags: accelerated test, notched pipe, potable water Examination of Internal Notched Pipe Testing as an Accelerated Methodology for Evaluating the Oxidative Resistance of Plastic Piping Materials in Potable Water Applications
  • It is well recognized that strong oxidizing agents such as water disinfectants accelerate brittle failures in pipe pressure tests. The immersion of test specimen in chlorinated water at 60°C clearly indicate that the shorter failure time is linked to a faster consumption of the antioxidants in the polymer, whereas chlorine dioxide oxidizes the additives much faster than sodium-hypochlorite. As a consequence, the polymer is unprotected against chemical attack ,and degradation of the polymer begins. The thickness of the embrittled layer continues with ageing time. Tags: Water, ageing, chlorine, figure, pipe, oxidation POLYOLEFIN PIPE GRADES WITH IMPROVED RESISTANCE TO WATER DISINFECTANTS
  • This paper presents a study on the oxidative resistance of a corrugated HDPE pipe. The oxidation process was carried out in forced air ovens and water baths, to simulate various environments. Elevated temperatures were employed to accelerate the oxidation reactions. Three temperatures were used so that the Arrhenius equation could be applied to predict properties at ambient temperatures lower than the incubation temperatures. The depletion of antioxidants was measured by the oxidative induction time test and changes of polymer properties due to oxidation were evaluated by melt index and tensile tests.Tags: Time, oit, water, incubation, retained, tensile, test OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION OF CORRUGATED HDPE PIPE IN WATER AND AIR
  • A new PE-100 material has been developed using the proprietary bimodal catalyst system. which was designed to meet or exceed the PE-100 requirements specified in appropriate ISO standards. This polyethylene material exhibits a bimodal molecular weight distribution and a “favorable” comonomer distribution, resulting in an excellent balance of physical properties and extrusion processability. Pipes produced from the Single reactor/ Bimodal catalyst material have been tested to demonstrate the key performance requirements for end-use applications such as water and natural gas distribution. These pipes have exhibited excellent performance in long-term hydrostatic strength, slow crack growth resistance, and resistance to rapid crack propagation. Pipe extrusion trials have been conducted on commercial pipe extrusion lines in order demonstrate good output and exceptional sag resistance. Because of the sag resistance, it has been possible to product thick pipe, with minimum wall thickness as high as 100 mmTags: Pipe, bimodal, catalyst, reactor, distribution, molecular Single-Reactor Bimodal PE-100 HDPE Resin for Pressure Pipe Applications
  • Direct addition technology was developed to enable the use of much higher levels of calcium carbonate in rigid PVC while avoiding separation of PVC resin. Strong economic benefits for pipe producers that adopt Direct Addition technology. Both formulation and energy costs are lowered. Flexibility in formulating, as well as additional blending capacity can be realized with the system.Tags: Phr, carbonate, pvc, calcium, addition, mixer, direct, blend, hot, dry, cold, extruder Direct Addition of Calcium Carbonate Novel and Superior Technology to the Classical Rigid PVC Dry Blend Mixing Process
  • This paper is about PVC-U Pipes with recycled Solid core. It can be concluded that the heterogeneous structure of the core in three-layer pipe consists of the difference of melting state of recycled powder.In the wall of recycled three-layer pipe multiple neckingdeformation occurred after the multiple cracking which initiated from not well melting powders in recycled solid core. Recycled three layer core are superior designed to the reliability of recycle-pipes.Tags: Pipe, recycled, rsvu, layer, normal, core, pvc, tensile, fracture, wall, impact, specimen Reliability of PVC-U Three Layer Pipes with Recycled Solid Core
  • This paper presents an overview of the first two high pressure polyamide 12 (PA12) natural gas plastic pipe field installations with operating pressures up to 250 psig. The overview includes the Special Permit requirements, layout, materials, and operating pressures, as well as the installation methods employed to complete the installations.Tags: Pa12, installation, pipe, pressure, system, psig Field Installations of Polyamide 12 PA12 in Natural Gas Distribution Systems
  • In this study, braided fabrics reinforced thermoplastic pultrusion molding was performed. The effect of molding conditions such as the molding speed and the cooling effects after molding on the molding state and the mechanical properties were investigated. It was clarified that the un-impregnated regions in the fiber bundles and the gaps between fiber bundles increased with increasing the molding speed. The air cooling prevented from the release of the molding pressureTags: Molding, fiber, pultrusion, die, temperature, braided Pultrusion Technique for Braided Fabric Reinforced Thermoplastic Composite Tube
  • Horizontal directional drilling with the different variations and decades of applied experience are comprehensive trenchless renewal options for a large proportion of the worlds damaged fluid, gas supply and sewer pipelines. This amount to enourmes potential for economical savings when carrying out the inevitable pipe rehabilations programs. Especially, in times of critical financial situations, the cities and municipalities can hardly afford to simply give away this potential as a result of thechnological conservatism. When used inpipe bursting, the robust performence of PA12 pipes adds several degrees of confidence in severe conditions for higher pressure applications.Tags: Pipe, Polyamide, drilling, pressure, gas, PIPE MADE OF POLYAMIDE 12 PA12: THE RIGHT CHOICE FOR TRENCHLESS INSTALLATION
  • PA11, PA12 and plasticized PA6.12 pipes are interesting candidates for gas transport and distribution pipelines at 16 bars pressure, which is beyond the maximum pressure for PE100 pipeline systems (10 bars). However, PA pipelines are not meant as an alternative to PE pipelines, but to steel pipelines. Therefore, permeability is important. Permeability coefficients have been measured at 16 bars methane gas pressure on 110 mm SDR11 PA pipes and compared with the values for PE100 pipes.Tags: Water, pipes, fusion, saturated, butt, pa12 PA PIPES FOR 16 BARS GAS PIPELINES
  • The entire body of information generated during this project’s execution demonstrates the suitability for use of Polyamide 12 systems at pressures above the current 125 psig limitations. The ASTM standards that have been developed as a result of the various research activities clearly define the relevant performance characteristics for material, pipe and components for Polyamide 12 systems. Adherence to the requirements of this body of standards will allow the user to safely install, operate and maintain Polyamide 12 natural gas distribution systems.Tags: Polyamide, requirements, pipe, test, table, psi POLYAMIDE 12 NATURAL GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS OPERATING AT PRESSURES GREATER THAN 125 PSIG
  • Polyethylene is a special case because as the temperature is increased, both the creep rate and the effective stress are changing simultaneously as the material becomes softer. It is basically a stepped-temperature and stepped-stress test. This paper describes the details of the test, presents some results on recycled-containing HDPE resins, and shows how SIM relates to sustained burst tests on crosslinked polyethylene (PEX) and a PE 3408, pressure rated pipe.Tags: Creep, sim, mpa, psi, results, time, temperature The Use of the Stepped Isothermal Method for Estimating the Long-Term Creep Modulus Creep Strain and Strength of Polyethylene Pipe Resins
  • This paper concerns the effects of hydrogen transport in polyethylene (PE) gas pipes previously used for transport of natural gas, as well as the effects of reference pipes that have not been exposed, on the chemical and mechanical properties of the PE pipes. Tags: Pipes, years, hydrogen, gas, natural, transport TRANSPORT OF HYDROGEN WITH POLYETHYLENE NATURAL GAS PIPES
  • This paper shows the revision from the last 3 years to existing standards at AWWA (C900, C905, and C909) and CSA (B137.0 and B137.3). As a result of this flurry of activity, the product standards now have the same pressure classes/ratings. Perhaps more importantly, there is now an agreed-upon method for treating short-term pressures that allows the true capabilities of the products to be employed. AWWA and CSA have in effect harmonised and clarified their standards to the benefit of the industry.Tags: Pressure, pipe, design, surge, standards, kpa, pvc, b137, factor, water Recent Changes to North American PVC and PVCO Pressure-Pipe Standards
  • These new results on outdoor aging resistance of ProFuse pipes add to other benefits seen with skin pipe and referenced in the introduction to this paper. Combining these studies shows that real and multiple benefits exist with skinned pipes such as ProFuse, as they confer on the final structure benefits not attainable with plain solid wall PE pressure pipes. It thus likely that more multi layered and multi material pressure pipes will be developed in the near future, with plain solid wall PE pressure pipes maybe taking a less prominent role in the utility sector.Tags: Polyethylene, temperatures, pipes, development, pressure, THE PROTECTION PROVIDED BY SKINNED POLYETHYLENE PIPES IN HIGH AMBIENT TEMPERATURE AND HIGH ULTRAVIOLET UV REGIONS
  • Colorants have been successfully utilized in the plastics piping industry to identify the targeted end-use application. Although there may be differences in application standards and regional requirements, the use and approval of colorants require extensive collaboration among all parties (pigment supplier, masterbatch compounder, and resin manufacturer) involved to assure that the performance requirements to the applicable standards are met. This identification method has been globally accepted and has resulted in safe, quality plastics piping systems being installed and utilized throughout the world. Tags: Pipe, color, black, carbon, yellow, pigment, piping The Impact of Colorants in a Piping System
  • The Notched Ring Test has been performed on various sized NRT specimens up to 400mm diameter and it clearly indicted the accelerated manner for which the NRT method is developed for. The data also demonstrate that NRT method provides on-set slow cracking times which seem to be independent of the specimen size, as indicated by the stress-intensity factor versus the time curve generated. From this result, 110mm diameter ring is to be recommended as a standard NRT specimen whereby simplicity and cost effectiveness in slow crack testing can be achievedTags: Nrt, slow, cracking, figure, ring, specimens Utilization of Notched Ring Test for larger diameter pipes and fittings
  • This paper investigated the effect of stress intensity on SCG resistance in scratched PE pipe at three design stresses, 512 psi for natural gas distribution, 800 psi and 1000 psi for water pipe. To achieve equivalent SCG performance, the stress intensity should be the same for all pipe diametersTags: Pipe, stress, scg, intensity, pent, requirement, test STRESS INTENSITY EFFECT ON SLOW CRACK GROWTH IN SCRATCHED POLYETHYLENE PIPE
  • The paper focuses on the susceptibility of PE pipe to premature failure due to slow crack growth (SCG) - specifically, the various forecasting models and accelerated testing protocols that are used to analyze short term experimental results to predict long term (50 years and beyond) service life. A critical review of these models with regard to the acceleration factors for temperature, stress, and stress intensity factors is provided in the paper. Tags: Temperature, service, life, piping, model, stress, pipe A REVIEW OF SERVICE LIFE PREDICTION MODELS FOR HIG DENSITY POLYETHYLENE PIPING FOR NUCLEAR SAFETY-RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • Testing has revealed that most fusion jointing standards have quite adequate cooling times even though some take considerably more time than others do. A target joint temperature after cooling has not been established by ISO or most national standards. The target temperature is used for complete cooling but what is the target temperature for removal from the machine where the joint will possibly see extreme stresses if not handled properly.Tags: Cooling, time, temperature, joint, pipe, fusion BUTT FUSION COOLING TIMES SPEEDING UP THE PROCESS
  • This paper outlines the efforts being made by the PE100+ Association and the industry to further develop and harmonise global standards for fusion procedures, test methods and non destructive techniques (NDT) suitable for thick walled pipe.Tags: Pressure, test, welds, single, fusion HARMONISATION OF POLYETHYLENE PIPE BUTTFUSION PROCEDURES AND TEST METHODS
  • In this work the big potential of the cyclic CRB method for a quick and reliable quality assurance tool could be proven. The method is able to rank PE pipe grades reflecting the expectations from their molecular and morphological structure and even the impact of minor lot to lot variations on SCG and long term failure could be identified. Moreover tests on different servo-hydraulic machines could prove the reliability of the method so that in cooperation with ISO an international Round Robin is prepared currently.Tags: Pe100, molecular, mass, different, results, materials CYCLIC CRB TESTS - A QUICK AND RELIABLE TOOL FOR RANKING OF PE PIPE GRADES
  • The safety of welding joint of polyethylene depends on welding performance. The ultrasonic imaging test method is possible to detect various flaws including wire deviations and regions with lack of fusion. Also it can distinguish defect signals from wire signals and penetrate certain depth of polyethylene. The results of non destructive testing show agreement with the destructive testing results.Tags: Angle, array, electrofusion, ultrasonic, testing, ndt, technique Field inspection of Phase-Array ultrasonic for polyethylene electrofusion joints
  • CBF is well established and mainly being used for utility applications where bead sizes, precise z-dimensions, and short welding times are not as important as in industrial application installations. As such, this has limited the use of certain materials, such as polyethylene, in more complicated systems. At the same time, several end-users have not thought about using PE for industrial applications. This paper addresses discoveries realized after years of InfraRed Non-Contact welding with Overlap and brings forward the benefits of its use in the installation of industrial piping systems made of PE.Tags: Weld, cbf, time, figure, bead, pipe Advantages of Infra-Red Welding of Polyethylene Pipes for Industrial Applications
  • This paper studies the development of the barreled shape in terms of residual stresses frozen in during post-extrusion pipe cooling. A non-linear heat transfer analysis determines the thermal history of the material during solidification, considering temperature dependant material properties and the kinetics and effects of crystallisation. Residual strains in the cooled pipe are determined using a thermoelastic model and compared with experimental data obtained using the layer removal method.Tags: Pipe, temperature, residual, barreling, stresses, experimental Barreling at cut ends of PE pipe: numerical and experimental investigation


  • The results of this work show that an impedance tube with four microphones can be employed to measure transmission loss of polymers accurately. This method is less costly and takes less time compared with existing standard transmission loss tests that use two adjacent rooms with a test installation of the component.Tags: Sound transmission loss, Acoustic testing, Polymers Acoustic Testing of Plastic Pipe and Construction Materials
  • The results indicate that the mechanized torsional shear test is very suitable for detecting defects in HM welded and HD welded joints. The mechanized linear shear test compliments the torsional shear test and offers a further advancement regarding the development of a reproducible test procedure to assess the absolute quality of HM welded and HD welded joints. The validity and incorporation of these results in the DVS guidelines are currently being discussed. Tags: Test, torsional, shear, mechanized Development of an Automatic Test Procedure for Determining the Mechanical Properties of HM and HD Welds with Mechanized Torsional and Linear Shear Tests
  • In the CRB test PE 100-RC materials are significant better than the tested PE 100 types as expected. The materials within each classification show a very similar behavior in crack growth. The NRT data show a very big scattering at same stress levels. A confirmed ranking of the tested materials cannot be given based on the results obtained in this work. However there are also indications of friction influences from the used testing equipment which made data evaluation of the crack initiation times difficul.Tags: Crack, testing, crb, stress COMPARISON OF NOVEL TESTING METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF SLOW CRACK GROWTH IN PE 100
  • The scope of this paper is to clarify the various pipe material designation codes and other terms (PE 4710, PE 4710 PLUS, PE 100, PE 100 RC and PE 100+) that are used in the piping industry for high density polyethylene materials. In this paper the two pressure ratings methods, ASTM D 2837 and ISO 9080, and the corresponding pipe material designation codes that are used throughout the industry will be described.Tags: Pipe, design, pressure, materials Comparison Between PE 4710 PE 4710 PLUS and PE 100 PE 100+, PE 100 RC
  • During the sample preparation, How to make sample dispersion for better is a key issue. Moreover it relates to solvents, the length of ultrasonic agitating time and the amount of carbon black. The high-quality carbon coated electron microscope specimen grids are essential for producing electron microscope images of sufficient contrast. The carbon membrane thickness of 70-80A is considered. If carbon membrane is too thick, it is adverse for image analysis since comparison of sample and background is not obvious. Selecting accessible and common image analysis software has a benefit for comparison of the data.Tags: Carbon, particle, ultrasonic, size, black The Test Method of Carbon Black Particle Diameter for PE pipes applying for gas
  • The results presented in this paper demonstrate how Evisive microwave NDT has the ability to detect issues associated with poor joint quality for both butt fusion joints and EF joints. The ability of the technique to distinguish between a best practice butt fusion weld and a weld containing fine particle contamination is a significant development in the NDT inspection of PE joints.Tags: Joints, weld, butt, fusion, microwave Evaluation of a novel Microwave based NDT inspection method for Polyethylene joints
  • This paper examines the basic selection criteria of thermoplastic valves with special emphasis on material compatibility, valve function, maintenance and the benefits of thermoplastic valves over metal valves. We will show how and where plastic valves are more reliable, safe and efficient than metal valves in typical applications within the chemical industry. Tags: Valves, chemical, thermoplastic, piping, systems Success of Thermoplastic Valves in the Chemical Industry
  • This paper examines the basic selection criteria of thermoplastic valves with special emphasis on material compatibility, valve function, maintenance and the benefits of thermoplastic valves over metal valves. We will show how and where plastic valves are more reliable, safe and efficient than metal valves in typical applications within the chemical industry. Tags: Pex, tubing, gas, fuel, piping Plastic Interior Fuel Gas Piping Systems: Now or Never?


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Plastic Pipes (2008) - Budapest

Papers | Posters | Other |


  • Fresh water and sanitation are vital to mankind and clearly pollution, rising population and climate change are putting our systems and our futures at risk. Borouge and Borealis have recognised this as the most vital challenge facing our world and have launched the “Water for the World” programme where by working with other partners we aim to deliver sustainable solutions for fresh water and sanitation. This paper shows that there are solutions to these challenges, in many situations using modern plastics materials but it also requires a will and some dedicated groups of people to make it happen.Tags: Water, sanitation, pipes, world, people, systems TooGood
  • The test method of oxygen permeability of plastic pipes which applied for cold and hot water in buildings was described in this paper. A few problems in oxygen permeability test have been found, discussed and solved. Some influencing factors, such as test temperature and test pressure, have been studied. The oxygen permeability of three different pipes (PE-RT pipe, PE-x pipe, PB pipe) were evaluated and discussed respectively, and some advices were brought forward on these pipes using in practice.Tags: Oxygen, pipe, temperature, permeability, system, bacteria Study on Oxygen Permeability of the Pipes Applied for Cold and Hot Water
  • In the course of time, a developing extruder screw technology and a demand for higher outputs resulted in a new process based on infrared cross-linking technology: Borealis developed a special BorPEX grade with tailored MWD, density and MFR Hans Weber with their long experience in double screw extrusion equipment provided suitable machinery Crosslink Oy has developed and sold infrared ovens for the PEX-A industry for some years iNOEX developed systems and solutions for precise dosing and complete process control The paper describes the PEX-A pipe production concept and explains in detail the technical features of each component, this means raw material, extruder, cross-linking, dosing and process control of all units.Tags: Process, cross, linking, production, pex, infrared A New Complete PEX-A Pipe Production Concept with Infrared Crosslinking
  • With the rapid increase of oil price and its impact on polymer prices, the question of future oil availability and the long-term sustainability of the use of plastics are often heard questions. Answering these two legitimate interrogations is the purpose of this paper. Tags: Energy, oil, co2, pipe, production, future Oiling for how long
  • Clearly the PP-RCT pipe systems offer a number of important benefits compared to standard PPR systems. These provide additional flexibility in design and security of operation which is attractive to designers, contractors and investors particularly in the large prestigious commercial and residential developments taking place in the many of the countries in the Middle East. These benefits are being clearly articulated in the region by API who are the leading supplier of such systems in the Middle East. It is only with this type of dedicated effort to demonstrate to everyone the clear value of choosing the best pipeline solutions for these very prestigious and expensive investments that plastics will have a growing and sustainable future.Tags: Rct, psi, mpa, pipes, systems, water Higher preformance PP-RCT hot and cold water pipes score in the Middle East
  • Plastic pipes such as PEX and PB pipes are also widely used for hot water supply and central heating in Japan. The OIT test is a useful test to evaluate their relative thermal stability. No failure for 12,000 hours or more should occur at 110 degrees C as an accelerated stress rupture test. It was found that non-crosslinked PERT pipes added with an optimum set of antioxidants have favorable lomg-term durability.Tags: Water, pipes, test, degrees, heating, hot Thermal Stability and Long-Term Strength of Plastics Pipes Required
  • To study the possibility of introducing an objective index to diagnosing existing old PEX pipe used in our GCH system, we traced changes of anti-oxidative property, chemical structure, and mechanical properties, as well as pipe body color in the progress of accelerated deterioration by hydrostatic inner pressure test. From recent results, it was admitted that the decrease of the anti-oxidative property greatly correlated to the PEX pipe deterioration, to rupture and this may become an effective index. And the color change can help diagnosis, as well, which is easily checked on-site. At the same time, we must be mindful that this fact applies to only one kind of PEX pipe, and we must pursue more data and acquire more experience. Now, we are planing to collect old pipes from the market and to compare these with the experimental data.Tags: Pipe, test, change, pex, rupture, figure Study of PEX Pipe Durability Evaluation and Possibility of Diagnosis
  • This paper will summarize the Design Guide and will specifically discuss the applications, advantages, material properties, code acceptance, joining methods, plumbing systems, design, performance data, installation, testimonials and references. In addition, this paper will summarize the proposed revisions to the Design Guide which is expected to be re-published in 2009. Tags: PEX, pipe, plumbing, installation, design Residental PEX Water supply plumbing systems
  • Test equipment was developed to study the progress in ageing of PE 100 pipes at different temperatures and circulating water/ air mode. To accelerate the time to failure pipes with different additive levels were tested. It could be found that the activation energy ΔHAgeing is about 90 kJ/mol either for non stabilized or stabilized pipes. The key parameters for the time to failure are: ageing temperature, leaching of additives (flow rate of the water), additive package and level, concentration of the oxidant. Loss of OIT is not an adequate method to describe the progress of ageing.Tags: Pipes, ageing, failure, time, stabilized, surface Thermal Ageing of PE 100 Pipes for Accelerated Lifetime Prediction under Service Conditions
  • In the present work a new technique for a direct measurement of crack growth kinetics of polyethylene on cracked round bar specimens in fatigue tests was demonstrated. Three equally distributed extensometers were used to measure the crack opening displacement at the specimen surface and to develop crack length depending compliance calibration curves. Those compliance calibration curves could then be used to calculate crack lengths in the cyclic CRB tests from COD data and to generate crack kinetic curves. An extrapolation concept for the estimation of creep crack growth was applied for two different PE's. The high sensibility in the detection of crack initiation by three extensometers opens an interesting option for further acceleration of material comparison. Tags: Crack, material, kinetics, growth, figure, specimens A novel qualification procedure
  • In this paper six parts of sewage pipes were studied. Criteria for the selection were: •applied as sewage pipe; •readable print on the pipe, selected parts were assessed at TNO by: •visual inspection; •microscopic inspection; •geometrical analysis and deformation; •surface roughness and inner surface degradation assessment; Some of the PVC pipes are showing some signs of operation, but the integrity of the pipe is still intact. Some mechanical damage scratcher and some abrasion were observed. There was no chemical degradation of attack by aggressive solvent was observed in the parts studied. No craze initiation, craze growth and crack growth are expected given the expected maximum wall stress in those pipes. The study here confirms the common knowledge that the lifetime of PVC pipe systems will exceed 100 years under most service conditions.Tags: Lifetime expectancy, PVC-U pipelines for non-pressure applications, Civils and Infrastructure, wall, surface, sewage Lifetime Expentancy of PVC-U pipelines for sewer systems
  • The superiority of the RFL confirms the presence of a fatigue-limit in PVC-U and PVC-M identified by other works. However, fatigue-limit is a stochastic quantity and fatigue limit variability affects fatigue-life variability. The quantile curves demonstrated the expected variability in fatigue-life. Therefore, design on a traditional fatigue-limit would not prevent fatigue failure and is not advisable. This is furthermore supported by the relatively small quantity of fatigue-life data available for fatigue-limit analysis, and the sample’s representation of all PVC pipe fatigue performance. Ideally, fatigue design should be based on an expected number of fatigue cycles in the pipes life, and the appropriate stress-amplitude to ensure that an acceptable failure rate is achieved in the pipe.Tags: Fatigue, data, limit, model, PVC, life, stress, amplitude, RFL Fatigue-Limits, Fatigue Threshold and Other Random Quantities in PVC Pipes
  • All in all, it can be established that the spatially resolving FTIR microscopy is in a position to furnish reliable information on the distribution of stabilizers and the morphology in the PP-R pipes investigated. The crystallinity profiles ascertained by FTIR correspond with the results obtained by DSC, WAXS and optical microscopy. During the ageing of pipe sections by hydrostatic pressure testing, the variation with time of the Irganox 1010 concentration can be observed by means of spatially resolving FTIR microscopy with good reproducibility. Long-term stabilizer cannot be detected any more by FTIR microscopy long before the pipe sections fail. Tags: Pipe ageing, spatially resolving FTIR microscopy, antioxidant concentration, crystallinity Studying the Ageing Behaviour of PP Pipes using Imaging Techniques
  • The fusion weldability of large diameter pipes made of the latest generation of super sag-resistant PE 100 material has been demonstrated. Constant tensile load experiments, under accelerated conditions, have shown that failure occurs by a slow crack growth mechanism initiated at the beads, outside the interface of fusion. An estimation of the lifetime of butt-welds of large diameter low sag PE100 pipes gives values well in excess of the designed 100 years. However a high margin on the mechanical strength of butt-welds is deemed to be necessary to cope with aggressive stress conditions acting on large diameter pipes in practice. Tags: Pipes, butt, mpa Long-Term Performance of Butt-Welded Thick Pipes and Properties of Sugar-Sag-Resistant PE 100 Material
  • There have been many years of excellent experience with butt fusion of PE pipeline systems, but procedures, testing and codes of practice are mostly developed as national or industry standards. This situation is recognised by members of ISO/TC 138 who initiated the development of the ISO 21307 Butt fusion procedures standard. However the PE 100+ Association has realised that further effort is required to develop test methods, further harmonise procedures, and to develop codes of practice and NDT for butt fusion welding. This project has been set up by the Association with help from the industry to address these issues.Tags: Test, pipe, procedures, fusion, pressure, weld Harmonisation of Polyethylene Pipe Buttfusion Procedures and Test Methods – Final Conclusions
  • Excellent experiences have been gained in numerous areas of application with PE pipes in large dimensions. The advantages of the material and the joining method, electrofusion, let expect a technical and economic optimum with regard to installation, operation and life. New fittings and innovative installation methods tap the full costsaving potentials and thus in addition increase the attractiveness of PE piping systems. Tags: Pipe, fusion, pressure, coupler, diameter Electrofusion Technique for Pipes up to D800
  • In normal concentration conditions (Concentre. ≤ 0.8 ppm), no attack of the PVC pipe was registered neither with ClO2 nor with NaClO. In very hard (and unrealistic) conditions: (Temp = 40°C, very high concentration,) we could only induce a limited attack of the PVC surface. This limited attack does not bring a sufficient change in mechanical properties to bring it beyond the limit levels required by ISO 4433 for non-acceptance of a pipe material. The results from this paper confirm a very low sensitivity of rigid PVC to oxidising agentsTags: PVC, CIO2, pipes, new, conditions exposition, disinfectant, exposed, OBS Resistance of PVC Pipes against Disinfectants
  • Overall, it would appear that there are competing factors and, as well, shifts in mechanisms that are occurring in chlorine dioxide testing of PE materials. These shifts have been observed in chlorine testing and for PEX materials. However, it would appear that in chlorine testing and PEX testing, there are fewer competing factors and a lower likelihood of interactions between MSBs. As a result, this allows for selection of conditions such that a relevant Arrhenius relationship can be developed. With chlorine dioxide testing, due to the aggressiveness of chlorine dioxide, the situation appears to be more complex such that an Arrhenius relationship (and, therefore, the Rate Process Model) is not suitable across the test conditions examined (for all materials). Alternative methods of testing are being examined. Tags: Chlorine dioxide, oxidation, mechanism The mechanism of Chlorine dioxide oxidation
  • This paper is about the Influence of local gelation on PVC pipes. Applied stabilizers Pb and OBS show no substantial influence on the gelation degree- Only on very high gelation degrees are the DSC analysis and DCMT in good correlation. Along „break line“ from internal pressure tests very high gelation degrees (“over gelation”) and locations of bubbles could be found (but no molecular degradation) In fracture toughness test in the area of „break line “a lower creep rate was found than at the opposite position.Tags: Pipe, stab, attack, DCM, break, OBS, line, gelation, wall Degree, test, position Influence of Local Gelation Degree on the Frequency of Breaks of PVC Pressure Pipes
  • It was confirmed that in both air and water, PVC-U and PVC-M pipe materials exhibit similar fatigue crack growth rates, especially at high K and at high frequency. The crack growth rates for both materials are slower in water than in air. In both materials the energy dissipating process was by crazing, without any evidence of shear banding. The process zone in PVC-M was larger than in PVC-U. At high stress intensity factors the fatigue crack propagation rates were virtually identical and there was an absence of fibrils in the fracture surface of both materials, but at low stress intensity factors there was increased craze fibril formation with PVC-M compared to PVC-U.Tags: PVC, fatigue, crack, water, air, growth, pipe, threshold, figure, under, materials Fatigue Crack Propagation of PVC-U and PVC-M Pipes in a Water Environment
  • To classify PE pipe degradation, different tests were performed to assess the overall, chemical and mechanical states of each sample. Amongst them, the remaining mechanical performance of PE pipes was determined by the Nol Ring (NR) test. For quick and easy categorisation, a three-degradation level approach was defined as follows: “Green” = No degradation, “Yellow” = Moderate degradation, “Red” = High degradation. They were applied to 5 degradation indexes and their analytical parameters.Tags: Nol ring, Polyethylene pipes, Characterisation, Degradation, Mechanical Performances. The Nol ring Test
  • Permeation measurements were performed by IFP on unaged PE100 material samples in various conditions of pressure, hydrogen content and temperature. These effects are observed by comparing the membrane performance with respect to the mixed feed gas composition. Some results obtained by using our specific permeability equipment dedicated to gas mixtures have been presented. The key point is that, in the case of mixture of methane and hydrogen through PE100, no particular gas-gas or gas-polymer interaction has been revealed whatever the composition as well as no pressure effect. As expected, the permeability coefficients through PE100 increase with temperature and are well represented by Arrhenius laws. Tags: Gas, hydrogen, pipes, permeability, polymer, permeation, mixtures Transport propertis of polymer pipes
  • Summarizing the results of the different methods it can be said that: For state of the art PE materials common SCG testing methods have reached their limits with respect to testing times. New testing or evaluation methods are needed for material and component testing with shorter testing times. The transferability of tests using wetting agents has to be viewed critically as the ranking of different PE material generations concerning their long time behavior can be changed compared to wetting agent free methodsTags: polyethylene, slow crack growth, Notched Pipe Test, Notched Ring Test, 2 Notch Creep Test Static Loading Methods without Wetting Agents for Determination of Slow Crack Growth in PE 100
  • There are over 39 million polyethylene services and over 3 billion feet of the polyethylene pipes in service as gas distribution mains in the USA. Over 97% of all new gas distribution piping installed each year is polyethylene pipe, however the installation of polyethylene pipe over 6 inch diameter remains very limited. Using two case studies of 20” diameter and 18” diameter new polyethylene pipe installations, this presentation explores why polyethylene pipe was chosen for these applications. The presentation will also address the obstacles that were overcome to integrate polyethylene into the installation and operational practices within each utility.Tags: Polyethylene, gas, diameter, pipe, distribution, installation Large Diameter PE Gas Distribution Mains
  • This paper is about the WMPP in Australia. The project is under construction and will be finished five years ahead of the schedule. Benefits from the project are increase the reliability and quality of supply, avoid substantial water losses through seepage and evaporation, return of some water to enhance river flows, restore water to wet lands and lakes. Thanks to the size of this project it has provided an opportunity to develop special techniques to economically install the plastics pipe systems.The WMPP will ensure water is available to expand existing and new industries and commercial developments.Tags: PVC, pipe, water, system, figure, project, supply, total, diameters, Wimmera Mallee Pipeline Project
  • A widespread molecular, morphological and fracture mechanics characterization could not identify the original materials but found the materials still in a very good condition. The molecular analysis did not show significant polymer degradation as a hint for thermal ageing of the materials and also the thermomechanical behavior reflects comparable values to reference materials. The absence of post crystallization at the outer pipe wall and the obviously not released residual stresses demonstrate that the mechanical material properties are nearly unaffected. The fracture mechanics investigations show a decrease in failure times with an increase of the pipe age. Tags: Failure, crack, materials, pipes Characterization of the Property profile of Old PE Gas Pipes in Service for up to 30 Years
  • This paper shows that the behavior in practice of rigid PVC after about 50 years of use is equal or even better than other materials in service. The general conclusion is that physical ageing has influence on the impact resistance of uPVC gas distribution pipes. As the major contribution of the reduction of the impact resistance is expected to occur in the early life of a rigid PVC pipe, the reduction of the ductility after many years of use is limited. In spite of the expectation that the maximum lifetime of rigid PVC is equal to 50 years, uPVC seems, based on the limited number of test results therefore still as good as it was years ago.Tags: PVC, rigid, impact, gas, pipes, distribution, temperature, ageing, degree PVC Pipes in Gas Distribution
  • Looking for differentiation and more technical applications, the pipe producers / polyethylene producers have developed new products to create added value niches : Low Sag PE100 compounds exhibit the best potential to grow in new pipe segments, where other materials were used. In Germany, several multi-layer pipes systems with several high FNCT PE100 materials with diverse names are used in modern high demanding applications of trench-less and/or sandbed-free pipe installation. For 4 years, in order to eliminate the confusion that existed in the market, several players in the PE pressure pipe industry in Germany are working on a standard, describing the requirements and conditions for these alternative / high demanding installation techniques. Tags: Pe100, pipe, pressure, market, installation, water Trends in PE Pressure Pipe Market in Europe
  • Utility design engineers have the daunting responsibility to maintain system safety and reliability, operate within compliance, design for long term integrity and reliability, and maximize return on investment. Prudent system design addresses material limitations, and then pressure rating criteria, to ensure both safety and compliance. The pressure ratings are determined using the 49 CFR Part 192 pressure rating formula and a design factor of 0.32. PE 4710 materials provide the opportunity to design for the safe replacement of ageing metallic systems. Working within existing code requirements and design formulas, PE gas pipe really can replace large diameter cast iron and steel gas pipe. Tags: polyethylene gas pipe, large diameter, SCG, RCP, pipe geometry The next gas Fronteer
  • Whole of life analysis of water networks is essential for water utilities to undertake so that they can understand the true long-term costs of installing, maintaining and upgrading their assets. The United States preference to look strictly at lowest bid price could lead to serious consequences in the future with networks experiencing higher costs for repair and water loss and requiring faster renewal frequency of pipe installation as a result of the lowest upfront price approach. Tags: water distribution pipes, polyethylene, uPVC, ductile iron, life cycle cost of pipe Life cycle analysis of water networks
  • SABIC supports customers in the development of multilayered concepts. Based on a clear description of customer’s needs, SABIC initiates projects to find suitable materials for their applications. SABIC® PP531P exhibits superior scratch resistance to other PP material classes which makes it a suitable material for a protection layer in multilayered pipe concepts. This work has shown that it is not necessary to fill PP grades with minerals in order to achieve a superior scratch resistance. Moreover it has been shown that filling PP with minerals and working on its E-modulus is not the way to achieve this required functionality.Tags: Pipe, layer, different, enhanced, market Development of Multilayered Pipe Solutions in CEE
  • Direct Addition was developed for highly-filled PVC-u to avoid caking of calcium carbonate and separation of PVC- and calcium carbonate. A special mixer prevents segregation and will mix homogeneously the PVC dry-blend and the calcium carbonate powder. Calcium carbonate level is limited only through the required properties. Direct Addition is an economic solution with lower formulation & energy costs which gives higher flexibility & mixing capacity Tags: Calcium Carbonate, technology, PVC, addition, phr, direct, mixer, international Direct Addition of Calcium Carbonate
  • The Wimmera Mallee Pipeline Project is replacing one of the largest earthen channel systems in the world with approximately 9000 km of pipelines. By recovering water losses from seepage and evaporation, the pipeline secures the viability of the region’s agriculture, its communities and restores flows to severely depleted river and wetland systems. This case study discusses the factors that contributed to the selection of Polyethylene, PVC and Mild Steel as pipe materials for different sections of the network.Tags: Water, lines, supply, pipe, systems, distribution Selection of Pipe Materials for the Wimmera-Mallee Pipeline Project
  • Large diameter PVC pressure pipe is thriving today in Canada. PVC continues to displace metallic pipe and offer superior performance. Rigorous standards and customer education has greatly helped the successTags: PVC, Pipe, Pressure, AWWA, psi Large Diameter PVC pipe
  • Plastic pipes are an attractive solution for building durable and reliable water and sewer pipelines. They have completely different properties than rigid materials such as cast iron, concrete or clay. Lack of indepth knowledge about the differences did not prevent Poland from introducing modern technologies of pipeline installation and rehabilitation. However, it should be stressed that detailed and comprehensive guidelines describing every single stage of the project and its further operation are essential to ensure optimal pipeline installation and easy, cheap and safe operation of the system. Lack of these rules or too general phrasing may lead to problems which will be very time-consuming and costly to solve.Tags: Water, sewer, pipes, guidelines, plastic, installation Contribution of the Polish Water Association to the Market Development
  • The GPPA is still a very young organization, not yet out of its formative stage. Those of us who were present when the idea was first put forward are gratified at the positive response from almost all the stake holders in the plastics pipe value chain. We are grateful of course to Borouge for taking the initiative and giving the initial push and much encouragement during these early days. We take further encouragement from the success of sister organizations throughout the world. Perhaps the first success of the GPPA has been to begin a dialogue throughout the region that has focused on the paramount need for quality from the resin maker to the pipe converter, the designer, the installer and most important the end-user. Our task is now to ensure that each member of the value chain has the tools to carry out his task to the highest possible standards.Tags: Pipe, gppa, plastics, members, region, market, training The Developing Market for Plastics Pipes in the Middle East and the Need for the GPPA
  • Two projects in the upper alpine regions are examples that show how HDPE pipes are capable of meeting extraordinary challenges. That these pipes satisfy such engineering requirements as long service life and high impact resistance goes without saying. Precisely when it comes to laying and installing pipes in confined spaces or in areas where the natural environment must be protected to as great an extent as possible, the relatively low weight of HDPE pipes and the considerably reduced number of required welding operations together make for rapid construction progress. This advantage really comes into its own in regions where the summer periods are relatively short. HDPE pipes offer unexpected advantages, too: leakage currents in the ground remain uninfluenced and cause no damage to the pipes. Tags: Pipes, water, hdpe, supply, pipeline HDPE Pipe Application in Alpine Regions
  • This paper will focus on the issues that were addressed in drawing up such a document and in particular the details of the permeation test employed. The standard needed to be based on something practical, with realistic performance expectations, not on some unattainable ideal in the laboratory; therefore test pieces are full-sized pipes exposed to synthetic petroleum as the test fluid. Fittings are also assessed in pipe assemblies, which must be tested in much the same way as pipe. One of the key issues that had to be addressed was the fact that the first indication of permeation in service conditions is customer complaints of flavour or odour yet how could a threshold level of contamination be determined at which complaints would be triggered. As a consequence, the test procedure contains both a flavour and odour test and a proven analytical technique.Tags: barrier pipe systems; contaminated land; PE pipe systems; hydrocarbon permeation Development of the UK Spec.
  • The availability of fresh, clean water has become a critical issue on a global basis. Through the effective selection, design and installation of HDPE pipe, the Huntington-Cleveland Irrigation Company has addressed two significant regional issues related to management of its local water resources. First, the butt fused HDPE pipe that was used to replace the historic open channel system assures that a greater volume of water will be delivered to the HCIC shareholders. Despite the unpredictable and/or unstable nature of the soils encountered, durable HDPE pipe was clearly the optimal piping material for this demanding project.Tags: Water, pipe, hdpe, project, system, irrigation A critical tool for water resource Management
  • As stated by the second law of thermodynamics, the natural tendency of all things is to move to its lowest state of energy (way of least resistance). Without positive intervention the same would happen to matters of quality in the piping business; probably more so in a developing country. Although this paper is addressed at an audience largely from well established and regulated countries and companies, it is hoped that the South African experience could perhaps be of use to some delegates and we look forward to establishing business relations with individuals and institutions, to continue sharing experiences.Tags: Pipe, quality, standards, plastics, product, market The challanges faced by the plastic pipes
  • The case study presented here has demonstrated the significant advantages of using RTP. The technology used in RTP is an effective and economical solution to many common oilfield problems. This technology has been repeatedly demonstrated through rigorous testing and field experience. The RTP installed by EnCana in the Brooks/Suffield area continues to provide reliable service and ongoing cost savings. Improvements in technology, materials, and processes continue to decrease costs and increase efficiency of manufacture and installation. These trends suggest that RTP is indeed modernizing the pipeline industry.Tags: Reinforced thermoplastic pipe, Flexpipe, EnCana Getting Production in Motion Using Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipe
  • This paper provides a critical review of ASME Code Case N-755 that has recently been developed for the use of PE piping for Class 3, safety-related, nuclear power plant service water applications at temperatures and pressures. Additional experimental data, accelerated testing methods and analytical models are needed to support the prescribed operating conditions for safety-related piping to insure that premature failure due to slow crack growth do not occur during operation. The issues of butt joint integrity with regard to SCG, as well as the non-destructive, volumetric inspection of the joints need to be addressed.Tags: Piping, crack, stress, safety, temperature Use of polyethylene pipe in safety related muclear power plant piping
  • A new very large diameter PE pipe application, namely intakes of seawater for fish farm, has been successfully achieved by using super sag resistant PE100. Both on the technical and economical point of view, the use of super sag resistant PE100 allow substantial savings of cost and time. New super sag resistant PE100 resin exhibits the best potential to grow in new pipe segments. It helps pipe producers to enlarge their product portfolio, making them leading pipe supplier with an attractive product range. It enables pipe producers to enlarge their accessible market with PE pressure pipes and improves positioning at their end users. Tags: Pipe, fish, diameter, resistant, water Extension of the Application Field of PE 100 Pipes
  • The Borouge experience with the original GRP cooling water system at Ruwais in Abu Dhabi was poor with several operational failures during the first six years of operation. This encouraged them to consider large diameter PE pipes in their new plant design. During discussions with the Foster Wheeler design team it was possible to answer all their concerns and develop a competitively priced proposal using large diameter PE100 pipes. Close cooperation between Union Pipes and the Spanish contractor Tecnicas Reunidas’ll solved all the logistics and construction challenges. The use of large diameter PE cooling water pipes in the new Borouge plant at Ruwais will form an excellent reference for other major industrial projects in the Middle East. Tags: Pipe, borouge, exhibit, supply, water, cooling, design Middle East's largest HDPE pipe project
  • This paper will review several of the applications for the Rate Process Method; such as, validation of the PE material hydrostatic design basis per ASTM D 2837, and service life forecast of old generation PE pipe still in service and correlation with actual field failures. We will also investigate a recent application in which the Rate Process Method was used to determine the service life forecast of a molded PE heat fusion fitting, that the manufacturer had flagged during a routine post-production quality check. Since several of these fittings had already been installed for gas distribution, the manufacturer wanted to know what the projected service life would be.Tags: Rpm, test, temperature, butt, failure, fusion Rate Process Method Applied to Service Life Forecast of PE Molded Fittings
  • Multilayer pipes provide a means of addressing specific market needs whilst retaining the performance and durability of the piping system. This provides significant benefits to the end user and at the same time enables the pipe supplier to differentiate their product offer from their competitors. This paper will give an overview of the different solutions that have been produced using the latest raw materials.Tags: BorSafe, PE100-RC, Multilayer Pipes, Sandless bedding, Trenchless technologies, HE3490-LS-H The Development of Multilayer Pipe Constructions
  • A range of investments in the environment and road engineering in the new Member States is really impressive. Several billion Euro that has already been allocated and at least the same amount for the following years promise a bright future for the market. Plastic pipes offer endless possibilities for the installation technologies. Their unique properties such as good flexibility, creeping and memory ability make that old pipelines can be restored to full working order and new pipelines can be built using cost-effective narrow-trench and trenchless technologies. High corrosion resistance and durability contribute to higher reliability of water and sewer systems. Applying trenchless technologies is becoming more and more reasonable, since they decrease the risk of underground installation damage, they are less inconvenient to the public due to road works and are more environmentally friendly.Tags: Water, project, pipeline, sewer, installation Plastic Pipe Systems in Projects Co-Financed with the EU Funds in Poland and in the Central Europe
  • The statistic data of the consumption of polyethylene pipe materials in China has been shown in this paper. The developing trend of polyethylene pipe materials in the following 5 to 10 years in China has been studied and the predicting data of the consumption of polyethylene pipe materials in China has been shown in this paper. And also some suggestions for domestic petrochemical enterprises have been given.Tags: Pipes, materials, water, nature, pex, plastic, china, consumption Study on the Consumption of Polyethylene Pipe Materials In China
  • The 2NCT according to EN 12814-3 is a cost-cutting test method to obtain information about the minimum creep rupture strength of pipes, sheets and components.Tags: Pipes, pressure, creep, 2nct, rupture Resistance of Large Diameter PE Pipes to Internal Pressure
  • The development of special highly stress-crack resistant PE 100 materials is a milestone achievement in the history of PE materials for pipe applications. The resistance to slow crack growth is indeed a very intrinsic property of PE materials for pressure pipe applications (the others being the Minimum Required Strength, and the resistance to Rapid Crack Propagation) and the importance of this property has long been recognised within the industry. These special materials thus make the use of PE 100 even safer than ever before for the transportation of natural gas and drinking water, because the danger of failure due to point loading has now become extremely low indeed. Tags: Test, materials, resistance, pipe, conditions The assesment of the resistance of PE 100
  • ´A new characterization test, called “Nol ring”, has been developed to assess the levels of degradation of polyethylene pipes exposed to disinfectants. It was designed to be simple to carry out and cheaper than classical hydrostatic pressure test, with a special focus on the applied stress. The comparison of Nol ring tests results and Quick burst tests results shows that the developed test induces a Hoop stress, which is quite similar to the stress induced by internal pressure. With this test, it is possible to rate the levels of degradation from new pipes to pipes coming from networks where damage is observed. This classification is based on the surface aspect and the elongation at break.Tags: Nol ring, Tensile Test, Polyethylene pipes, Degradation, Characterization Development of Nol Ring Test To study
  • The correlation factor on PA materials generated by different laboratories demonstrates apparently a high scatter varying between 2 and 10. This high spread is caused by the use of different production batches with different extrusion conditions, etc., for the calculation of the correlation factor. Moreover attention should be paid to the observation that in some FS test results, long cracks of several meters occur already at lower pressures. Full propagation is only observed at the highest pressures. This results certainly in an overestimated correlation factor. Taking into account this conclusion litter difference is observed in the test results for the FS test by Advantica and Becetel.Tags: Compound, factor, correlation, extruder, propagation CUSTOM-MADE PLASTIC PIPES AND FITTINGS PRODUCED FROM POLYETHYLENE MONOCOPOSITE OPEN NEW APPLICATIONS
  • In terms of processing Ca-based stabilizer systems, whether they contain Zn or not are very similar and can replace conventional Pb-based stabilizers in almost all pipe and fitting applications. Based on results of QUV-tests, UV absorber however cannot be recommended to avoid discolouration in general. Ca based stabiliser systems are more and more widely used in pipe extrusion as well as in other PVC applications.Tags: Stabilizers, based, phr, absorber, system, PVC, alternative Ca-Based Alternative Stabilisers - Trend in PVC Pipes and Fittings
  • The quality of laser welding is strongly dependant of the absorption performance of the internal and the external layer. If the outer layer shows a laser transparency of more than 50 % and the internal layer is not laser transparent, then good welds can be achieved. Under these conditions the quality of laser welding can be equal or even better than the quality of thermal welding. The technical realization for pipe applications like a PVC twin wall pipe is not easy but quite feasible. So we can say their might be eventually a future for PVC applications like twin wall pipes, joints and maybe many other PVC applicationsTags: Laser, welding, PVC, wall, layer, pipe, corrugated, pipe, orientation, molecular, thermal Laser welding + molecular orientation of pipes
  • This paper is about opportunities for PVC-O from the new dry system for Bi-Oriented. Everyday PVC-O is becoming a better product to compete, give profitability and prestige to the manufacturer. The new full dry system for producing PVC-O is able to reach: highest range of products, maximum quality and raw material savings, which makes it easier and affordable to enter this business.Tags: Material, orientation, raw, PVC, PVC-O, high, Bi-Oriented New fully dry system
  • Conductive plastics can be made with 10…12% carbon black, but 3…4% Carbon nanotube produces the same or better conductivity. Purification of nanotubes is unnecessary; the residual CaCO3 catalyst carrier has a positive effect for the thermal stability. The price of material will decrease, the additives becomes cheaper, than in case of pure nanotubes. Using the carbon nanotube with CaCO3 catalyst carrier may avoid dusting so the goods (pipes, injection moulded parts, etc.) are permanently antistaticTags: PVC, CaCo3, dry, stability, blend, nanotube, carbon, nanoclay, composite, resistivity PVC-MWNT
  • In 1986, the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation awarded a contract to Mashuda Corporation to build Interstate 279 from the north side of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to connect with Interstate 79 near Wexford, Pennsylvania, approximately 19km to the northwest. The project included several cut and fill sections, varying in fill depth from12 m to over 30.5 m, where this test pipe was installed. All pipe on the project, including the polyethylene pipe, was installed per current (1987) Pennsylvania Department of Transportation installation requirements. Tags: Pipe, deep, test, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation
  • The filler load is influencing the rheology. Bigger effects were observed in the case of the Lead One pack. In the case of OBS and Calcium-Zinc these influences were lower. Higher filler contents will also increase the abrasion, which is good for plate out but bad for barrels and screws. No chalking without expensive light stabilisers. No difference in chalking behaviour when Lead stabilised samples are compared to either OBS or Calcium Zinc.Tags: CaCo3, value, samples, lead, stabilised, PVC, OBS, Weathering, increasing The miracle
  • To summarise pipe soil interaction is a fundamental concept for the performance of plastic pipes under buried conditions which cannot be captured by the traditional design methods. Understanding how the flexible pipe relates to its neighbouring soil, thereby establishing a functional pipe/soil composite structure, is the key to successful design. The FEM can be used for analyzing the performance of plastic pipes under various installation conditions in an effective way. The correlation between simulation and actual data is good and can provide a good visualisation of the performance of the pipes prior to installation. Of course similar to every simulation in engineering the comparison with real cases is always of vital foundation for the further improvement of the software.Tags: FEM, Soil Structure Interaction, Flexibility, Large Diameter HDPE Pipe The Strength of Flexibility
  • Structured wall plastic pipes are widely used for underground sewage drains. Socket joints, integrated onto the pipes themselves, are the most commonly used junction system. With PVC-U pipes, the socket is normally thermoformed in the corrugated wall by a specific belling machine. Other systems, such as coupling collars, socket formed directly by the corrugator, sockets injection-moulded onto the pipe or sockets welded onto the pipe, are not economically or technically competitive in comparison to sockets thermoformed onto the corrugated wall of the pipe.Tags: Pipe, socket, wall, process, corrugated, hdpe Socketing System with Thermoforming Process applied to PP and HDPE Corrugated Structured Wall Pipes
  • The Ohio Research Institute for Transportation and the Environment (ORITE) initiated a comprehensive thermoplastic pipe field test project in 1999. In the project, eighteen large diameter (≥30 in (750 mm)) thermoplastic pipes (6 PVC, 12 HDPE) were buried under sand or crushed rock backfill to 86-96% relative compaction with final fill heights of 20 ft (6.1 m) and 40 ft. (12.2 m). The pipe responses were monitored using strain gages, earth pressure cells and linear potentiometers. Measurements of strains, soil pressure, horizontal and vertical diameter changes, and circumferential shortening were made during construction and afterwards at selected times during the five-year monitoring period. The soil pressures at the crown and spring line after construction declined slightly over time with annual cyclic fluctuations reflecting seasonal changes in temperature and soil moisture. Pipe deflections remained nearly constant after the initial one-year period. Two levels of regression analysis were conducted for the long-term pipe deflection data. Overall, the field notching experiment results showed that the field behaviours of the buried thermoplastic pipe are governed more by stress relaxation than by creep for the size of the defects tested.Tags: Pipe, deflection, HDPE, test, time, term, thermoplastic, soil, Stress Relaxation and Stabilization of Deeply Buried Thermoplastic Pipe
  • The development of a test protocol and apparatus for evaluating stress crack resistance of finish, full size product via stress crack resistance is critical to determine the service life of annular corrugated HDPE pipe. Laboratory verification is currently under way to determine the appropriate loading protocol for each pipe diameter similar to the methodology developed for the initial 24inch diameter pipe. These final aspects of the test protocol will complete this research work and provide the basis for a future international test standard for annular corrugated HDPE pipe stress crack evaluation and service life determination using non-HDB rated resins. Tags: Pipe, crack, stress, hdpe, corrugated, corrugation Determination and Evaluation of Stress Cracking in the Structural Components of Corrugated High Density PE Pipe
  • The installation of PA 12-pipes for the transport of gas or water without sand embedding should be possible if the internal pressure is limited. The critical pressure will be discussed after all test results are available Tags: Pipe, point, stress, wall, pressure Buried PA 12 Pipes for the Transport of Gas & Water
  • In this paper the authors present the assessment of experts from TÜV Nord and SKZ in Germany who evaluated the comprehensive set of test data on pipes, fittings, fusion, and intermediate checks on high pressure field installations in USA and Germany. The experts concluded that the outstanding performance of PA 12 and the over all positive results of the feasibility studies justify the use of PA 12 for high pressure installations operating up to 18 bar with SDR-11 pipes. Regulations in Germany allow only steel pipes for high pressure gas installations. Tags: Pipes, pressure, gas, bar, installations First Waiver For a High pressure POLYAMIDE 12 Gas Installation Granted by TUEV Nord in Germany
  • Based on the laboratory evaluations and field studies performed, polyamide 12 possesses the necessary characteristics to be operated safely and economically at pressures outside of the range of current thermoplastic systems. Polyamide 12 possesses excellent resistance to failure by both the slow crack growth mechanism and excellent resistance to rapid crack propagation phenomenon. The initial experience from the field trial installations indicate that polyamide 12 can be safely and economically installed using conventional equipment for installing existing thermoplastic systems. As a result, polyamide offers an attractive alternative to steel in systems operating a pressures higher than possible with currently accepted thermoplastic systems.Tags: Polyamide, pipe, samples, systems, installation Field Installations and Aged Sample Evaluation Polyamide 12 Natural Gas Distribution Systems Operating at Pressures up to 20 bar
  • There is a clear market wish to use plastic and composite pipes for natural gas pipelines at higher pressures than the traditional limit of 10 bars for PE100 pipes. Candidates are Polyamide 12, plasticized PA6.12, Polyamide 11, other long-chain Polyamide pipes and PE-based composite pipes. However, at higher pressures permeation of natural gas through the wall of plastic or composite pipes increases, depending on materials composition and SDR. An international testing programme was started to measure the permeation rate and permeability coefficient of 14 different 110mm plastic and composite pipes.Tags: Pipe, permeation, coefficient, permeability, gas, methane Methane Permeation through Advanced High-Pressure Plastics Pipes
  • PA-11 pipe can be coiled on much smaller hub diameters than previously thought without compromising the integrity of the gas pipe. Experiments with 2” pipe show that it is possible to deliver pipe to the job site in 48-inch coils as is done with PE, and that only modifications to conventional straightening/re-rounding equipment is needed. It is possible to straighten 4-inch SDR-11 pipe prepared on 70 inch hubs using unconventional equipment of a proprietary design. The pulling forces are extreme unless the rollers in the unit are driven by motors. More work is needed to construct and test a field-able prototype. A new installation of PA-11 gas pipe has been completed. Arkansas Western Gas Company has installed 1.5 miles of 4 inch SDR-11 pipe in a large scale directional boring operation. The pipeline is operating successfully at 200 psigTags: Pipe, inch, gas, diameter, installation, astm Recent advances in PE-RT developments: unleashing the potential of metallocene technology for pressure pipes
  • The industry is seeking polyethylene resins with increased durability for increased longevity and lower overall cost. A new bimodal MDPE pipe resin with improvements in critical failure modes of slow crack growth, stress corrosion cracking / stabilization, and rapid crack propagation has been developed. A fundamental material science design approach was taken to address these needs. The resulting product performance validates the fundamental science understanding. This high performance product extrudes well on conventional equipment, has good melt strength, and can be fused and cross fused to various other pips grades commonly available in the market.Tags: Rapid crack propagation, MDPE, Pipe, slow crack growth, reverse comonomers distribution Advanced biomodal MDPE for piping applications
  • This paper is about the advantages of QuickSwitch to lower the costs. The fact that you do not need to stop production for a change of pipe dimensions offers the prospect of significant savings for all pipe producers. Only a small part during the brief changeover period is count´s as waste. There are two ways of converting to QuickSwitch, the first one is investing in a complete new QuickSwitch line and the other is to convert an existing line step by step. Whichever is chosen the return is a quick payback.Tags: Pipe, Quickswitch, line, system, dimension, PVC, diameter, change, production, pipehead, extrusion Quick Switch - Inline Dimension Change in PVC Pipe Extrusion
  • In the first part the results from the investigations on PP-R pipes and fitting used for the transportation of H2SO4 showed that PP is not damaged, even after 21 years. Thus PP-R is an excellent material for handling sulphuric acid at low concentrations. In the second part of this paper it was reported that PP piping systems were successfully used for more than 21 years to transport CoCl2. Thus, for the first time it was reported that PP is suitable for this type of application. In both described case studies, valuable information was gained about the long-term behavior of PP piping systems used for the transportation of chemicals. Tags: Polypropylene, pipe, corrosion resistance, sulphuric acid, cobalt chloride Experience with polypropylene pipes used in steel mills
  • Since its introduction in 1954, polyethylene uses in pressure pipe systems exhibits an impressive growth story. The most critical point in each of these evolutions, now as well as in the past, is to make sure that the right tests are chosen to give clear evidence of the fitness for purpose of resins and pipes. Finally, of course, even the most appropriate raw materials need the proper processing and the creative approach of innovative pipe makers to turn them into solutions that will allow the endusers to benefit from this. Tags: Pipe, resistance, stress, techniques, figure, crack Non Conventional Installation Technique Requirements
  • Much of the world is coming to realise that we have to take greater care of our planet if there is to be a viable future for humanity. The water around us, together with the earth and the air, support an immensely complex living system which is integral to what we understand to be the web of life. This paper is about one important part of the water cycle: how we manage the collection and treatment of surface water run-off to its eventual disposal back into the environment. Tags: Water, sewers, surface, change, figure, climate SuDS
  • Fluoropolymers have been successfully used for the last three decades as piping system material for aggressive chemicals, in particular when high temperatures are involved. With the expansion of the chip industry in the late 1980ies, the application field of fluoropolymers widened to hot and cold deionized water due to its chemical inertness and cleanliness. Finally, within the last decade, fluoropolymers have been extensively used in domestic hot and cold water piping systems due to their mechanical properties and good long term behavior. Tags: Fluoropolymers, resistance, pvdf, water, applications, pfa, properties Fluorpolymers piping systems
  • One can observe fast development of sewer (both foul-and storm-water) networks in CEE region. This is caused by high delay in development of water-supply systems and following sewage discharge systems. The financial support of so called cohesive founds of European Union is a factor of high importance. Following the Western European tendency existing combined sewer systems are reconstructed into separate ones. The new ones are constructed as separate ones. The growing awareness of environment protection has its own influence on it, too. All these factors have very positive influence on plastics pipe business development, especially in bigger and bigger plastic pipe diameters. Tags: Pipe, production, plastics, water, development, systems Central / Eastern europe experience
  • This paper shows that REACH is a complex piece of legislation. However actions are in hand to produce the necessary documentation to ensure that vinyl chloride monomer is registered and that ECVM members comply with this legislation and also act as a point of reference to interested parties.Tags: Registration, substances, chemical, registered, substance ITS Scope
  • The worldwide demand for polyolefins for the manufacture of pipes is growing not only steadily but also more rapidly than for all other applications. The increase in the demand for HDPE alone corresponds to the maximum capacity of one additional worldscale production plant every year. The driving force behind this growth is the increasing demand for pipelines for water supply, sewerage and gas-supply systems. In developing countries in particular, the construction and expansion of reliable drinking- water supply systems will be one of the decisive challenges of the foreseeable future – in 15 to 20 years, water consumption in China is expected to be 20 to 40 percent of the rainfall, while in India, with a population almost as large, water consumption will even exceed the 40-percent mark. Tags: Growth, production, plastics, increase, capacity The Changing World of the Chemical Industry and its Impact on the Pipe Industry
  • The paper is comparing the Vicat and DMA test results. The Vicat Test is simpler then the DMA Test. From the Vicat Test results we can say the differences between the modulus and softening temperature are low. The DMA reveals the working mechanism of the organoclay. The nanoclay concentration is low; the nanoparticles have no detectable effect on the molecular mobility in the glassy state. Increasing the temperature the nanoparticles might hinder the molecular mobility in the elastic state; increasing the modulus of elasticity. The prepared PVC nanocomposites have good thermal stability, though less than the neat PVC, but enough for the secure processing, pipe or profile extrusion or injection molding.Tags: thermal, Vicat, DMA, figure, compounds, nanocomposites, organoclay, temperature, PVC PVC nanocomposites
  • The U.N. predicts that by 2030 the number will be 8.2 billion and by 2050 there will be between 9 and 12 billion humans on Earth. The third big trend is the present Energy Crisis - a crisis that will only be exacerbated and prolonged by the first major trend, and one whose management is made much more difficult by the urgent need for the world to drastically reduce fossil fuel consumption. The fifth major trend is a personal one; it is a Revolution In Medical Science that will prolong your healthy life far longer that you expect today. The seventh key trend that will affect our futures in The Bottom Billion. Without old investments in legacy infrastructure to protect the way is open to help the bottom billion. Tags: Trend, major, infrastructure, development, key Ray hammond speech
  • This paper will review the two key ISO test methods that are used to determine RCP performance (full scale test and small scale steady state test), and compare the values obtained with various PE materials on a generic basis. We will also review the status of RCP requirements in industry standards; such as ISO 4437, ASTM D 2513 and CSA B137.4. In addition, we will review progress within CSA Z662 Clause 12 and the AGA Plastic Materials Committee to develop industry guidelines based on the values obtained in the RCP tests to design against an RCP incident.Tags: Rcp, pipe, critical, pressure, gas, temperature, iso Increasing Importance of Rapid Crack Propagation for Gas
  • This paper is about the AdvapackTM NEO system. The AdvapackTM NEO system is supposed to lower cost effective, lead free heat stabilizers. The AdvapackTM NEO systems offer excellent PVC heat stabilizing performance properties and a wide processing window to achieve good gelation and satisfying melt flow during pipe extrusion compared to commercial CaZn one-packs. This new technology represents an advanced and more sustainable solution for PVC pipes stabilization.Tags: PVC, neo, lead, AdvapackTM, Stabilizers, pipe, CaZn, pack, color Lead- Free Stabilization for PVC
  • This paper is discussing the short comings of the present strategy based on short-term pressure testing for batch release test in relation to newly developed grades. A proposal for a new strategy for batch release test and quality control better fitted to modern materials will be discussed. It will also be outlined how this new strategy can give more information on the longterm properties of the materials tested.Tags: Test, pressure, materials, failure, time, pipe Short-term pressure testing
  • The study analyses the economic, environmental and technical effects of using plastics in drinking water and wastewater networks. The use of plastics in water and wastewater networks assures important cost savings. The reference to material costs does not explain completely the benefits of using plastic; indeed plastic pipes are cheaper than iron but more expensive than cement pipes. Plastic’s advantages emerge clearly when we consider not only materials cost, but also the construction, maintenance and environmental impact. In some countries, like Italy, environmentally-friendly solutions are not properly considered by pipeline installers, because their additional costs are not recognized by public administrations. The tenders for pipelines building should consider also criteria that evaluate financial benefits of environmentally-friendly solutions. Tags: Costs, Italian, mains, sewers, figure, networks, water, plastic The Benefits of Pipelines Innovation - the Advantages of Using Plastics for Water Industries in Italy
  • Within the UK, Water Industry Specification 4-32-08 has long provided the pass/failure criteria for electrofusion joints in both type and quality control testing including both double cantilever beam cleavage and ramp to burst pressure testing. The pass/failure criteria for the DCB test are considered to be relatively arbitrary and clients are continually demanding results that indicate remaining lifetime of the EF joints within the PE pipe network. Joints made with these defects have been subjected to a much wider range of tests including shear and hydrostatic pressure tests in order to give a better correlation with the results and long-term performance of the joints in the field. Tags: Pipe, performance, testing, pressure, joint Lifetime of PE electrofusion joints
  • The web-based schoolbook about plastics pipes is a mean to improve the competence about our products and hopefully give the community better plastic piping systems in the long run. We recommend the industry in other countries, facing more or less the same challenges, to copy this idea.Tags: Plastic, pipe, pipes, Norwegian, book, content, Norway Plastic pipes for bachelor
  • The life-time expectation of multi-layer commercial plastic pipes with dimensional integrated protective surfaces was investigated. Fracture toughness was chosen as a parameter relevant to evaluation of the resistance of pipe material to slow crack growth. A special type of a Cshaped non-homogeneous fracture mechanics specimen machined directly from the pipe was suggested, numerically analyzed and tested. Transferability of the fracture mechanics parameters obtained from a small laboratory C-type specimen to pipe systems was discussed using a constraint-based two-parameter fracture mechanics approach. Tags: Crack, interface, specimen, stress, fracture, material, pipe Problematic of fracture tougness estimation
  • Virgin Polymer PVC-U duct systems have rapidly evolved as the specified product by all Distribution Network Operators (DNO’s) in the UK for the placement of High Voltage Cables, including EDF Energy & Scottish Power (Iberdrola). The system is cost efficient and easy to install which allowing the cables to perform at their optimum throughout their life cycle.Tags: Duct, cable, systems, socket, heat, road, The design, development and performance
  • The hydrostatic burst behavior of hot and cold pipes extruded from polypropylene random copolymer having wound on its outer surface polypropylene/glass fiber composite tape for reinforcement was analyzed to determine the relationship between the observed strength/failure behavior and the pitch distance of the tape winding. The burst angle rotates in the direction diagonal to the distance between the pitch of the tape wound and when the pitch distance becomes larger than the ductile burst length of the non-reinforce tape, the reinforcing effect of the tape observed in terms of burst pressure disappears. Tags: Burst, tape, distance, korea, pipes, hydrostatic The Role of Fiber Glass Tape Reinforcement on Hydrostatic Burst Behavior of Hot & Cold Water PP Pipes
  • The use of internally notched pipe as a method of accelerating testing of plastic piping materials for potable water applications appears to be a viable method. The method is able to generate the same failure mode as observed with un-notched pipe specimens and significantly reduce failure times. Additional research is required to refine and validate the methodology. Tags: accelerated test, notched pipe, potable water A novel methodology of internal noticed pipe testing
  • Through examination of field exposed pipe specimens and laboratory specimens exposed to accelerated conditions several modes of aging with common features were identified. The crack mechanisms for both the field and laboratory exposed specimens appear to be Mode 3 (Oxidative initiation, mechanical propagation), suggesting that the ASTM F2263 test methodology is capable of replicating the mechanisms of field aging under accelerated conditions. This methodology, therefore, appears able to provide a basis for the development of validation methodologies for demonstrating the performance properties of potable water piping. Tags: Potable water, plastic piping, field exposure, performance validation Characterizing long-term performance of plastic piping materials
  • An experimental method has been developed and applied to the measurement of stresses in assemblies involving crimped or interference fits. In order to examine the reliability of such parts, experimental methods based on mechanics of interference have been developed, analyzed and applied to the measurement of interfacial pressures in axis-symmetric assemblies of crimped fits consisting of plastic insert, plastic tube and metal crimping ring. Various correlations have been made with regard to degree of crimping, effect of relaxation and method of measurement. The technique can be applied to any type of crimped and interference fit systems and particularly useful for determining the interfacial pressures for assemblies already in use. Tags: Method, measurement, crimped, interfacial, ring, plastic Determination of Interfacial Pressure in Crimped Fitting Assemblies
  • Overview of the use and development of the different plastic materials in China. The paper gives input in the 3 main plastic materials used PVC, PE and PP, the main usages, development of standards and growth forecast for the future.Tags: Pipes, plastic, china, industry, market, pipeline, water, enterprise, municipal China Plastics Pipe, Status, Development & Trend


  • In the ha rein presented case study the implementation of this material into a new innovative 3-layer piplng system, the COESTHERM HEXA MULTILAYER PIPE, will be descríbed. The pipe combines the benefits of the improved pressure resistance and long term durability of the PP-RCT at elevated temperatures. This solution offers new possibilities to planners, installers and end-users in different aspects, Iike higher hydraulic capacities or higher permissible operating pressures to cover the hot&cold water distribution over more floars, or faster installation through the chance to down-gauge the dimension of pipes. Beside these benefits the paper describes practical examples of projects carríed aut with this PP-RCT pipe system.Tags: Pipe, rct, system, material PP-RCT pipe solution
  • The tests have shown that, after an exposure of one year, the toughness of the PE pipe is significantly reduced by the action of chlorine dioxide in the presence of scratches on the extruded surface of the pipe. Main variables of the experiment are free chlorine concentration, sample type, circumferential stress in the pipe, water speed and temperature and finally exposure time. The type of disinfectants tested, the planning and the extent of the experimental campaign, the variables considered and the measured responses would provide a deeper understanding on whether chlorine disinfectants could affect the PE pipes properties and lifetime.Tags: Chlorine, experimental, pipes, water, campaign Effect of sodium hypochlorite on the structural integrity of polyethilene pipes for potable water conveyance
  • An experimental method has been developed and applied to the measurement of stresses in assemblies involving crimped or interference fits. In order to examine the reliability of such parts, experimental methods based on mechanics of interference have been developed, analyzed and applied to the measurement of interfacial pressures in axis-symmetric assemblies of crimped fits consisting of plastic insert, plastic tube and metal crimping ring.Various correlations have been made with regard to degree of crimping, effect of relaxation and method of measurement.Tags: Method, interfacial, crimped, measurement, applied Determination of interfacial pressures in crimped fitting assemblies
  • The use of cyclic fatigue test in determining the stress-rupture performance of polymers has been documented for sometime, mostly in terms accelerating the time for lifetime evaluation. For polyethylene, with notched specimens, it has been shown that the cyclic fatigue slow crack test mimics the typical slow crack growth morphology found in stress-rupture mode of testing and thus considered a successful method for shortening the experimental time. The generality involved with this behavior is not yet known however it is observed often within the materials systems so far tested.Tags: Rupture, fatigue, test, cyclic, crack, stress Abnormity in using cyclic fatigue slow crack growth test for ranking long-term performance of plastic pipe grade resins
  • Fatigue, the loss of strength or other important property as a result of stressing over a period of time, is a very general but important phenomenon in most materials. While the response to a monotonic stress, as in static creep rupture, may be considered as a limiting case, the term "Fatigue" usually refers to the more general case of intermittent stressing. Upon creep and cyclic loading the sample crystallinity remained nearly constant over 100 hours. In general, dynamic loading results in material yield quicker than creep test. We observed the larger changes in crystal size and dspacing for the creep loading. Tags: Creep, loading, changes, general, materials Structural evolution of pipe grade polyethylene under static and dynamic fatigue loadings In-situ wide angle x-ray scattering studies
  • Using Alpha Technologies VTM rheometer, a method for determining rapidly the gel content and for monitoring the kinetics of crosslinking in PEX-b specimens was developed. Further optimization of the method was also carried out in order to monitor the crosslinking process of PEX-b compounds within the chamber of the VTM rheometer. The ultimate target was to get access to crosslinking kinetics and to determine the gel content from PEX-b compound within 1 hour starting from the vinyl-silane-grafted HDPE pellets. The conclusions of the correlation between the two methods, i.e., G' and gel content, are presented and discussed within the light of the plastic pipe industry needs to continuously improve material properties and/or their product quality. Tags: Crosslinking, pex, gel, content, method New Testing Capabilities for Crosslinked PE
  • The lifetime prediction of a well established PE100 water pipe has been investigated using chemical analysis on pipes exposed to hydrostatic pressure at various test temperatures in water for durations up to 8 years. The depletion of antioxidants and the build up of oxidative hydroperoxide degradation products have been monitored using oxidative induction time and Iodometry respectively. An empirical model based on the Arrhenius fit of the data has been developed to extrapolate the lifetime of the PE100 pipe material at various service temperatures . Lifetime was found to be far in excess of design. The combination of pressure testing and measurements of OIT and ROOH build up proved to be a very powerful tool to extrapolate the lifetime of plastic pipesTags: Lifetime, extrapolate, build, temperatures, various Lifetime Prediction of PE100 Pipe Materials
  • Pressure shock testing of HDPE pipe lines is required to approve water supply systems to leak tightness. The question arise how the long term performance of the HDPE resin could be affected by the start up procedure. A laboratory methodology is applied to investigate the slow crack resistance and viscoelastic material behaviour of the HDPE pipe resin. > From compression moulded sheets tensile bars were prepared to perform cyclic tensile stress loadings. The applied stress was kept below the yield strength of the materials. The influence of the cyclic strain history on slow crack propagation was observed using the so called 2NCT method. Changes in molecular structure and physical properties were analysed.Tags: Hdpe, stress, slow, applied, resin Influence of shock pressure on service life time of PE pipes
  • This paper will initially examine the evolution of plastic pipes to date, before providing a blueprint for future development. The review of the past includes the "Warts and all" problems that were encountered with the early plastic pipe materials, but also documents the improvements/advantages they now offer over traditional materials and how this has been realised through a process of continuous development. The potential for development is discussed for both PE and PVC families of materials, including a review of the mechanisms by which the development of resistance to crack growth occurs, and how this may be demonstrated through the use of small scale laboratory tests.Tags: Development, materials, pvc, resistance, levels Evolution of Plastic Pipe Materials
  • Pipes of the dimension dn 50x4,6 were produced by conventional extrusion and injection moulding as well as compression moulding of sheets of the same thickness. To examine long term values internal pressure tests were performed on whole pipe specimens and samples tested in 2-Notch Creep Test. The injection moulded pipes show a zone structure with different layers. Morphological the extruded pipes show the well known increasing gradient of crystallinity from the outer to the inner pipe wall. The extruded pipes show a homogeneous crystallinity with lower crystallinities in the outer and inner zone for some polyethylenes. Injection moulding results in longer failure times and a better SCG-behaviour compared to extrusion of pipes for the investigated pipes.Tags: Pipes, results, show, injection, Morphological Considerations on Slow Crack Growth in Polyethylene Pipes Under Different Production Conditions
  • Multifunctional Silane Systems™ are tailor-made and highly specialized products under the Dynasylan® brand label. Especially for the PEX industry the product line Dynasylan® SILFIN is serving the industry as ready-to use system solution for silane crosslinking of polyethylene. As an example for potable water pipes the recommended grades of Dynasylan® and Dynasylan® SILFIN consist of food contact approved additives. Also as processing and constant product quality with reduces downtime and less off-spec material becomes even more critical every day we work on improvements of the silane containing cross-linking process. Tags: Dynasylan, processing, silane, silfin, grades Multifunctional Silane SystemsTM for PEX Pipes
  • One of the reasons why these problems have not been addressed is that insufficient testing is conducted on larger diameter fittings to establish the ability of the various joint methods to cope with the problems identified. Bodycote PDL has therefore established a test facility capable of discriminating between good and bad fittings to: Investigate problems experienced in the field Investigate existing solutions to the problems Develop new solutions to the problems Only by addressing these issues in the manner identified will PE100 remain as a viable option for large diameter pipelines in the future. Tags: Problems, pipe, diameter, material, methods Joints for Large Diameter PE Pipe
  • Resistance to slow crack growth is an important material property of polyethylene especially for pipe applications. Slow crack growth resistance of polyethylene pipes and materials is usually assessed by tedious and time consuming testing methods performed on notched samples in contact with specific fluids.It will be shown that resistance to slow crack growth in polyethylene can be predicted from a simple true-stress true-strainmeasurement at 80°C. It is shown that for bimodal polyethylene materials for pipe applications the slope of the stress-strain curve above its natural draw ratio correlates well with the measured stress crack resistance via traditional methods.Tags: Crack, growth, resistance, polyethylene New Accelerated methods to determine Slow Crack Growth behaviour of polyethylene pipe materials
  • The hydrostatic burst behavior of hot and cold pipes extruded from polypropylene random copolymer having wound on its outer surface polypropylene/glass fiber composite tape for reinforcement was analyzed to determine the relationship between the observed strength/failure behavior and the pitch distance of the tape winding. The burst angle rotates in the direction diagonal to the distance between the pitch of the tape wound and when the pitch distance becomes larger than the ductile burst length of the non-reinforce tape, the reinforcing effect of the tape observed in terms of burst pressure disappears.Tags: Wound, distance, pitch The role of fiber glass tape reinforcement on hydrostatic burst behavior of hot and cold water polypropylene pipes
  • The experimental study has shown that the pipe stiffness measured at 5% ring deflection, using 0.3mm thick 12mm wide and 30% glass volume fraction tape showed about 11% from that of the non-reinforced double wall pipe having a nominal diameter of 200mm when the wound pitch distance was 1/4 of the pipe diameter. The finite element analysis successfully predicted the percent increase in stiffness for the 1/4 wound pitch specimen and also an gave estimated increase of 21% for similar width and volume fraction glass reinforced tape having 1.0mm thickness, wound to the pitch of 2/5 of the pipe diameter. Tags: Pipe, wound, pitch Stiffness enhancement of structured-wall polypropylene pipe using glass fiber tape reinforcement
  • In particular, polymeric pipes for conveying fluids are of much interest, as they continue to replace pipes produced from conventional materials. There are standards addressing the requirement for reliable and safe use of these pipes. For the case where the requirements are not strictly adhered to, as for example, the use of out-of-standard recyclite and/or improper utilization of reprocessed materials and/or improper processing, etc, a method that would depict the effect of such addition and/or processing on the performance of the pipe would be useful. The method basically work by continuous weakening of the pipe through fatiguing the pipe structure until noticeable deviation occur from that of the properly manufacture pipe.Tags: Pipe, method, addition, structural Structural integrity evaluation of structured-wall plastics pipe using cyclic fatigue
  • Objectives for the PE-X Association Several suppliers of cross-linked polyethylene formed the PE-X Association, with the aim to foster the market expansion of PE-X pipes through Promotion and knowledge of PE-X materials Close contact with national regulators and trade associations Work with recognized standard institutes Participate in European working groups Provide data on properties of PE-X Share the costs on research projects of common interest Participate actively in new standards e.g. gas and industrial The PE-X Association is a non-profit organization, open to any European based companies, institute or Individuals. Tags: Pipes, cross, germany, linking, properties, material PE-X Pipes in Action
  • A large sampling campaign was launched on seven countries in order to test different collections of PE pipes with differentgrades, diameters, nominal pressures, water qualities, and operating conditions. A total of 117 non failed samples extracted from field were characterized by the improved Nol Ring technique. The mechanical values of elongation and stress at break permitted to rank samples according to their mechanical resistance. The second step was to rank the samples using this classification to give the degradation state overview of our PE connection pipe network according to different conditions. Tags: Mechanical, degradation, values, technique, nol The Nol Ring Test: An improved tool for characterizing the mechanical degradation of non failed polyethylene pipe house connections
  • The National Association of Home Builders (Research Center) completed the development of a new Design Guide on PEX for residential plumbing systems. The Guide was developed in cooperation with PPI, PPFA, PATH and NAHB RC. This paper will summarize the Guide and will specifically address: advantages, material properties, code acceptance, joining methods, plumbing systems, performance, installation and other applications. In addition, the paper will summarize the results of ongoing research projects that compare the flow rate of PEX to copper and compare the effect of water hammer on PEX, copper and CPVC.Tags: Pex, guide, compare, paper, plumbing Residential PEX Water Supply Plumbing Systems
  • Since a kinetic model was established to predict MW thickness profiles in the preceding parts of this series of articles, it becomes possible to predict the time to failure under coupled effects of pressure and chemical degradation induced by chlorine dioxide. For common end use chlorine dioxide content, model simulations predict that time to failure is less than the 50 years expected lifetime, which is in accordance with some experimental data.Tags: Polyethylene pipes; Disinfected water; Chlorine dioxide; Degradation; Failure; Kinetic modeling. Lifetime Prediction for Polyethylene Pipes Transporting Chlorine Dioxide Disinfected Drinking Water Under Pressure
  • An essential need is the ability to determine the end of life of installed pipes, of different materials, which relate to their different operational and environmental conditions. Actual life depends upon the working environment and operating conditions of the pipe. Precisely determining the end of life of polymer pipes, as they approach and go beyond their nominal life of 50 years, is difficult but important if planned replacement is to avoid frequent, costly and unpopular emergency repair activities. The research to be presented shows several different methods for assessing the age of pressurised polymer water pipes. Tags: Pipe, life, water, polymer, methods Chemical and Mechanical Evaluation of Polymer Pipes to Determine Remaining Life
  • The net result of the experiment shows that the maximum temperatures that the piping materials can reach are substantially below that which was previously assumed, and varies according to the wall thicknesses of the materials. In schedule 40 wall thicknesses of the materials, the maximum temperature of the polypropylene and PVDF materials tested are reached after five minutes of exposure to being filled with the 100 ºC water. Support spacing at elevated temperatures of high temperature rated materials such as polypropylene and PVDF are discussed and compared to lower temperature materials such as polyvinyl chloride and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene Tags: Materials, temperature, piping, wall, maximum Temperature behavior of un-insulated thermoplastic piping in drainage of hot waste


  • poster program 1Tags: Poster Presentations 1
  • Abstract book with info on the conference, all the abstracts, info on the organisers, sponsors and exhibitersTags: abstract, paper, PPCA, PVC,PE ,PP Program Book
  • poster program 2Tags: Poster Presentations 2

Plastic Pipes (1970-2006)

Plastic Pipes 13 (2006) - Washington DC | Plastic Pipes 12 (2004) - Milan | Plastic Pipes 11 (2001) - Munich | Plastic Pipes 10 (1998) - Gothenburg | Plastic Pipes 9 (1995) - Edinburgh | Plastic Pipes 8 (1992) - Eidhoven | Plastic Pipes 7 (1988) - Bath | Plastic Pipes 6 (1985) - York | Plastic Pipes 5 (1982) - York | Plastic Pipes 4 (1979) - Brighton | Plastic Pipes 3 (1974) - Southampton | Plastic Pipes 2 (1972) - Southampton | Plastic Pipes 1 (1970) - Southampton |

Plastic Pipes 13 (2006) - Washington DC


The DSC appears to be an appropriate method at a reasonable cost to assess a very importantparameter of rigid PVC processing in a very large range of practical formulations without the need of recalibrating the method for each new additive and it will make it possible for the processor to optimise as well the product quality as the process itself.Tags: Gelation, temperature, filler, PVC, DSC, method, processing, tin DSC-Gelation Measurement - Influence of Pipe-Formulation on Result

In polyolefins, talc is recognized as one of the most efficient filler to bring efficient mechanical reinforcement, superior dimensional stability and part isotropy and temperature resistance. The Ring Stiffness data confirmed the high reinforcement obtained on samples: Improved rigidity : +15 to 20% versus very fine talc marketed, Enhanced dimensional stability (reduction of CLTE by 10 to 15%), Improved temperature resistance as measured by HDT, Similar impact performanceTags: Talc, tinto, rio, pipes, temperature, preformance, stiffness, plastic The Use of Talc in Polyolefins Pipes Reinforcement

High performance organic pigments can be used to satisfy the requirements of ASTM D2513. Lacking an ASTM requirement to be in a specific area of color space, the organic pigment formulas are seen to reach the same area of color space as current commercial pipe with no economic penalty. Organic pigments broaden possible application areas for rework and reduce disposal issues as well.Tags: Color, organic, pigments, inorganig, space, free of heavy metal Organic Pigments for Weatherable PE
Adams, Huska, Reinicker

For most pipe applications impact modification is not required. In certain cases however, incold climates, for pressure or thin-walled pipes, high impact strength is essential. The generalunderstanding of impact improvement of thermoplastics is that the presence of a second –elastomeric – phase is essential to absorb the mechanical energy of the impact stress. However, it is also known that certain inorganic particles can have a positive influence on impactstrength, like nanoclays or fine talc in PP or ultrafine-coated precipitate calciumcarbonate in PVC.We have developed an inorganic material based on synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide withan average primary particle size of 150 nm and a specific surface area of 20 m2/g, calledSIDISTARTags: impact, silica, particles, Amorphous silicon dioxide, rigid PVC pipe Inorganic Impact Modifier and Processing Aid for PVC Pipes
Schmaucks, Friede, Sorhuus, Roszinski

Every one knows that plastic is a fantastic material in a fault and rain water application field. There are lots of advantages in use of plastics: very good hydraulics (low material roughness), no incrustation (no sediment / sludge influence on a pipe surface), tightness of connections, durable materials / long life of a system, chemical resistance, light weight, ease of installation. Also this paper give a short overview about the new Developments that have been made for the plastic pipe market: short or long cameras, Water jet cleaning equipment, air balloons to stop a flow in a pipe or a chamber, robots to repair small diameter pipes from the inside Tags: Pipe, system, water, chambers, inch, sewage, plastic CEE Experience with Market Development of Plastics Gravity Pipe Networks and Plastic Chambers

With detail designing & planning among pipeline engineers & designers, excellent coordination/cooperation between pipe producers and field installers and perfect execution, the MTD pipeline was completed on time and went on line during fourth quarter 2003. It marked a paramount advancement for HDPE pipe and the completion of the largest PE100 project for smooth wall pressure pipe in North America – both in terms of continuous system length and pipe diameter.Tags: Pipe, pe100, pipeline, project, resin, materials, installation Largest PE100 Project in North America
Chang, Zhou, Michie

If 50% of sewage network operators in Germany changed to the use of PE-80 piping, the newly generated market potential would be around 5.000 km / year in the diameter range 280 –560 mm and 3.000 km in the dimension 160mm. This future market potential is already bigger that the combined gas and drinking water PE market in Germany today. This opens new market opportunities for the industry, which can be realized through advertisements and public relations work by the leading end-user, in co-operation with other members of the value chain.Tags: Pipe, germany, sewage, installation, water, gas Sustainable sewage management through high quality piping systems made HDPE
Fiedler, Ebner

PVC-O makes up only about one percent of North America’s annual installed footage in the four-inch and larger water pipe market and is produced by only one manufacturer. It is expected that more water utilities become aware of PVC-O.What is counter-intuitive about the product is that a reduction in wall thickness would provide a pipe that is tougher.Tags: pipe, PVC-O, PVC, AWWA, pressure, water, standard, iron, surge, inch, ductile, psi, product, HDPE Molecularly Oriented PVC Pipe - The North American Experience

In the light of the findings – and subsequent analysis and evaluation of the observed data – this report has reached the following key conclusions about the relative merits of the different sewer pipe types currently available: In service, flexible pipes perform better than rigid pipes, Buried pipelines need flexibility, Fittings for flexible pipeline systems ensure more reliable connections, Installation of flexible pipeline systems reduces risk to the environment, Flexible sewer pipelines are the sound, long-service option.Tags: Flexible, rigid, sewer, defects, pipe, Germany, environmental Sustainable Municipal Pipes - The Performance of Plastics Pipes in Sewer Systems

The comparison of the R-curves obtained from the two types of specimens (with and without a protective layer) indicates that both are practically identical. Both types of specimens can be used for the estimation of fracture toughness and the R curve of the inner layer material. The application of a protecting pipe with a higher value of the Young modulus (E1/E2 < 1) leads to decrease in the corresponding stress intensity factor and increases the critical crack length. It follows from the results obtained that the corresponding service life of two-layer pipes can be influenced by their material composition and this fact can be used to increase the lifetime of pipes.Tags: Layer, pipe, protective, crack, stress, material, curve, Analysis of the Fracture Behaviour of Multi-Layer Pipes
Nezbedova, Vlach, Knesl

A PE80-based composite pipe was fabricated. To improve the interfacial interaction between the reinforcement and the pipe, polyethylene yarns were fabricated by a micro-braiding technique for use as the reinforcement. This pipe showed excellent long-term creep strength compared with the PE80 gas pipe or pipes reinforced with other kinds of resin.Tags: Pipe, micro, polyethylene, reinforcement, hdpe, strength,creep Fabrication and Evaluation of PE-Based Composite Gas Pipe
Higuchi, Nakai, Hamada

The results of the technology development satisfied the development targets. But because the devices and joints are prototypes, it will be necessary to re-evaluate the reliability, dependability, durability, environmental and site applicability of each technology using final products intended for sale. Its effectiveness will be improved by combining the conventional method with the insertion method, rather than executing the insertion method at all renovation work sites.Tags: Pipe, gas, device, branch, joints, pressure, tube Development of the Innovative Technology for Aged House Pipes Using Double-Layered Corrugated Plastic Pipe
Akiyama, Higuchi, Nose, Toyoda, Kitano, Kuriyama

Modern plastic materials and multilayer pipe structures make it possible to design and adapt pipes to the most challenging requirements. Considerable cost savings with an additional gain in safety can be realised with no-dig technologies. Integrity proof gives assurance to the pipeline operator. The possibility for permanent monitoring opens the road for plastic pipes in new high sensible and demanding applications. Therefore new applications are conquered by intelligent pipe structures and establish new markets. One of the last domains reserved for traditional materials, high pressure applications are opened for plastics by using intelligent reinforcements with highly oriented polymer fibres like Kevlar. Certainly, a lot of new reinforced thermoplastic pipes (RTP) are in development. Several new applications are imaginable in the future.Tags: Pipe, installation, materials, layer, pressure, diffusion, multilayer Multilayer Pipes with Integrated Leakage Monitoring for Trenchless Technologies

The material differences in multi-layer polymeric/metallic pipes may lead to high hoop stress gradients in polymeric and metallic layer and to inward buckling of the inner layer at elevated temperatures. This would also affect the short-term and long-term behavior of pipes. The theory of thick-walled tubes subjected to internal hydrostatic pressure was used to calculate the effective interfacial pressure and hoop stresses related to each layer. For long-term extrapolation of internal pressure data, a combined linear and quadratic regression analysis was used and was implemented in the software ADAPTags: Layer, pressure, term, pipe, long, multi, hydrostatic Long-Term Hydrostatic Resistance of Multi-Layer Pipes

Based on the polyamide 12 experience at AGL which demonstrates a history of use for polyamide 12 for over 10 years at stress levels slightly below those anticipated in the US application and the positive results from the ASTM D2837 LTHS testing and the GTI project, polyamide 12 has demonstrated a feasibility for use in natural gas distribution systems operating at elevated pressures in the US.Tags: Pipe, system, crack, psi, polyamide, natural, An evaluation of Polyamide 12 for High Pressure Natural Gas Distribution Applications
Wolf, Akagawa, Nakamura, Patadia

It was concluded from experimental data that the average molecular weight (MN) has a better correlation to K-value by best fit linear trend in a log-log relationship than would weight average molecular weight (MW). Test results also showed increasing viscosity and physical properties such as tensile, impact and HDT as MN increased. Using the singular set of sample preparation conditions resulted in a critical point, beyond which the rate of property improved per unit of molecular weight would drop, due to insufficient energy input to give the polymer melt its optimal properties. The origin of resins did not play a significantrole in determining properties. However, when incorporating ultra-high molecular weight resins into a low to medium molecular weight resin, a decline in IZOD impact was observed, and this may lead to concerns if to apply such practice to an actual extrusion process, where the drop impact properties of the product is critical.Tags: resins, properties, molecular, weight, resin, north, value, torque, PVC, fusion,impact, tensile, pipe, physical Choosing PVC Resins for Formulation Properties
Zena, Connolly

The efforts to improve PE100 or to develop higher rating material like PE125 are continuing in many PE manufactures to meet more demanding new installation methods and to contribute to enhancing the safety margin of the PE pipe-line system. As previous studies and this study clarify, what is important for excellent durability is to concentrate co-monomer in HMWC and distribute them as evenly as possible. We could achieve such molecular architecture by precise and sophisticated polymerization control and develop new PE100 with excellent SCG resistance using our 3 cascadereactor process, AMSLP, and our high performance Ziegler-Natta catalyst.Tags: Pe100, pe125, molecular, weight, higher, between, crack High Performance PE100 Resin with Extraordinary Resistance to Slow Crack Growth
Yoshikiyo, Hattori

Since the introduction of PE100 at the end of the 1980’s, some progress has been made in making these materials more processing friendly. The first was the development of “Low Sag” (LS) materials. This made the production of extruded pipes, having large diameter and large wall thicknesses feasible, because the hot material in the pipe wall no longer moves to the bottom of the pipe during the cooling stage, and thus very large pipes having very regular dimensions can be produced. The quest for a specialised PE100 injection moulding material has shown itself to be more difficult since easy processing in injection moulding means having a material which exhibits good flow properties and this in turn means lower molecular weight. Thanks to the flexibility of the Borstar process and the use of hexene co monomer a true PE100 injection moulding material has now been developedTags: Material, pe100, process, injection, flow, moulding, resistance, crack Innovative PE100 Material Improves the Quality and Productivity of Injection Moulded Fittings
McGoldrick, Baeckmann, Walton, Nestelberger

As mentioned above, polyethylene using a meatallocene caatalyst has narrower composition distribution, more uniform crystal structure, and more tie molecules than conventional polyethylene, so it has outstanding andcomposition distribution.Tags: Material, high, flow, pe100, Introduction of New Materials High-Flow PE100 Grade

Arguably the greatest human needs and environmental challenges facing mankindinvolve water and sanitation. According to statistics gathered by the World Health Organization (WHO) one- fifth of the world population lack safe drinking water and twice as many have no sanitation? The PVC industry and its products make important contributions to sustainable development, helping to conserve naturalresources, improve people’s lives, and contribute to economic capacity building in bothdeveloping and developed nations around the world. The paper will address the needs forsustainable, corrosion- free pipes and document the fulfilment of those needs through theuse of PVC pipe.Tags: water, PVC, pipe, system, year, sustainable, breaks, more, billion, world, iron, drinking, infrastructure, sanitation Corrosion-Free Solution for Sustainable Water and Wastewater Systems

New technology shows an extended performance envelope of bimodal PE resins, with SCGRCP performance exceeding the performance of current bimodal PEs. This new technology is uniquely positioned to deliver bimodal resins that will meet the increasing requirements for RCP worldwide.Tags: Polymer, rcp,weight, resistance, wone, temperature, resin, Taking Slow Crack Growth - Rapid Crack Propagation Balance of Biomodal PE100 Resins to the Next Level
Reinking, Mehta, Garrison, Joseph, Schwab

The consistency observed in the failure mechanism for the different oxidants suggests that the methodologies developed for chlorine resistance testing can also be applied to analysis of the impact of chloramines and chlorine dioxide on pipe performance. While the macroscopic mechanisms observed appear similar between the different oxidants, the overall aggressiveness of the oxidants at the test conditions is observed to vary noticeably.Tags: An Examination of the Relative Impact of Common Potable Water Disinfectants
Chung, Oliphant, Vibien, Zhang

To put it briefly, using polyethylene pipes as interactive liners to renovate gas pipelines helps to restore pipelines with operating pressures above 10 bars. Demand in this field is quite substantial. Trenchless technologies are becoming more and more cost effective in Poland; therefore, pipe manufacturers extend the range of applications of their products and seek to solve problems that may arise. The number of projects of this type completed all over the world is not large. Owing to the increasing experience our knowledge about polyethylene is expanding and being verified, while methods and application technologies are constantly being improved.Tags: Pipe, gas, pipeline, pressure, renovation, liners, interactive Renovation of a 2.4 km Stretch of 2.5 MPA Gas Pipeline Using Compact Pipe Technology
Wroblewska, Roszkowski

Sustainable development requires reliable and adequate solutions in all the fields of application. At the level of water transport and pipe networks, Plastic Pipes are the natural choice for water transport in a sustainable development perspective. The main advantages are: an easy installation, a low maintenance costs, very low leakage rates, inertness towards water transported and surrounding soil, lower impact on environment during installation, lower energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gas over their lifecycle and many others.Tags: Pipe, water, supply, lifecycle, soil, materials, installation PE Pipes - The Natural Choice for Sustainable Development

A skinned pipe has been developed to give protection to the core pipe and to raise the quality of EF joining. Data given above demonstrates the efficacy of the pipe in fulfilling these targets. The quality of ProFuse pipe has been raised further by informed processing, so that the resistance to fracture has been significantly enhanced, and initial tests show it to be superior to plain PE100 pipes. The plastics pipe industry will increasingly introduce multilayered pipes, as these will give benefits to the pipe installer and asset owner. ProFuse is one such pipe.Tags: Pipe, test, pe100, made, skinned, impact, wall, joint, generation Second Generation Skinned Pipes with Enhanced Fracture Resistance
Wood, Richards, Street, Muckle, Bowman

A skinned pipe has been developed to give protection to the core pipe and to raise the quality of EF joining. Data given above demonstrates the efficacy of the pipe in fulfilling these targets. The quality of ProFuse pipe has been raised further by informed processing, so that the resistance to fracture has been significantly enhanced, and initial tests show it to be superior to plain PE100 pipes. The plastics pipe industry will increasingly introduce multilayered pipes, as these will give benefits to the pipe installer and asset owner. ProFuse is one such pipe.Tags: Pipe, test, pe100, made, skinned, impact, wall, joint, generation 30 Years of Pressure Testing on PE-Xa Pipes
Nitz, Vogt

The UKWIR National Mains Failure Database has resulted in co-operation of all the UK water companies in the sharing of data in an unprecedented manner. Assurance of confidentiality is thought to be the key to this success. The database currently comprises 480,000 failure records and 350,000 km of water mains. Whilst far from error free, the data represents an enormous step forward in the provision of a robust dataset to aid the understanding of buried infrastructure assets and their failure. The largest challenge is in the collection of accurate information from the field at the time a repair is carried out. Some form of “expert system” on a hand held device may be the answer.Tags: Data, database, comparison, failure, pvc, material, stock Ukwir National Mains Failure Database

Characterisation of the SICA belling process is not solely related to the functional qualities of the belling machine: raw material, pipe, extrusion process, socket geometry and dimensions are all decisive elements in the creation of a complete production system for socketed polyethylene pipes for conveying pressurised water. Focusing on the material, the technical and economic feasibility of a thermoforming belling process emerged with the development of bimodal PE100. When PE125 becomes 10 commercially available, since this material is compatible with reduced pipe wall thicknesses further development of the product is envisaged with consequent increases in machine output rates and energy efficiencyTags: Socket, pipe, process, wall, polyethylene, ring, machine Socket Forming Process for PE Pipes for Conveying Pressurized Water

In a significant departure from its past stance on material issues, the Plastics Materials Committee of the American Gas Association orchestrated a protective, focused and coordinated effort to adress these issues in 2002, challenging the advancement of PE materials. Developing A common PE Material Specification one such group of engineers and operations experts came together in the New York7 New Jersey metropolitan area to embark on two parallel paths of change: address basic utility needs for the supply of critical materials while also leveraging their operational knowledge to ensure the use of the right materials for the safe and efficient distribution of natural gasTags: Pipe, material, gas, utility, bimodal, suppliers, industry Specifying PE by Material Performance

The development of the CPVC/metal/CPVC composite pipe engineered system presented a challenge not only in the development of the materials, but also in the design of the equipment. Adhesive allowed all five layers of the pipe to perform as one single layer. Aluminium and steel had to be defined for each target market and their respective requirements. Modification to the die designs were developed forthe thin wall CPVC requirements. The metal forming laser welding equipment was developed for the entire product range for thin wall aluminium and thick wall steel. Currently the CPVC/aluminium/CPVC composite pipe for 1/2 inch and 3/4 inch size has NSF SE listing.Tags: Composite, CPVC, Bendable, Noveon, multi-layer CPVC/Metal/CVPC Composite Piping Systems

A new innovative technology process offers the PEX pipe industry a third choice in materials for producing PEX-b piping. The Vinyl Silane Copolymer or Visico™ process technology, invented and patented by Borealis AS, copolymerizes the silane directly into the PE polymer chain during the polymerization process. BorPEX by Visico Technology is suitable for use in standard monolayer PEX piping as well as multi-layer pipe and injection molded parts where its lower melt viscosity offers easier processing. Offers the benefit of lower processing temperatures. BorPEX by Visico Technology is crosslinked in the traditional manner by exposing the pipe to hot water or steam. Also it offers superior organoleptic performance versus pipe produced from the Sioplas and Monosil technologiesTags: Pex, pipe, technology, crosslinking, borpex, water, hot, cold Copolymerized Silane PEX Technology - A New Innovation for Producing PEX Pipes
Hojer, Janson, Oderkerk, Venator

The tested district heating pipes with PE-X service pipes and semi flexible PU foam are fit for purpose for a lifetime of more than 30 years.Tags: Pipe, water, heating, time, temperature, pressure Flexible, Pre-Insulated Polymer District Heating Pipes
Bassewitz, Jansen, Liebel

PEX pipes are also widely spread for hot water supply and space heating in Osaka Gas. The hot water supply systems have been established.They can also enhance the work efficiency at housing construction sites and also reduce the working time by a benefit of light weight and fexibilty of a material.Tags: Pipe, water, pex, hot, heating, life, supply, time, stress Evaluation Methods for Crosslinked PE Pipes for Hot Water Supply and Space Heating Systems
Nishimura, Kawaguchi, Igawa

Clearly the PP-RCT pipe systems offer a number of important benefits. This can be illustrated from an example in the Middle East, where it is common practice to install the water supply tank on the roof and use the force of gravity to distribute water around the building. Using thinner walled pipes made of PP-RCT material provides a better flow capacity to all tapping points around the building, which is greatly appreciated by the local plumbers and designers.Tags: Rct, psi, pressure, class, temperature, pipe, water, system PP-RCT A New Material Class for Plumbing and Heating Applications
Gard, Stamm, Schmidt

The development of the CPVC/metal/CPVC composite pipe engineered system presented a challenge not only in the development of the materials, but also in the design of the equipment. Adhesive allowed all five layers of the pipe to perform as one single layer. Aluminium and steel had to be defined for each target market and their respective requirements. Modification to the die designs were developed forthe thin wall CPVC requirements. The metal forming laser welding equipment was developed for the entire product range for thin wall aluminium and thick wall steel. Currently the CPVC/aluminium/CPVC composite pipe for 1/2 inch and 3/4 inch size has NSF SE listing.Tags: Composite, CPVC, Bendable, Noveon, multi-layer CPVCMetallCVPC Composite Piping Systems

The decision to use the material polypropylene for the underground carbon dioxide line has proved valuable and enabled the customer to finish the connection of the M5000 methanol plant in Trinidad to the ammonia plants located in the neighbourhood quickly. The delivered pipeline systems and the site support in Trinidad during installation have allowed the largest worldwide methanol plant to start its commercial operation on schedule.Tags: Methanol, trinidad, plant, line, welding, carbon, producing, pipe Installation of A ID 1050 mm PP Pipe in a Methanol Plant in Trinidad
Habedank, Haese

LDPWPE pipe can be designed for pressure applications, however the mechanisms controlling the design are different than those controlling the design of solid wall pipe. Alternative design analyses is required and specialized field joining methods must be adopted to ensure that the pipeline has uniform pressure retention capability along its’ entire length.Tags: Pipe, wall, pressure, internal, solid, joint, diameter, waterway Large Diameter Profile Wall Pressure Pipe
Vestman, Andtbacka, Groen

All in all: The fittings should be pre-crosslinked in order to increase their lifetime.The fitting should be redesigned in order to reduce the stressconcentration factor.Tags: Pipe, abrasion, test, fitting, pipe, fish, resistance New Realm of Possibilities for PEX Pipes
Bar, Nitz

Through advanced molecular architecture and improved process control, the manufacture of polyethylene with superior Long Term Hydrostatic Strength at high temperatures is now possible. These polymers form the basis for a new class of Polyethylene materials: PE-RT (Polyethylene of Raised Temperature resistance) for industrial and domestic hot water pipe applications. The uniqueness of these materials is that they do not need to be cross-linked to deliver the desired Long Term Hydrostatic Strength at high temperature. Another benefit of DOWLEX 2388 is its excellent processability, which results in higher line speed extrusion, especially for composite PE/Al/PE pipes. The advantages of PE-RT can be translated to larger dimension pipes and molded products, such as industrial and multilayer structured pipes.Tags: Pipe, temperature, application, water, iso, hot, long, strength PE-RT, A New Class of PE For Industrial Pipes
Schramm, Jeruzal

The pipe used for the demonstration was found to be weld-compatible with conventional PE pipes, as used in gas and water networks. Collapse under vacuum is only feasible for pipes of relatively low ring stiffness and to achieve similar effects in conventional PE pipe materials the operation would need to be conducted at elevated temperature. The technique may be applicable to conventional PE pipes during extrusion production before full cooling is achieved Other potential applications include using the thermoplastic elastomer material as a thin liner membrane to seal an existing leaky pipe and to provide a clean primary surface for further renovation with a harder sprayed coating.Tags: Pipe, convertional, vacuum, diameter, using, A Novel Approach to PE Pipe Insertion Using Four-Lobe Vacuum Collapse
Ewing, Greig, Stafford

The CRS concept can be a very powerful tool for the design engineer. It can make plastic pipe more cost competitive with metal pipe, and can allow plastic pipe to be used in applications where otherwise other piping materials would need to be used. The CRS concept can be used in applications where a design engineer requires a 75 year or 100 year design basis, or it can be used for a 10 year or 25 year design basis. The CRS concept can also be used in applications where temperature is a design parameter. For example, in hot 8 water piping applications, the polypropylene ASTM standard requires the CRS concept for its design temperature of 82°C.Tags: Design, pipe, temperature, years, material, gas, concept Using the CRS Concept for Plastic Pipe Design Applications

The aim of this paper was to disseminate a proposal for a novel concept for qualification of service life and safety of PE pressure pipes under additional local loadings (e.g. point or linear loads) which, in its experimental and empirical portions, reflects the additional influences on pipes such as operating temperature and surrounding media as realistically as possible. The concept proposal is based on the application of fracture mechanics methods for the generation of suitable (near real-life) material laws for the kinetics of relevant micromechanical failure processes (crack initiation and crack growth) in PE pipe materials under long-term loads, and their integration into appropriate computational simulation models for the structural and failure behavior of PE pressure pipes with additional local loadings.Tags: Crack, growth, stress, material, pipe, creep, presure A Novel Qualification Concept for Lifetime and Safety Assessment of PE Pressure Pipes for Arbitrary Installation Conditions
Lang, Pinter, Balika, Haager

Municipal utilities benefit in many ways when they select polyethylene pipe installed by directional drilling. During construction they see fewer business and traffic disruptions, less damage to the landscape, fewer restoration problems, less inconveniences to their citizenry, and quicker installations. Afterwards and for years to come they have a fused jointed polyethylene system that eliminates loss water, protects against backflow and does not corrode. These benefits are advancing the growth of PE pipe in municipal applications. Drillers like the pipe, too, because of its flexibility. It is much easier for them to install than steel pipe. Engineers now have several useful tools for design of PE directional drilling applicationsTags: Pipe, drilling, installation, slurry, strength, pressure, pullback Horizontal Directional Drilling of PE Pipe

The application of birefringent, photoelastic coatings to PVC pressure pipe bells enabled the visualization of strains through fringe patterns. This permitted the calculation of the corresponding stresses. Over assembly can result in excessive axial offset. Excessive axial offset causes the spigot to pry the bell open. This causes a stress concentration at the lip of the bell. Moreover, using construction aids to properly assemble the PVC pipe joint can actually improve production and eliminate the unnecessary stresses and strains caused by improper assemblyTags: pipe, joint, figure, bell, spigot, assembly, pressure, PVC, stresses, offset, strains, psi, A Photoelastic Study of Strains in PVC Pipe Bells Encountered During a Variety of Assembly Scenarios
Shumard, Fisher, Rahman

High density polyethylene (HDPE) is currently the most used pipe material for the installation of underground utilities in urban settings employing trenchless construction methods. Continued laboratory and field research are important to providing valuable information on the effects of HDPE installed using trenchless methods. Prior field research on horizontal directional drilling and pipe bursting projects revealed measured strain levels significantly below a 5% threshold. These results demonstrate the suitability of polyethylene pipe for trenchless installations of underground utilities. It is important to note that good installation practices are imperative to ensuring quality, both short-term and long-term, in terms of operation.Tags: Pipe, drilling, trenchless, hdpe, installation, replacement, Viability of High Density PE Pipe for Trenchless Installations

This paper has introduced a new HDPE pipe joining technology knows as automated mobile fusion technology or AMFT. It was shown that these advancements in the fusion joining process combined with the climate controlled fusion environment and pipe handling capability of the AMFT apparatus pose tremendous potential in advancing job-site productivity when installing HDPE pipeTags: Fusion, pipe, amft, joint, hdpe, joining, testing Analytical Testing of Advanced Butt Fusion Technology for HDPE Pipe
Sandstrum, McKinley

The trials has been successful in demonstrating that the coil straightener can be used to correct ovality and curvature of the pipe and improve the ability to make effective EF joints, without exceeding recommended winch loads. The work has also provided better indication of the range of machine parameters required for successful use on site and a new prototype is currently being designed and manufactured for trial on site in the near future.Tags: Pipe, diameter, ovality, fittings, joints Solutions to Installation Difficulties with PE Pipelines
MacKellar, Lowe, Ingham, Ashdown

The common problems associated with concrete thrust blocks can be eliminated through the design of systems that use only joint restraints. Traditional lug-type joint restraints, however, are external to pipe joints and are prone to corrosion. It is also labour intensive to assemble them and human error can cause both leakage and failure of the pipe wall through point loading of wedges. Municipalities should update their materials specifications to reflect this fact and also become more selective in their choice of allowable joint restraint devices. The BullDog™ and the MJ Field Lok-PV® make up the “next generation” of joint restraint devices, effectively eliminating much of the disadvantages associated with both traditional joint restraints and thrust blocksTags: pipe, joint, restraints, PVC, figure, pressure, joints, ring, bell, concrete, gasket, water, soil, grip, pipeline Containing Thrust Forces in Municipal Pipelines
Rahman, Diamond

The conclusions of this work are: Electrofusion joints in PE pipe are fairly tolerant to flaws at the weld interface. Talc contamination can be identified from tests on specimens cut from the welded joint but not from test on whole pipes. FE modelling can be used to predict the initiation position and direction of crack propagation in the whole pipe tensile creep rupture, and hydrostatic pressure, test.Tags: Test, crack, growth, pipe, PE, predict Comparison of Long-Term and Short-Term Tests for Electrofusion Joints in PE Pipes
Troughton, Brown, Hessel, Piovano

Many problems have been experienced on site when welding thick sections of PE and many of these problems can be eliminated by following existing procedures including: using the correct equipment maintained in good order, ensuring adequate training for welders and supervisors, establishing and maintaining an audit trail including weld parameters and retained beads. Changes to the existing standard [1] are recommended including better definition of the test on weld beads and soak pressure including tolerances on pressure.Tags: Welding, soak, time, energy, pipe, obtained, iso Optimisation of Butt Fusion Welding of Thick Walled PE100 Pipe
Lowe, Starkey, Powell

By using ultrasonic inspection equipment it is possible to perform non-destructive inspection through pipe walls and fusion joints, after production in the factory or in the field, to detect internal defects. Ultrasonic inspection and the Slow Peel test provide information that is more related to defects that become important after long-term operation at elevated temperatures. It is proposed to perform a comparison between the different non-destructive inspection and imaging techniques discussed in this contribution, using exactly the same samples.Tags: Pipe, joint, fused, peel, ultrasonic, slow, voids Non-Destructive Ultrasonic Inspection to Detect Flaws in Plastic Pipe Walls and Joints
Scholten, Shin

The following conclusions can be drawn from this presentation. For test specimen prepared with hand scraping tools: Pipe surfaces which are not, too less, far in excess of the normal scraping depth or irregularly scraped, even degreased, demonstrate brittle failure in the peel decohesion test, The level and the motivation of the welders seem to be very important. For test specimen prepared with rotation tools: Pipe surfaces which are not or too less scraped, or scraped several times, even degreased, demonstrate brittle failure in the peel decohesion test Tags: Ductile, brittel, craping, test, fusion, Evaluation of Electrofusion Welders

Years of experience and testing have proven that many parameters can be used successfully in joining of polyethylene pipe, there may be some advantages in some methods over others. While the gas distribution markets have settled on polyethylene pipe as the primary carrier of natural gas, other markets such as water have not. The piping materials they currently use are very competitive and cutting installation costs are even more critical. If a proven procedure can improve productivity by one and one-half to nearly three times, then it is certainly worth implementing.Tags: Pressure, fusion, time, cooling, psi, temperature Fusing at Higher Interfacial Pressures

The Rieber joint is the standard type of rubber gasket ring used today by all PVC pressure and non-pressure pipe manufacturers in the US. It is a steel-reinforced elastomeric gasket which eliminates many of the problems associated with traditional rubber gaskets. Advantages: For the municipal end-user, the jointsystem offers high resistance to infiltration and exfiltration, withstands high internalpressures and vacuum, and prevents leakage when axial joint deflection takes place within allowable limits. Advantages of the system to the pipe manufacturer include automation in production, simplified belling tooling, and a pre-compressed seal which dramatically reduces chances of contamination of the sealing regions of the gasket. Advantages for the installer translate into increased reliability; dislodgement of the gasket ring from the bell groove, referred to as “fish mouthing,” during insertion of a spigot into the bell of adjoining pieces of pipe is eliminated.Tags: gasket, pipe, bell, joint, , ring, system, elastomeric, steel, PVC, ring, pressure, Plastic PVC Pipe Jointing: The Rieber System in North America
Rahman, Bird

Solid wall pipes made from polyamide PA11 / PA12 or RTP pipes provide new options with regards to application, mainly due to significant higher pressure classification compared with polyethylene. The features of these pipes also show an improved performance at higher temperatures, considerably improved permeability, and chemical resistance or notch resistance for use without sand embedding. The application benefits of a plastic pipe system with regard to steel pipe competition are the easy and economic installation methods and noncorrosion, which justifies the higher material, cost of the high performance pipes. Therefore, when looking at systems, the plastic pipe system also gains with a view to economy. The use of a tried and proved jointing technique, electro fusion, stands for the principle „jointing stronger than pipe“.Tags: Pipe, fusion, pressure, design, gas, plastic, installation Plastics Pipes for High-Pressure Applications - Jointing Techniques

An ultrasonic method has been developed for the reliable detection of lack of fusion lack of penetration and voids in electrofusion joints. An ultrasonic method has been developed to image the HAZ and determine whether the correct heating cycle has been applied to the joint. A thermal method has been developed which may provide a complementary inspection to that of the ultrasonic system.Tags: Inspection, joint, method, results, array, thermal The Inspection of Cold Welds in Electrofusion Joints
Bird, Caravaca, Raude

A total of 1.28 million tonnes of HDPE was processed into pipes for outdoor applications in Europe in 2005. These applications are broken down as follows: Drinking water, Gas, Sewage pressure, Non-pressure sewage pipes. They are indispensable when it comes to the low-cost, environmentally friendly manufacture of pipe systems capable of meeting the highest demands. Tags: Pipe, materials, system, supply, high, system, 50 Years of Pipes made from High Density PE

A close correlation between inner structure of PE 80 polymer matrix and mechanical properties has been found. Two different sets of segment arrangement and addition of processing agent were employed as variable parameters to change processing conditions. The data from the structure analyses evidenced shifts in quantity and changes in molecular weight of the particular polymer sample as a result of varied processing conditions. Tags: Polymer, sample, table, structure, weight Effect of Processing on the Lifetime of Pipe HDPE Grade
Sindelar, Nezbedova, Buran

For the three materials tested under constant strain very different visual damage and failure mechanisms were observed: For the HDPE material it has been clearly demonstrated that even under stress relaxation conditions the stress is sufficient to both initiate and propagate cracks through the pipe wall. For filled PP-B material the damage developed as an area of craze that did not penetrate the pipe wall, instead of the single crack brittle failure in the PE material. For PP-HM, the only damage observed was stress whitening.Tags: Aged, materials, samples, time, hdpe, stress, system, plastic Durability Testing for 100 Years Lifetime for Buried Non-Pressure Plastic Pipes
Bergstroem, Nilsson, Thoernblom, Ek, Herbst, Stenstroem

The 100-year SCR of corrugated HDPE pipes was evaluated using a 600-mm diameter pipe. The SCR tests were performed on pipe liner and junction at elevated temperatures from 40 to 80o C. Test data were used to assess the validity of PSM and RPM, and found that RPM yielded a good prediction for both notched liner and junction data. The RPM predicted failure time at 23o C under tensile stress of 3.4 MPa was found well over 100-year. Specification was also developed based on the finding of the study to ensure SCR properties of the pipe for 100-year service life.Tags: Pipe, data, junction, stress, brittel, time Evaluate the Long-Term Stress Crack Resistance of Corrugated HDPE Pipes
Hsuan, Zhang, Wong

Scratch Sensitivity is introduced to investigate the effect of scratches on the failure times of a scratched pipe. If SS=1, the effect of scratches is the reduction of the pipe wall thickness only. The maximum allowable scratch percentage can be estimated if assuming SS=1. For PE80 and PE100 water pipe, the percent of scratches may not be greater than 18%. For PE3408 and PE4710 water pipe, the maximum percent of scratch is 47% and 35% respectively. However, SS is not equal to 1 in the real world. In our case of the 600 V-shaped notches, the SS of both PE100/PE4710 and PE80/PE3408 were not 1 at 90ºC and 80ºC. For PE100/PE4710, SS is greater than 1 at higher stresses and shorter failure times. At low stresses and long failure times, its SS is less than 1. For PE80/PE3408, SS was always less than 1 at our testing conditions.Tags: Pipe, slit, stress, mpa, pe3408, pe100, pe80, pe4710, scratch, Performance of Scratched HDPE Pressure Pipe
Zhou, Chang

In this investigation, a very wide spectrum of HDPEs were chosen such that they differed considerably in their architectural and compositional make-up. These pipes were subjected to extensive creep rupture testing at multiple hoop stress levels and temperatures. In creep rupture testing, the failure time is dependent only on the applied hoop stress and the yield stress of the polymer (or pipe) as long as the failure mode is ductile. Analysis of pipe creep rupture data at multiple temperatures indicates that a simple time temperature superposition is not strictly applicable to predict the design stress and durability of pressure pipes. The development of PENT (ASTM F1473) is one outcome of such an endeavor. In our analysis of pipe creep rupture fracture, we find no correlation, whatsoever, between brittle failures in pressurized pipes and the PENT failure times.Tags: Hdpe, failure, pipe, time, data, temperatures, stress, tensile Analysis of Ductile and Brittle Failures from Creep Rupture Testing of High-Density PE Pipes

The requirements of well- functioning sewer system and individual pipes are these: Capacity- the pipe should be able to carry a sufficient quantity of water Self- cleansing capacity- the pipe should be cleaned often enough by the quantities of water that it carries Tightness- the pipe and its joints should be sufficiently tight Carrying capacity- teh strength of the pipe should be able to resist the substances of the sewage However. this is not always the case in all supplemented with the results from a questionnaire distributed to all Scandinavia municipalities.Tags: Economy, Environment Sewer, Operation, Maintenance Environmental Effects and Economic Consequences of the Operation of Sewer Systems

A logically sound approach to ensure adequate polyethylene piping system performance has been presented. FEA has been shown to accurately predict true stress levels in complex geometries encountered in polyethylene piping systems. The advantages of rigorous RPM testing to approve materials for the fitting manufacturing process have been pointed out. The case has been made for more appropriate process control tests utilizing the NRT. The authors believe that this proposed design and testing methodology will lead to more rapid approval of polyethylene piping applications with better quality assurance and a sound basis for system lifetime prediction.Tags: Stress, process, method, control, fittings Innovative Methodology for Fitting Lifetime Prediction and Process Control
Lever, Palermo, Wright, Oliphant

The progression of improved plastic materials continues, enabling greater material and energy efficiency, but inevitably there are issues to be resolved. Adaptation is required in product design, usage specification and construction practice. Introduction of lower levels of stiffness has shown up some less-than-desirable practices and designs that were hidden with stiffer pipes. Lower stiffness can equally be viewed as increased flexibility, and there are as many benefits as there are disadvantages. It is simply a matter of a little re-thinking and a little reengineeringto enable realization of the benefits.Tags: pipe, pressure, PVC, deflection, thrust, strain, material, fitting, installation, psi, water, energy Practical Use and Performance Testing of Light Weight Thermoplastics Pipes
Chapman, Macovaz

S4 and FS rapid crack propagation testing has been completed for 4-inch SDR-11 polyamide- 11 pipes resulting in measured critical pressures for each method. The S4 to FS correlation factor has been calculated using the results. It is now possible to calculate the PcFS for new pipe diameters and wall thicknesses after completing the quicker and less expensive S4 test. The results of this series of tests indicates that the PcFS for PA-11 is high enough that after applying the 1.5 “safety factor”, operators will be able to operate SDR-11 pipes at the design maximum pressures calculated from either the HDB or the MRS using the appropriate design equations.Tags: Test, pipe, pressure, crack, full, length, scale Establishing the Correlation Between S4 & Full Scale Rapid Crack Propagation Testing for Polyamide
Mason, Chen

False arrest in S4 testing is observed for three different PE100 type resins, for different pipe sizes, through a range of temperatures and for testing at two different laboratories. The false arrest phenomenon is believed to be a true artifact of the S4 test methodology. Higher test pressures appear to result in increased gas decompression due to increased axial strain in the pipe and increased flaring of the pipe during the initial propagation phase. The ‘false’ arrest phenomenon is believed to occur at the point at which increased decompression with increasing test pressure overshadows the increase in crack driving force due to increased test pressure. As application of S4 testing is extended to different materials, understanding of the test pressures resulting in ‘false’ arrest is believed to be critical to ensuring that testing is conducted under conditions that will provide an appropriate representation of pipe performance.Tags: Bar, pressure, crack, pipe, psi, false, resin, temperature, pressure False Arrest in Small Scale Steady State Rapid Crack Propagation Testing
Kosari, Oliphant, Vibien, Li

Key observations from this investigation include: High molecular weight, high crystallinity and relatively narrow molecular weight distribution appear to be important elements for superior resistance to RCP failures. High melt elasticity may be detrimental for RCP resistance. Copolymers based on 1-hexene appear to be better suited to resist RCP compared to copolymers based on 1-butene, all else being equal. The presence of carbon black is detrimental to the RCP resistance of HDPE pipes.Tags: Pipe, rcp, temperature, impact, hdpe, crack, energy Rapid Crack Propagation Failures in HDPE Pipes; Structure-Property Investigations
Krishnaswamy, Leevers, Lamborn, Sukhadia, Register, Maeger

The results obtained in this study for PE 3608/PE80 pipes appear to be typical for this type of product and show generally, good agreement between the laboratories. The results obtained for the PE 4710/PE100 pipes also appear to be typical for this type of product and show, generally, good agreement between Labs A, B & C Lab D provided insufficient data to be statistically significantTags: Pressure, PE, results, temperature S4 Critical Pressure and Critical Temperature - A New 4-Laboratory Round Robin
Maeger, Vanspeybroeck, Lamborn, Mamoun, Leevers, Oliphant

An accelerated method of determining the failure time of a polyethylene resin has been developed. The method can reduce testing times in the order of 3.5 to 5 times depending on standard PENT failure times. It requires determination of the min δ & , or the time at min δ & , using ASTM F 1473-01.Tags: Time, hdpe, min, crack, rate, testing, resin, pipe Accelerated Method to Determine or Predict Failure in PE

Experiments on SDR 11 and SDR 17 PE80 pipe of nominal diameter dn = 125 mm, using a modified S4 test method, indicate that Rapid Crack Propagation is possible in a PE liner within a closed host pipe, as long as there is a radial clearance of at least 0.02dn before the liner is pressurised. However, the effect of the host pipe is to increase the critical pressure by at least 50%Tags: pipe, pressure, rcp, crack, wall Rapid Crack Propagation in Loosely Fitted PE Liner Pipe
Leevers, Henderson, Pereira

Based on these test results both the PENT test and the cyclic pressure fatigue test result in accelerated SCG failure times compared to traditional stress rupture testing at elevated temperatures. Based on the correlation with stress rupture testing, the cyclic pressure fatigue test holds promise that it could be developed into an alternative test for the validation of PE materials or possibly a qualification test. Tags: Stress, pressure, time, pent, hydrostatic, Development of an Accelerated SCG Cyclic Pressure Fatigue Test Method for PE Pipe
Boros, Mamoun

A commercially produced HMS PE 100 pipe resin, through different molecular architecture, has both improved sag resistance performance properties and improved solid state performance. This unique combination provides the HDPE pipe industry increased resin choices to compete against traditional piping materials and expand the scope of HDPE pipe usageTags: Pe, pipe, melt, strength, resin, high, industry High Melt Strength PE-100 Pipe Resin
Michie, Chang, McNeil

A Notched Ring Test (NRT) method for measuring slow crack growth in plastics pipes and fittings is developed and applied to determine its applicability as the standard test method. NRT specimen in the form of a notched full ring, directly obtained from the extruded pipe or injection molded fitting is subjected to a three point bend loading has demonstrated its effectiveness in generating slow crack growth in a time frame of order of magnitude shorter than the currently available methods. The test method provides slow crack growth at higher crack tip stress intensity values and hence shortening the test times. This method will be particularly useful for evaluating resins having high slow crack growth resistance.Tags: Crack, slow, test, growth, stress, pipe, Development of Notched Ring Test for Measuring Slow Crack Growth in Plastics Pipes and Fittings
Pyo, Seo, Mutter, Broutman, Choi

Experimental data obtained directly from SEC-FTIR, bulk density values, and calculations for tie molecule probabilities were used to rapidly estimate the potential slow crack growth resistance of polyethylene resins as determined by small-scale testing methods. In this approach, methods were developed to estimate lamella thickness for each MW slice of the polymer’s molecular weight distributions via known relationships such as the Gibbs-Thompson equation. However, the developed methods assume a constant effect of SCB levels on density and are limited to average values for SCB, Tm, etc. per MW slice. Moreover, the method does not take into account branch type. Moreover, since this method is based on structural parameters, its use and further development is expected to help better understand the SCG failure mechanisms in PE resins while improving the cost and effectiveness of product design.Tags: Resin, values, psp2, polymer, weight, results Predicting Slow Crack Growth Resistance in Polyethylene Resins from Detailed Polymer Microstructure Obtained by SEC-FTIR
Des Lauriers, Rohlfing

As a result of the work reported here we conclude that there is feasibility in prefabricating multiple pipe bundles into stable arrays that can be continuously inserted into a micro-tunnel using simple on-site welding techniques. The approach derived and demonstrated here is probably capable of being scaled-up and tailored to suit a variety of applications. Development of multi-pipe cable ducting systems could bring to the plastic pipe industry a new market opportunity.Tags: Pipe, power, fusion, end, welding, work Development of Large Diameter Multi-Pipe Bundles for Long Distance No-Dig Installations
Bircumshaw, Orchard, Kenworthy, Stafford

It has been known that PE pipes allow petrol to migrate though the pipe wall, and this can lead to taste and odour problems for the consumer. By the informed design of both the pipe and fittings, a system has been created to stop this migration. The pipe used is a multi-layer pipe that has an Al layer in the middle of the wall. The fittings are metals based but with some unique design features. The use of multi-layered plastics pipes will continue to grow, as by such informed design new and better plastics based pipe systems will be developed for Water Companies to provide clean water around the world.Tags: Pipe, water, purtion, petrol, fittings, iron, wall An Effective Barrier Pipe System for Contaminated Land
Christodoulou, Wilson, Hunter, Bowman

New installation materials, such as multilayer and PEX pipes, are an attractive, competitive alternative for traditional steel and copper pipe systems. Due to the increasing prices of metallic materials, plastic pipes will become even more attractive in the near future. The new generation pipe work has been installed in the Netherlands for the past eight years. No negative experiences of leaks have yet been reported. The high temperature resistance requirement as maintained by different countries is discriminating against the introduction of new materials. This requirement needs to be reviewed.Tags: Pipe, system, gas, new, installation, material, pipework, multilayer Gas Pipework Installation in Buildings - New Plastics or Traditional Copper
Roebers, Wolters

following conclusions can be drawn from the study: Pipeline design should include analysis of settlements, and the provision of measures to limit them and/or enable the pipelines to accommodate their effects. The ability to accommodate settlements should be considered during the pipe material selection process. The effective modulus of a pipeline foundation will vary from place to place, reflecting inconsistencies in the placing and compaction of bedding material, variations in bedding thickness, and in sub-grade properties The first flexible joint or rocker pipe needs to be within the first 150 mm from the yielding structure.Tags: Pipe, joint, pipeline, structure, ground Study of the Use of Rocker Pipes to Allow for Differential Ground Movement Pipelines
Wijeyesekera, Reginold

Additional tightness under shear load EN1277 EN295-3 C Impact resistance Impact test D Shaft stiffness Minimum stiffness is 2kPa prEN14982 E Cover load test Test load depending on type of road. The stability of the flow profile is tested using a vacuum test or an external water pressure test. Chambers can have mayn diffrent flow profiles and of course it is not feasible to test all thses chambers for 1000 hours in both tests.Tags: Test, base, chamber, flowm pipe, Buried Plastics Chambers - Performance

To summarize the test results, it has to be said, that the remaining thickness of HDPE sheathings at deviation points mainly depends on the pressure on it. The investigation has come to the conclusion that: movement en bloc does not result in thinner sheathings; relative movement leads to a loss in thickness of the inner hulls; horizontal deviation only causes thinner sheathings when using compacted strands. Tags: Standards, inner, pressure, system, movment Usage of HDPE in Bridge Construction - A Corrosion Protection System for Steel Tendons Under Extreme Loading
Weiher, Zilch

In the oil and gas industry, polymer materials are not generally in contact with a single gas but rather submitted to mixtures of gases constituted for example of methane and carbon dioxide or of methane and hydrogen. In order to be more representative of the gases encountered in real life situations, it is essential to possess an experimental equipment allowing the transport kinetics of each of the gases of a mixture to be followed in order to predict, for example, the amount of gases and vapour transferred through polymer inner sheaths of pipes.Tags: Gas, co2, polymer, temperature, pressure, mixtures Transport Properties of Gas Mixtures Through PE
Klopffer, Flaconneche

It has been shown there is an extremely small amount of plastics pipe from the construction or demolition industries going into landfill in Australia. It has been further shown that the amount can be reduced even more by extracting scrap pipes during the normal sorting of reusable materials such as timber metals and aggregates at the recycling centres. This sorting does not require any new equipment or techniques. The PVC and PE pipes can be sorted subsequently by hand and are being successfully reused.Tags: pipe, waste, plastic, recycling, PVC, materials, scrap, bins, demolition Collection and Recycling of Plastics Pipes in the Demolition and Construction Waste System
Whittle, Pesudovs

Chlorine dioxide, used as a disinfectant in drinking water, attacks the polyethylene pipes faster than hypochlorite introduced as bleach . This attack is diffusion controlled and restricted to a layer of about 1 mm depth, almost independent of CDO concentration in water, which can be explained by the existence of a diffusion controlled CDO-polyethylene reaction. The changes of antioxidant concentration profiles within the pipe thickness can be tentatively modelled by a set of two differential equations coupling reactions and reactant diffusion. The model nicely fits the experimental profiles obtained from accelerated ageing experiments at high CDO concentrations (up to 100 mg of chlorine per litre), where the physical antioxidant loss is negligible.Tags: Polyethylene pipes; Drinking water; Chlorine dioxide, Aging; Kinetic modeling. Kinetic Modeling of the Aging pf PE Pipes for the Transport of Water Containing Disinfectants
Colin, Audouin, Verdu, Rozental-Evesque, Matin, Bourgine

The pipe ring test method appears to be a viable method to access the effect of recycled materials on corrugated HDPE pipe performance, with respect to virgin resins. Advantages of the pipe ring test method: Testing is conducted on the final extruded product. The circumference of the pipe is tested rather than just a small test bar, therefore, the sample is more representative of the end-use product. This method is applicable to any size corrugated pipe. The test method may be useful as a post-production quality control test.Tags: Pipe, test, method, recycled, hdpe, ring, stress, data, pressure, New Test Method to Determine Effect of Recycled Materials on Corrugated HDPE Pipe Performance as Projected by the Rate Process Method
Palermo, Vibien, Oliphant, Kosari

Plastics Europe and Teppfa continue to contribute to the development of a European Acceptance Scheme in a positive and pro-active approach. We strongly continue to argue for realistic test regimes with reliable test methods and test frequencies, without spending unnecessary cost burden for our products. Furthermore, we are convinced in supplying products for drinking water application which are safe for this purpose after careful evaluation before bringing these products on the market.Tags: Test, water, plastic, drinking, industry, migration, , pipe Plastics Pipes and Drinking Water Quality

Two recycling case studies are presented. The first is the program at Royal Pipe Systems’plant in Abbotsford, BC. Royal Pipe Systems works with the City of Abbotsford and Marv’s. Excavating to collect post-industrial vinyl and reconverts it back into PVC pipe. The secondis the program at Specified Fittings’ facility in Bellingham, WA. Specified accepts postindustrial vinyl from area utilities and contractors, which they pelletize, package, and ship toa plastics broker for re-use. The PVC industry’s commitment to programs such as this isfurther demonstrated with the PVC pipe and fittings recycling policy adopted by the Board ofDirectors of the Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association Tags: Pipe, scrap, PVC, recycling, program, Specified, city, vinyl, Abbotsford PVC Pipe and Fitting Recycling in Action
Creelman, Fisher, Franzen

This study shows that stress rupture testing can be performed on low inherent viscosity PVC compound at the maximum recommended service temperature (60oC) without the development of a knee. The data at 60o C follows the same trend as for a pressure pipe compound tested at 23o C. However, the slope tends to get steeper as the temperature increases. Also, the outside testing environment has no significant effect on the test resultsTags: low inherent viscosity, stress-rupture testing, elevated temperature, outside testing environment Effect of Elevated Temperature on Stress-Rupture Testing of Low Inherent Viscosity PVC Resins

Plastics Europe and Teppfa continue to contribute to the development of a European Acceptance Scheme in a positive and pro-active approach. We strongly continue to argue for realistic test regimes with reliable test methods and test frequencies, without spending unnecessary cost burden for our products. Furthermore, we are convinced in supplying products for drinking water application which are safe for this purpose after careful evaluation before bringing these products on the market. Nevertheless, we continue in collecting more data about migration behaviour of different substances in order to have available all desired information in case of disputes or negative publicity. The outcome of the last Danish investigations stating that plastics do not contaminate the drinking water, confirms all our former statements of supplying responsible products for drinking water application.Tags: Test, water, plastic, drinking, industry, migration, products PE 4710 (Sandstrum, Jee)
Sandstrum, Jee

Nowadays plastics pipeline systems are predominantly installed in gas distribution systems. These gas networks mainly operate at lower (< 4 bar). PE, and in some countries like The Netherlands high-impact PVC, are specially suitable for such systems and show an excellent track record. The availability of a full set of (ISO) specifications certainly contributes to that. These ISO specifications are regularly updated to reflect the technological developments. For higher demanding applications, e.g. higher pressures, higher and lower temperatures, and increased resistance to notches, new plastic pipeline systems have entered the market. In this respect, PEX, PA, RTP and multilayer pipeline systems can be mentioned. Nowadays, for all these plastic pipeline systems ISO specifications are already available or being drafted.Tags: System, gas, pipes, fittings, plastic, pipeline, fuels, pressure, plastic, materials A Complete Set of Specifications for All Kinds of Plastics Pipeline Materials Used in Gas Distribution Systems
Wolters, Wikkerink

Economic drivers for End users:PE100 provides a cost-effective alternative to steel for gas distribution networks. It also allows also the use alternative and cheaper installation technologies, like coiled pipes or narrow trenching, which profit of reduced number of connections or pipe connections realised outside the trench. The adoption of high quality material and practices allows the successful technology transfer from Europe to South America. Thanks to the tight control of the supply chain and to the specification of orange PE100 pipes, the projects realised in South America enjoy the same quality and safety level than those realised in country with already 15 years of experience for PE100 and gas. Tags: Gas, pe100, material, pressure, natural, quality, bar, network Introducing PE100 for Medium Pressure Gas Networks in South America
Belforte, Gerard, Palermo, Guerra

In most European countries today PE piping systems are well established as the most popular material for small and medium sized water distribution mains. However for large sized water pressure pipes other materials tend to be preferred and in particular ductile iron. This selection is often based upon tradition, “we have always used iron pipes”, or because of concerns about the jointing or structural performance of large diameter PE pipes. Often material selection for a large diameter project is based on the cost of the pipe rather than a full analysis of the installation costs and the future costs of repair and maintenance. This paper shows that when these other factors are taken into account in the initial project cost then the most economic selection may indeed change and in many cases PE becomes the best option.Tags: Pipe, water, diameter, cost, iron, pressure, plastic, system, Development of a Whole Life Costing Model for Large Diameter Water Mains
Shepherd, Headford, Jordan, Reeves, Walton

In some regions of Italy, water is becoming a limited resource. The integrity of the distribution system is therefore vital, but as highlighted during the workshop in Monza almost forty percent of drinking water is lost, due largely to leaking pipes, before it reaches the homes of consumers. Everyone recognised that pipe-work and fittings made from PE provide the most effective and economical solutions but we must have confidence in the quality and durability of the locally produced components. In addition it is essential that the best use is made of the innovativ installation methods.Tags: Quallity, installation, system, italy, water, cost Promoting Investment and Quality in the Local Infrastructure in Italy
Catanzano, Bosetti, Walton, Serrao

Plastic pipes offer a host of new opportunities for installation technologies. Thanks to their special properties, such as high flexibility, creeping and memory ability, old pipelines can be restored to full working order and new pipelines built using cost-effective narrowtrench and trenchless technologies. High corrosion resistance and durability contribute to higher reliability of water and sewer systems. It’s good that there is plastic. If there wasn’t any, we would have to make it up..Tags: Water, pipe, sewer, plastic, waterworks, system, poland Plastics Pipes Play Major Role in Rehabilitating Water and Sewer System in Poland
Wroblewska, Drzewiecki, Kwietniewski

The ‘new’ generation PVC and HDPE materials, PVC-O, PVC-M and PE 100, have proven themselves in service and continue to demonstrate cost effectiveness and energy efficiency. The 50 year safety factor depends on pipe material properties and that a high safety factor does not mean that the pipe is safer to use or more reliable. Many benefits associated with their use, including long-term performance, ease of handling and installation, improved flow and reduced pumping power consumption, as well as significant energy conservation and benefits to the environment, are some of the advantages in using these modern generation pipe materials. Structured wall sewer and drainage pipes, especially DWP and multilayer foamcore using recycled material, offer environmental benefits and the most energy efficient solution. Clearly the new generation plastics pipe materials provide the most energy efficient solutions to the water industry.Tags: Pipelines, energy, efficiency, environment, conservation, PVC, energy, materials, safety, iron, water, HDPE, stress The Energy Crisis - Designing with Material and Energy Efficient PVC and HDPE Piping Systems
Osry, Tjabring


A natural gas cross-bore in sewer service laterals is an issue that needs to be addressed in the interest of public safety. Unsuspecting home owners may be faced with a situation in which a plumber inadvertently attempts to dislodge a cross-bore resulting in an explosion. Often, this results not only in property damage, but also personal injury. Current State One-Call legislation needs to be revisited to provide guidance on parties responsible for marking the location of these sewer service laterals. Several States have amended their legislation requiring the system owner/operator to be responsible for locating laterals. Arizona passed legislation requiring all new lateral installations as of January 1, 2006 to contain devices to make them “locatable” from the surface. The requirement would be for the housing contractor/developer to used devices including copper tracer wires, electronic marker balls or discs. Ignoring this issue will only result in more potential future catastrophes.Tags: Sewer, service, gas, state, cross, utility Challenges of Natural Gas Distribution Cross-Bores in Unmarked Sewer Service Laterals
Ariaratnam, Weaklend

The paper documents ongoing research aimed at study the effect of disinfectants on high density polyethylene pipes (HDPE), commonly employed in modern urban network for water conveyance. Results obtained from the monotonic tensile and from the OIT tests highlight an influence of chlorinated water on the mechanical behaviour of PE and consumption of antioxidants. However it’s too soon to draw clear and reliable observations. The current experimental testing will continue for the next six months. Understanding if dog bone specimens in the tank can be considered a reliable alternative to pipe exposure will be a demanding task. That conclusion would allow a quicker test for the pipes.Tags: Water, pipe, plant, pe, line, temperature Effect of Chlorinated Water on the Oxidative Resistance and the Mechanical Strength of PE Pipes
Castagnetti, Dragoni, Mammano, Fontani, Nuccini, Sartori

Results of the study indicated the following: For materials with similar melt flow properties, the higher pellet bulk density improves the extrusion productivity on grooved feed extruders. Pellet count, pellet size, and pellet configuration are important but not as critical as the pellet bulk density. Non-grooved feed extruders appear to be less sensitive to the physical characteristics of the pellets but extrusion output is typically lower than grooved feed extruder. Tags: Feed, pellet, pipe, study, screw, processing Key Parameter for Improving Extrusion Productivity
Jee, Buriak, Torres

The 2005/2006 RR tests did not succeed in obtaining the precision statement for ISO 16770 fully, probably from the following reasons: Insufficient number of testing points, Detergent, Notching, Compression moulding, Consequences of the large scatter of results.Tags: test, iso, data, stress, cooling, Full Notch Creep Test - ISO Round Robin Test
Niebergall, Mertlova, Nezbedova

Die- drawn PP-R pipes reveal significant improvements in hydrostatic pressure resistance at room temperature and at elevated temperatures. Also the impact resistance shows a major improvement. These features suggest a unique processing-induced texture.Tags: Results, pp, biaxially, pipe, Biaxially Oriented PP Pipes
Soliman, Voets, Raven, Kleppinger, Ward

The following statements can be concluded of the results obtained in this work: There is only a weak morphology gradient in polyethylene compared to polypropylene. This can be explained by the high nucleous- and crystal-growth rate which is two times bigger in magnitude.Tags: Pipe, crack, growth, stress, section, inner Morphological and Structural Effects on Slow Crack Growth in PE-Pipes
Kratochvilla, Muschik, Dragam

The SICA socket formation process for PVC-O pressure pipes was developed and patented in 1998. The automatic belling machine integrated process has been quick to find industrial applications; currently, various SICA belling installations are in operation, whilst others are under production. SICA process and machine are designed, above all, to safeguard the processed material’s structural integrity; to accurately define the precise dimensional tolerances required of a socket; to obtain a process and final product repeatable in almost all cases; and finally to ensure simple and safe use of the machine. These essential functions are 9 the result of a complex integration process, fine-tuned in the laboratory according to design choices aimed at creating an efficient manufacturing systemTags: Pipe, PVC, socket, heating, process, temperature, forming, SICA, pressure, mandrel, machines, belling, figure, section Will Bi-Oriented PVC Pipes Take Over?

PE Pipe materials have always been a compromise between a set of requirements. On top of the expectation from pipe makers to have a good processability, end users would expect for the guaranteed long life of pipes made of PE a minimum requirement on, Stiffness, yield strength, hydrostatic strength or Minimum Required Strength (MRS), Long term ageing resistance, slow crack growth (SCG) resistance or environmental stress crack resistance (ESCR), Impact resistance or rapid crack propagation (RCP) resistance. Thanks to this PE100 classification, the well known advantages of these grades may be valued as well:Higher output though higher Maximum Operating Pressure (M.O.P), or Higher safety factor, or Wall thickness reduction while keeping the same safety factor. This leads to higher throughput, material saving, and longer pull lengthTags: Resistance, pe100, pipe, materials, strength, test, New PE Materials with Step-Out Stress Cracking Resistance for Piping Technologies
Godon, Bettonville

The results of this investigation show that it is possible to use FCG experiments on CRB specimens to compare materials concerning there crack growth behavior. It was shown that a similar crack growth mechanism as in real pipes prevailed and the ranking of different materials correlated well with existing methods (e.g. FNCT). The biggest advantage of the FCG experiments is that it is possible to reduce testing times considerably so that even modern PE pipe materials can be characterized within a few days at room temperature.Tags: Crack, material, plastic, pe100, pe8, Ranking of PE-HD Pipe Grades By Fatigue Crack Growth Performance
Haager, Pinter, Lang

After finishing the current feasibility studies and approval processes with convincing results the gas communities all over the world should consider PA 12 for their distribution networks. Degussa is searching for more cooperation partners to develop more and more confidence in this outstanding material.Tags: Gas, pipe, pressure, installation, supply Polyamide 12 for High Pressure Gas Installations
Lohmar, Baron, Dowe, Wessing

While the introduction by IPEX of System XFR® 15-50 has been a large step forward in the flame and smoke suppression of PVC there are still many challenges to meet. Being able to reformulate the product to meet the flame and smoke requirements of the United States and Europe will not be easy. The flame and smoke test methods used in the US and Europe differ from that in Canada and pose their own individual challenges. During the ASTM E 84 test, the material sees higher temperatures during the test, the material may sag and fall into the flame or charred material may fall off the sample being tested and count towards the SDI number. Tags: Flame, test, smoke, pipe, building, spread, materials, table, PVC, requirements, codes System XFR 15-50 a Flame and Smoke Suppressed PVC DWV Pipe for Non-Combustible Building and Plenum Applications

Plastic Pipes 12 (2004) - Milan


A sector of the Beijing Natural Gas Company network was to be converted from town gas to natural gas. It was found that the existing steel pipeline installed in 1983 could not withstand the working pressure, as parts of the steel pipes were seriously corroded. The choice of PE100 for the new pipe line in conformity to the GB 15558.1 was confirmed by the pressure rating of the material, the resistance to slow crack growth, the resistance to rapid crack propagation and the performance of the butt fusion joints.Tags: Pipe, crack, gas, resistance, growth, plastic, slow, system, water, Plastic Pipeline Solutions
Gustaaf Suys

As ground movement and rocks in fill can be a cause of failure in PVC pipe, a requirement for clean, washed-rock granular fill in the pipe zone is believed to be a benefit to minimizing failure rates. However, the majority of the extraordinary success rate that Waterworks and Wastewater in Calgary have enjoyed with the material is believed to come from a very strong, thoroughly documented, and rigidly enforced system of inspection of installation, and correction of the most minor construction errors. In particular, the few failures Calgary has seen have caused a close focus and “zero-tolerance” policy on excessive bending of pipe or deflections at joints. “Recommendations” about these in the Uni-Bell Guide are treated as unbreakable rules. Poor bedding and poor quality of tapping are also not tolerated.Tags: Pipe, pvc, main, rate, city, year, installation, break MINIMIZING FAILURES TO PVC WATER MAINS

The operation went smoothly with no unexpected complications during operations in respect of the more common activities. The overall project time was similar to the one that would have been achieved through the use of more established (and maybe more expensive) technologies. The total project was completed by the Aem Gas workforce, without the need to use external specialised contractors. The environmental impact of the road works was minimal thanks to the properties of raw material used, which was impressive keeping in mind the size of the pipeline involved. The availability of a suitable MDPE material provided a real alternative to traditional laying techniques for large diameters and thick walled pipes..Tags: Gas, pipe, pressure, project, pipeline, materials, pe80 NEW PE PIPE MATERIAL AIDS RENOVATION OF MEDIUM PRESSURE GAS PIPELINES IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT
D. Walton

The use of large diameter PVC pressure pipe will continue its steady rise as municipalities throughout North America expand their existing water and sewer systems and also rehabilitate deteriorating buried piping infrastructure. At the time of the writing of this paper, the author was working with the City of Tulsa, Oklahoma, in specifying their first PVC sewer force main, AWWA C905, to replace a ten-year-old concrete line that had failed. This has been a common scenario throughout North America. Thermoplastics such as PVC are inherently suited to withstand both internal and external corrosion, while providing the level of structural integrity that is expected of buried piping materials. On-going research and innovation within the North American PVC pipe industry may make it even more cost efficient and further enhance its physical/mechanical capabilities.Tags: Pipe, pvc, water, inch, diameter, psi, large, main, piping LARGE DIAMETER PVC PRESSURE PIPE FOR WATER AND SEWER APPLICATIONS IN NORTH AMERICA
S. Rahman

The experience in Italy and in Argentina has contributed to the development of knowledge of this new material in the Camuzzi Group, extending this to the limits of international standards. The results were indeed positive and encourage the use of polyethylene pipes with an increasing degree of confidence, even at pressures that are higher than current values. This process requires present day standards to be amended in the respective countries and Camuzzi will be actively engaged with the competent bodies as regards this request. Moreover, there have been a number of immediate economic and technical repercussions in Argentina following the exchange of know-how; the Technical Management of Camuzzi Gas Pampeana/Sur has decided to include the heat contact welding procedure (butt fusion welding process) among the permitted techniques, thereby saving the cost of the electrofusion fittings. Other advantages are expected from the amendment of the standards, which will enable polyethylene to be used to construct buried internal plants and to increase the pressure above 4 MPa.Tags: Gas, pressure, mpa, test, maximum, italy, welding, area PE 100 used in gas distribution networks Camuzzi s experience in Italy and in Argentina.
Di Lucchio

No final conclusion can be drawn without exact knowledge of the beginning of the passage from ductile to brittel failure of A. The burst pressure performance of material E could consequently not be tested at 95°C. material E was tested at 20°C and 60°C instead. At 20°C E displays a burst stress performance, which is almost in line with that of a type 3 material.Tags: Material, burst pressure, performance,graph, stress, high, NEW STRUCTURES FOR PP BURST PRESSURE PERFORMANCES
R. de Palo

This paper is about the innovations in materials design, system design or processing. And a more powerfully combination of these technologies in a novel manner that have led to the development of pipeline systems based on PVC which provide cost effective and safe solutions to many different types of challenge facing the pipeline engineer.Tags: PVC, pipe, material, modified, water, installation, pressure, system, impact, pipeline Innovative PVC Pipe Systems for Increased Safety and Improved Economics
A. Bos

From an economical point of you, the incidence of the quality control had been less than 3% of the installed material cost. Tests had been made every 200 pipes produced with same raw material stock, or when the stock did not allow the production of 200 pieces batch, for each new stock of raw material used. If we refer to the weight of produced pipes instead to the number, the quantity of tests decreases but the quality level remains the same because the controls are made also on the raw material batch.Tags: Water, test, network, production, materials, system, raw, works THE MUNICIPAL WATER COMPANY OF PALERMO AMAP S.P.A. REALIZES THE LARGEST APPLICATION IN EUROPE OF PE100 AS RAW MATERIAL FOR WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK.

Polyamide-11 gas pipe is suitable for use in medium pressure systems up to 200 psi at 73°F. Laboratory and field studies of pipe and fittings have demonstrated the suitability of coiled pipe and commercially available fittings for medium pressure service. Four field installations in differing climates and soil types have demonstrated that conventional construction techniques are suitable for application with PA-11. After more than 2 years of service PA-11 gas pipe retains the essential properties that enable continued use at the design pressure of up to 200 psi. PA-11 pipe is suitable for use in hydrocarbon contaminated soils without de-rating. This offers the potential of eliminating steel segments in low pressure polyethylene distribution systems that traverse hydrocarbon contaminated soils.Tags: Pipe, psj, gas, inch, installation, design, service, plastic, properties Technical Review of Rilsan Polyamide
James Mason

To better understand the morphological differences of damage created in the two experimental conditions, the consequences of a long thermal treatment at 120°C are examined in this paper: This annealing leads to crystalline changes (homogenisation of thickness). We have found no obvious coupling between temperature of annealing and mechanical stress to induce these microstructure changes. Consequences on the short-term mechanical properties are classically an increase of the modulus and yield stress. Accelerated tests performed on annealed samples lead to a crack opening speed slower than in as-received specimens, and this deceleration cannot be only attributed to a raise of the yield stress. The natural draw ratio weakly decreases after annealing. It can be imagined that disentanglement occurring during the crystalline reorganisation would help the coalescence of cavities and the formation of a fibrillar structure, but this interpretation needs to be supported.Tags: Notch, samples, tip, very, long, test, opening, stress, zone, Consequences of annealing during long-term pressure tests on polyvinylidene fluoride pipes
A. Castagnet

The results of the comprehensive programme of long-term failure tests carried out on black and blue pipes in bimodal HDPE of performance class PE 100 have shown that the OIT is only of limited suitability for determining long-term stability. Even in the case of uncolored HDPE, the vertical downward slope of the creep curve indicating brittle fracture does not occur until after a surprisingly long time – in fact these tests are still in progress. The tests have shown that other stabilizers besides phenolic antioxidants increase the resistance of HDPE to thermo-oxidative degradation. This in turn will afford processors new possibilities of optimizing the additive systems for their HDPE pipe extrusion compounds and/or of using new kinds of additive. A restrictive factor, however, is the expensive and time-consuming approval procedure necessitated by any change in formulation.Tags: Pipe, long, black, hdpe, creep, blue, HDPE PIPES ARE MORE RESISTANT TO OXIDATION THAN THE OIT INDICATES
U. Schulte

This paper is about the main point that characterize PVC-A. The product has the most predictable long-term failure characteristics of any polymer tested by PLD, Hepworth and North West Water. Long-term strength predictions can be made with great confidence, and you can check each pipe run with the C ring test. Meets the requirements of BS PAS 27 of 3/99 and has a stress design of 17.5 MPa. Pipes are smooth, and they have great chemical and electrochemical resistance. New Power-Lock joint has a ring with two elements: the first is in EPDM (flexible) the second in PP (bonded with EPDM is a reinforcement element). The joint is fixed into the pipe bell or sockets during pipe processingTags: PVC, water, crack, pipe, pressure, materials, failure, resistance, section, quality PVC-A PIPES. DUCTILE-BRITTLE TRANSITION IN FAILURE MODE. NEW TESTS TO EVALUATE THE RESISTANCE OF THE CRACK GROWTH.
C. Dal Pozzo

The effect of constraint becomes less noticeable at high test speeds where the fracture characteristics appeared identical, suggesting a dominance of effects of rate. Under conditions of low test rate, it was possible to differentiate the material response at high and low constraint conditions as the deformation behavior was unique.Tags: Constraint, high, pe80, bmpe, damage, deformation, between growth Damage evolution and failure mechanisms in polyethylene
A. Ivanovic

A fracture mechanics based method to characterise RCP properties of HDPE pipe resins has been developed. The new method allows the measurement of dynamic fracture toughness as a function of crack speed and temperature, from three-point bend impact testing of lab size specimens that minimize dynamic effects associated with impact testing. In addition to RCP fracture mechanics properties, modulus, yield strength, and initiation and propagation energies are also measured. Relationships between these properties and parameters have been established, providing a comprehensive understanding of RCP of HDPE pipe resins. This test should be useful for material improvement/development, ranking, screening, quality control, and pressurized pipe performance predictions. Improvements to the method can be made by incorporating the effect of plastic deformation that was significant at higher temperatures, and determine possible effects of impact speed on the mesured GD.Tags: Crack, max, materials, dynamic, impact, stress, speed Characterisation of Rapid Crack Propagation of PE Pipe Resins Using Dynamic Fracture Toughness
C. Corleto

The RCP behaviour of relative thin walled pipes (e.g. 10 mm to 30 mm) is, apart from the performance of the resin, strongly influenced by the extrusion conditions and the accompanying internal stresses. The lower critical pressure of thick walled pipes (e.g. > 30 mm) is a consequence of the natural plain strain behaviour.Tags: Pipe, crack, stress, speed, critical, gas The Spectrum of Polymers - Recent Developments
Van der Vegt

Rapid test methods on compression molded specimens were described for use in the development of a gas pipe resin with a high resistance to slow crack growth and the brittle fracture. Accelerated versions of the PENT test, ASTM F1473 can be used to measure the resistance to slow crack growth where the factor of acceleration can be 10 times in air and 100 time in an environmental agent. The PAC test, ASTM F 2231, which is a Charpy test, can be used to measure the resistance to brittle fracture and to predict the S4 critical temperature. A theory for the correlation of the Charpy energy and the S4 critical temperature was developed. The critical temperature was related to the amount of change in Charpy energy with respect to temperature that makes the Charpy energy equal to the driving force energy for producing rapid crack propagation. The theory indicates that the log of the Charpy energy is a linear function of the critical temperature.Tags: Test, crack, critical, temperature, resistance, gas DEVELOPING PE 100 RESINS WITH PAC TEST
N. Brown

We succeeded in enhancing both parameters - resistance against RCP as well as SCG at the same time by modifying the catalyst composition and optimizing polymerization conditions. The structure methods used in the study (TREF, DSC-SSA, GPC and FTIR) were found to be very sensitive for exhibiting the structure differences caused by changed conditions of the polymer matrix preparation. The results of the polymer structure enable us to explain the effects influencing in significant manner mechanisms of brittle failure in HDPE pipe grades. Evaluation of structure parameters clearly shows which structure variables most directly influence resistance against SCG and RCP, respectively. Specifically, placement of SCB into high molecular weight fractions stand for a good resistance against SCG. And degree of crystallinity and lamellar thickness play a decisive role in the RCP process.Tags: Structure, samples, test, fraction, molecular, weight, used EFFECT OF STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS ON RCP IN POLYETHYLENE
E. Nezbedova

As the critical- temperature test pressure, is reduced, accurate temperature conditioning and prompt testing of S4 specimens become more important. Remote measurement of pipe temperature drift during the post- conditioning set- up period provide reassurance well below 0°C. A simple formula for choosing the optimum conditioning temperature for low- temperature S4 tests is proposed. There is at present no requirement- as there is for critical- pressure testing- that a critical arrest resultsis validated by an "initation test" at the same conditions.Tags: Pressure, temperature, pipe, material, low, constant, time S4 CRITICAL TEMPERATURE TESTS PROCEDURE AND INTERPRETATION
P. Leevers

There is a limit to what you can expect from a material producer, many opportunities will require more and more cooperation and partnership between material supplier, pipe producers, installers, design engineers and end users. Finding more value in a global service towards a global market to provide a single face to utility companies and public authorities. Introduction of new materials will not change the global scene, and Europe is moving towards a commodity market. Opportunities for growth of the pipe market are more in the need for basic services like water and energy in East Europe, Asia and Africa, and in the simultaneous development of a global market for gas and water.Tags: Water, market, pipes, plastic, global, sector, gas, Europe, industry, development A View of the European Plastics Pipes Market in a Global Scenario

Main reason for investing in technology is business growth.The main volume products PE and PVC are at a similar stage in the business cycle, where formerly rapid growth has decelerated and is in the doldrums with declining prices. The challenge for investment is the need to stimulate growth and develop commercial success. There are two ways: use technology to earn higher margins, or to expand the market. Our customer’s needs, as always, are critically important to us, but they too are consolidating and gaining in strength. All that we offer as an industry must be a part of an overall plastics solution or integrated system that is technologically sound fit for purpose and cost competitive against other materials.Tags: Growth, materials, investment, plastic, traditional, industry, cost, market, Sustainable Investment in the Plastics Pipes Industry

This paper is about two new industrial PVC-C pipe compounds have recently been developed. One product is a new ultrahigh impact strength material that has been shown to exhibit more than 5 times the toughness of most other PVCC products. The other product is a new large diameter pipe extrusion compound that allows for production of pipe sizes beyond 12” SCH80 (325x17 mm). In addition, recent technological efforts have also led to the development of a pressure rated PVC-C fitting compound that has the same design stress as PVC-C pipe. The development and attributes of each of these new products are discussed.Tags: Impact, pipe, strength, PVC, material, temperature, level, modifier Liberalisation of Local Public Companies and its Effects on the Industrial and Technical Content of Water
Lolli, Drusiani

The framework of the guideline covers all the necessary elements and topics regarding the installation of plastic and multilayer pipe systems for hot and cold water.Tags: Installation, hot, cold, water, pex, transport, storage Installation Guide of Plastic Pipe Systems for Hot and Cold Water
Liguori, Nezzo

Through advanced molecular architecture and improved process control, polyethylenes with superior Long Term Hydrostatic Strength at high temperatures, are now possible. These polymers form the basis for a new class of Polyethylene materials: PE-RT (Polyethylene of Raised Temperature resistance) for hot water pipe applications. The uniqueness of these materials is that they do not need to be crosslinked to deliver the desired Long Term Hydrostatic Strength at high temperature. This results in significant processing advantages over PEX systems. PE-RT is suitable for use in all hot water pipe applications. The newest member, DOWLEX 2388, offers an even higher Long Term Hydrostatic Strength at high temperature, which allows them to compete effectively in monolithic plumbing pipe (class 1 & 2 of ISO 10508). Another benefit of DOWLEX 2388 is its excellent processability, which results in higher line speed extrusion, especially for composite PE/Al/PE pipes.Tags: Pipe, high, water, long, wall, chain PE-RT, a New Class of PE for Hot Water Pipes

The commercial acceptance of PVC-C piping has thus been somewhat limited, especially for industrial applications where more demanding performance and larger pipe sizes required. High Impact Strength Pipe Impact strength and ductility are critical importance to the overall performance of a piping system. A high level of impact strength is often necessary to insure that a pipe is capable of withstanding the many abuses that can occur from the time when a pipe has been produced to after it is installed.Tags: Impact, pipe, strength, new, psi, good, level Recent Developments in PVC-C Compound Technology
Schroeder, Julius, Forsyth

The new technology has allowed Basell to improve on PB- 1 properties and has resulted in a new generation of PB-1 resins for pipe applications. PB-1 becomes the plastic of choice when high flexibility is required beacuse of its intrinsic low elastic modulus which is further enhanced by the lower pipe wall thickness that can be used because of superior pressure performance of PB-1. In terms of frost protection, the elastic properties of PB-1 minimise the possibility of bursting when water freezes inside a pipe made from PB-1Tags: Pipe, water, systems, pipe, materials, heating, system Polybutene-1 - Entering the Next Generation
Schemm, Van de Vliet, Koennecke, Grasmeder

A successful field trial at Byker, Newcastle-upon-Tyne has shown that the SPEX rehabilitation system is capable of repairing leaking DH pipes, resulting in a fully welded system. The lifetime of PEXb has been shown to be well in excess of the design requirements, the 50 year temperature for continuous operation is now above 70°C which includes a safety factor of 1.2. A high temperature ageing method has given good time to failure results in a short time. However, further work is required.Tags: Pipe, system, time, heating, water, host, installation Rehabilitation of District Heating Networks

The hydraulic fitting is a simple and extremely effective method of producing joints in polyethylene pipe. By reducing the amount of pipe preparation required and removing the need for clean/dry conditions, the potential for installation errors is significantly reduced. No heat source or bolts are required with the only specialised equipment used being a portable hand pump. The joints provide full end load resistance and have been shown to be effective well beyond the burst pressure of the polyethylene pipe.Tags: Pipe, pressure, insert, bar, fittings, copper, joints Hydraulically Actuated Fittings for Higher Pressure

PEX pipe is an excellent solution to replace steel in pressurized hot water networks if pressure and temperature are not too high and as long as the PEX material chosen is fully characterized to allow a safe design. Among the advantages, we can highlight lightweight and flexibility of PEX pipe that will allow easy and cheap installation, in-situ crosslinking will allow to weld as standard PE and above all absence of corrosion leading to a perfectly leak free system will allow operation of the network without cleaning, protecting or frequent replacement of parts of it.Tags: Pipe, pex, steel, pressure, results, more User-friendly Installation of a Crosslinkable PE for Hot Pressurized Water

Array technology provides good resolution and penetration power for the NDT of EF joint. In results, heating wires are individually identified in ultrasonic real time images, which means that the ultrasonic array technology provide enough resolution to tell wire signals from flaw signals. Imperfect fusion joints and soil inclusion are clearly indicated in the images. Even locations of wires are appeared as it is. Therefore this array technology is a very promising method for the nondestructive testing of EF joining of PE pipe. In addition, the capability of real time displays makes the technology transfer to real field easy.Tags: Joint, images, pipe, joining, time, shows, wire Nondestructive Testing of Fusion Joints of PE Piping by Real Time Ultrasonic Imaging
Shin, Jang, Kwon, Lee

Italgas carried out some non-destructive test campaigns on polyethylene pipe welds, mainly focusing on ultrasonic inspection of butt-fused joints. Ultrasonic techniques were in fact considered to be the most efficient way to assess the integrity of the welds. At present Italgas is evaluating the time of flight diffraction technique, which appears to be promising because it seems to identify also cold joints, that are not normally detectable by standard US techniques. Moreover in the near future Italgas will be involved in a project focused on the assessment of electrofused joints by means of a hybrid technique, coupling US array sensors with thermographic analysis.Tags: Cold, weld, joints, test, pulse, echo, welding, tensile Italgas Experience on non destructive Evaluation of PE Pipe Welding
Ghia, Olivero, Piovano

This exercise suggests that ramp loading and similar tests could give results that are compatible with those of constant pressure tests, and which could be suitable to be used to determine data points for regression testing. The present results are based on a limited set of data one just one system and it would be interesting for a more comprehensive range of studies to be carried out to determine the validity of the proposed procedures. The advantages offered include not only methods of dealing with run-out samples at the end of long test runs but also the possibility of having planned campaigns of testing where, for instance, groups of samples could be held under constant pressure for a period, then ramp tested to burst all on the same day. This would have advantages over the current procedure where such a group of samples would fail at indeterminate intervals over a period of time.Tags: Pressure, constat, time, ramp, results, data, pipe, points A Novel Approach to the Qualification of Non-Metallic Pipe Systems
Gibson, Frost, Stratfold

For all tested welds (WIS; DVS; Japanese method) a minimum service life of 100 years at 20 °C is expected due to the high resistance to slow crack growth of the pipe materials. However there is a significant difference in the minimum rupture times and the crack behaviour of the welds which can be related to the different welding processes. The excellent experiences with butt welds of small and medium sized PE-pipes in the past 30 years is confirmed by the long term results found at heavy wall PE-pipes.Tags: Pipe, welding, wall, hdpe, term, pipes, heated Welding of Large Diameter Heavy Wall Polyolefine Pipes and Long Term Performance
Hessel, Lueghamer, Tsunaga

No significant difference in failure times was found between pigmented, PE100/B, and unpigmented, PE100/W, compound alternatives. As both compounds use the same base polymer results seems to reflect inherent properties of this polymer without any influence from pigmentation. Outside weld beads and outside pipe surface clearly interact to lower the time to failure in accelerated creep tensile tests. Weld bead removal and scraping of outside pipe surface significantly increase failure times. The exact mechanism is not clear and the implication on butt fusion joint performance in service is not demonstrated but the results indicate possible ways to enhance safety margins when making butt fusion joints. The topic will be given further attention in coming studies.Tags: Pipe, beads, fusion, time, pe100, removing, The Influence from the Pipe Surface, Weld Beads and Protective Skins on Long Term Failure Times for PE Butt Fusion Joints
Bergstroem, Nilsson, Lindqvist

Pressure test, 30 bars in 120 s at 20o C on a PE100 SDR 11 pipe according to DVGW W336 para 4.3: Withstands 30 bar for 1 hour without any leakage. Puncture test, deforming a PE 100 SDR11 pipe with 10 bar internal pressure, see Fig. 13: Withstands 30% deformation of the pipe before a leakage occurs. When reducing the deformation the saddle becomes tight again. Cycle test, 0 to 10 bar internal pressure in 80o C on a PE 100 SDR 11 pipe: Withstands 40000 cycles without leakage. Cycle test, 2 to 10 bar internal pressure in 20o C on a PVC Hep30 pipe: Withstands 100000 cycles before leakage occurs in the PVC pipe. The failures were from a crack initiating from the tapped hole. Tags: Saddle, creep, pipe, test, saddle, isiflo Solving the Creeping Problem Mechanical Tapping Saddles Have on PE Pipes

The overall performance of PE pipes produced from PE 80 grades is less affected from the squeeze-off tests compared to the pipe made from PE100 grades. At the hydrostatic pressure testes, all PE pipes considered in this study failed from the squeeze-of ears and the failed in the ductile manner, underlying the fact the squeezing the PE pipes has a destructive effect on the hydrostatic pressure performance. The failure in the pipe at the squeeze region were in a ductile manner, implying the fact that the PE pipes squeeze-of performance is not determined by the environmental stress-cracking resistance (ESCR) of the PE material. Although the tensile properties of PE 80, PE 100 and PE-Xb pipes worsens with the squeeze-of ratio, the pressure performance tests indicates that the performances of PE 80 and PE-Xb pipes are still above the minimum requirements set by the related PE pipe standards.Tags: Pipe, stress, strain, damage, test, materials, stressed, ears Failure Analysis of the Squeeze-Off of PE Pressure Pipes
Yayla, Bilgin

The failure mode in non- chlorinated potable water of a PEX pipe appears to be similar to that observed in the presence of chlorinated potable water at the tested conditions. ORP has been shown to correlate well with failure times at the two tested temperatures. These findings are suggestive that the degradation and failure of PEX in chlorine resistance testing is largely a phenomenon of the overall oxidative strength of the solution and not due to specific chlorine chemistry. For the PEX pipe material examined, it is projected that material performance can significantly exceed the excellent preformance predicted based on testing at the aggressive water qualities typically employed in validation testing, depending on the specific water quality of the end use application.Tags: Factors, preformance, water, ORP, PEX, piping Environment Factors in Performance Forecasting of Plastic Piping Materials
Chung, Couch, Kim, Vibien, Oliphant

The results also indicate, in terms of OIT and FTIR, that there is a great difference in performance between different multi-layer pipes especially when tested in a circulation loop. The investigation clearly demonstrates that the lifetime prediction based on hydrostatically pressure tested multi-layer pipes used for potable hot water systems will be too optimistic. Instead these pipes should be tested in a circulation loop. When plotting the OIT results as a function of the square-root of the exposure time, the most accurate lifetime prediction will probably be obtained by using the OIT value from the outside of the inner liner or at different positions of the inner layer to give an integrated OIT value over the whole cross section.Tags: Layer, loop, testing, inner, figure, pressure, lifetime How will the Lifetime of Different Multi-Layer Pipes be Affected when Exposed to a Circulation Loop

Creep tests carried out on pressurized U-PVC pipes and on uniaxial tensile specimens taken from the same pipes yield similar results, provided the true applied stresses are considered. The idea of using the simpler tensile test to predict the time for ductile failure in U-PVC pipes appears therefore promising.Tags: Creep, mpa, test, tensile, pipe, stress, strain, applied, pressurized Prediction of Ductile Failure in U-PVC Pipes from Creep Tests on Specimens
Castiglioni, Verzanini, Pavan

degradation significantly affects the specific fracture energy and creates a noticeable buildup of degradation related stresses. The applied pressure may affect the critical level of degradation at the onset of fracture. However, it has a relatively small effect on the time of fracture initiation. The applied load starts to play an increasingly important role with stress corrosion crack growth, crack interaction and clusters formation (the second and third stages of 7 SCC). Finally, the external load becomes a dominant factor in SCC colony instability and ultimate failure.Tags: Fracture, degradation, materials, crack, time, stress, chemical Fracture Initiation Associated with Chemical Aging: Observation, Modeling and Accelerated Testing
Chudnovsky, Choi, Sehanobish

The results from long-term immersion testing, hydrostatic pressure testing and computer modelling show that PE100, PP and PVC can offer good long-term resistance to products based on sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide. In order to generate reliable lifetime predictions via computer modelling, a substantial amount of information is required, which can be generated from a combination of material analysis after long-term immersion and miniature disk bend tests to determine ESC resistance. The use of hydrostatic pressure testing provides a well established method of lifetime prediction, although care must be taken if the failure mechanism is likely to change at low stresses.Tags: Based, test, environments, failure, stress, pe100, pvc, weight Lifetime Prediction of Thermoplastic Pipe Materials for Use in Hydrogen Peroxide and Sodium Hypochlorite Environments
Arnold, Brogden, Stewart

The paper deals with the quality assessment of HDPE pipes for water and gas conveyance and aims at identifying a test method that can readily ascertain the worthiness of the material. Samples from several commercial pipes have been tested under monotonic tensile and cyclic flexural conditions, showing a spectrum of responses. Two indices derived from the tensile test seem promising for the scope of the analysis: the ultimate tensile strength and the total work of fracture, both divided by the yield strength of the material. The greater these indices, the greater the expected quality of the pipe. This finding makes of the standard tensile test, well established and easy to perform, a good candidate for the sake of practical judgement of plastic pipe quality.Tags: Test, material, mpa, quality, cycle, pipe, strain Quality Assessment of HDPE Pipes by Mechanical Testing
Castagnetti, Dragoni, Simonazzi

The theory on which the strength calculation and design method described in this paper is based has to a large extent been proved by both short-term and long-term hydrostatic tests carried out on the pipe samples. It is more convenient, more straightforward and much safer to use this method to determine the allowable pressure of the pipe than other methods presently available, though it is still needed to be further verified by more test research.Tags: Pipe, steel, burst, test, stress, plastic, term Pressure Design of Steel Mesh Reinforced Plastics Pipes
Sun, He, Zhang

The overall service design coefficient C for the use of polyethylene pipe for gas at pressure up to 0.3MPa in Japan was examined. As a result, the value of 3.0 that was obtained is considerably higher than that used in countries in the Americas and Europe. However, in the present situation where there are no results of the use of polyethylene pipe for gas supply at a pressure of 0.3MPa in Japan, conservative Japanese gas companies selected 3.0, because they have reached the conclusion that there are adequate technical grounds for this value.Tags: Hoop, stress, pipe, state, gas, virtual, group Setting the Value of the Design Coefficient for A 0.3MPa Gas Supply Use PE Piping System in Japan
Akiyama, Kuriyama

The results of tests of the behaviour of high density PE pipes subjected to stress following splitting and bursting operations conformed to the basic standards currently applied in Italy (UNI10910) to high density PE pipes at the time of production. Though there are considerable differences between damage to the outer surface of high density pipes attributable to different Splitting or Bursting procedures, amplified by differences in operating conditions (existing type of pipe, nature and composition of subsoil, etc), the requirement of conformity to the parameters in the standards is maintained under both standard applicative conditions and particularly severe conditions. It follows that it is reasonable to presume that the average lifespan of these high density PE pipes will be similar to pipes made of the same material laid underground using traditional open dig methods.Tags: Pipe, high, new, existing, rods, two Residual Lifespan of High Density PE Pipes Used in Pipe Replacing Operations

The investigation indicates very good result, and that an excellent pipe extrusion procedure has been applied. The strainability of the pipe material is high and somewhat better than for normal PE 100 materials. The studies performed can be used for giving recommendations about how to make the quality control of large diameter thick walled PE 100-LS pipes. Thus, for pressure pipes it is recommended to make type tests based upon constant internal hydrostatic pressure as described in this report. The internal pressure shall then be adjusted to the hoop tensile stress corresponding to the design stress chosen. For gravity pipes subjected to external soil load, the pipe sample shall be deflected to 15 %, which deflection shall be kept constant during at least 1 000 hours. The vertical force needed for keeping the pipe constantly deflected shall be measured continuously.Tags: Pipe, strain, pe100, stress, time, wall, material, pressure Strength Investigation of Large Diameter PE 100 Low Sag Pipe
Janson, Bergstroem, Baeckman, Blomster

The welded, end load bearing jointing system obviates the need for separate anchorage, minimizes leakage and makes polyethylene the ideal material for cost saving and environmentally friendly trenchless installation methods. While increasing designers knowledge of the properties of polyethylene and the flaws in the current structural design methods will go some way to prevent overly conservative solutions, a long term goal should be the development and codification of a realistic design method.Tags: Pressure, pipe, material, methods, pipeline, rating Factors Affecting the Use of PE Pipeline Materials for Large Diameter Water Mains

HDPE pipe is another of the tools available to the water system designer and/or installer that can meet this challenge for the future. The unique engineering properties of HDPE pipe which make it ideal for these applications are shown below. Lightweight, Flexible, Leak-Free, Ductile, Corrosion, Resistant. The versatile nature of HDPE piping combined with its unique joint integrity and overall toughness clearly suggests that this material will play a pivotal role in the construction (or reconstruction) of our potable water infrastructure in the years ahead.Tags: Water, pipe. hdpe, system, installed, pipeline High Density PE Water Distribution Systems

Coextruded For TEK™ pipes have been introduced and their physical, chemical, and mechanical characteristics briefly reported. By utilizing coextruded PEX/PE pipe to traditional PE, three objectives are achieved. Costly imported backfill can be eliminated, Higher RCP and chemical resistance, Better low and high temperature properties increasing the opening envelope for gas applications, Remarkable cost/ performance ratio. Easy installation is another major benefit of coextruded pipes: supplied in coils or straight lengths they can be handled as conventional.Tags: PEX, installation, gas, pe, pipe, material, PEX PE Coextruded Pipes for the Conveyance of Natural Gas
Genoni, Belforte

This paper has documented the advantages of HDPE pipes for use in municipal and industrial applications. Case studies were presented to demonstrate the properties of HDPE pipes as related to environmental protection, seismic resistance, corrosion and chemical resistance, durability and reliability. To learn more about the design and installation of PE pipes for water and wastewater applications, visit PPI website at At this site, one can also link to PPI member website for additional information.Tags: Water, pipe, hdpe, cost, iron, installation, Use of HDPE Pipe for Municipal and Industrial Projects in N. America

All excavated, old socket joints (between 20 and 30 years in operation) tested fulfilled the requirements for leaktightness according to the specifications. The minimum deflection of pipes at which leakage in laboratory tests occurs is 36 %, which is far above the deflections observed in field practice. All seals investigated are still of a good quality and there are no signs of deterioration. A lifetime of at least 50 years can be established for the excavated seals. After tens of years in use the socket joints, including the sealing rings, are in a very good shape. The results confirm that PVC systems have an excellent quality and a lifetime of at least 50 years.Tags: Leakage, pvc, deflection, joints, ductile, pressure The Durability of a Low-Pressure Gas Distribution System of Ductile PVC
Meijering, Wolters, Hermkens

Pipe materials technology and market needs have combined to advance developments in material savings while enhancing pipe properties. Increasing PVC pipe material design stresses from 10 to 32 MPa and the corresponding reduction in wall thicknesses and safety factors is described and includes a consideration of the concepts of strength and toughness as applied to design criteria for PVC-U, PVC-M and PVC-O pressure pipes. Starting with the stringent requirements of modified pipes for the mining industry, these developments clearly demonstrate the versatility and durability of PVC.Tags: PVC, pipe, pressure, properties, material, strength, plastic, impact, failure, mining, steel PVC Pipes for Life - Modern Developments and Design Criteria

Through the development of the polyethylene/ aluminium/ polyethylene (PE/AI/PE), multilayer barrier pipe system for the conveyance of potable water through contaminated land, the Plastics piping industry has expanded the scope of use of polyethylene piping systems. Although this is a relatively new application area for polyethylene pipelines, the multi-layer pe/AL/PE pipe has been found to offer advantages over the more traditional materials, for the conveyance of potable water through contaminated land. In particular the Puriton system of pipe and fittings offers the customer a cost effective alternative to the more traditional system used for the conveyance of potable water through contaminated landTags: Multilayer, plastic, pe, application, A Multilayer Plastics and Metals Pipeline System for the Conveyance of Water Through Contaminated Land
Hunter, Christodoulou, Greaves, Bowman, Bott

Considering what asserted in this brief report, we believe that the new AlveHol system has got all the requisites to be a protagonist. In fact it is: innovative, exclusive, practical, performance, complete, guaranteed, ecological, tested, international, safe, reliable, multi-task and even economical. Then, AlveHol is without any doubt a valuable product ready to relaunch the PVC pipes quality in the sewers field.Tags: Pipes, wall, structure, PVC, production, research, diameter, structures An Innovative Technology to Make Structured PVC Pipes For Sewers Large Diameter with Possible Developments in the Technology Nets Field

The ability to offer a modified pre-processed polyethylene should offer significant advantages to both end use customers and material processes. End users can benefit from the improved properties, which allow for possible cost and weight savings due to thinner pipe walls. Material extrusion processors would also find distinct processing advantages due to the improvement in the materials melt strength while maintaining an unchanged spiral flow. Material processors could also achieve additional cost advantages versus other engineering grades of resin, while only requiring slight modification to existing pipe extrusion equipment. Since the pre-processed polyethylene can be recycled and is compatible with food and potable water, it also provides positive environmental implications. Research and development in pre-processing of polyethylene continues with the development of new and improved performance grades. Development of additional formulations to meet specific end use requirements continues and will expand with future needs.Tags: Pipes, wall, structure, PVC, production, research, diameter, structures A Novel Material for Plastic Pipe Applications
Forczek, Kerluke, Cheng, du Plessis, Seute

With the development of a new crosslinking technology by irradiation in combination with higher energy of electron accelerators (10 MeV) the crosslinking of polyethylene pipes up to diameter 450 mm, wall thickness 40 mm and lengths of 12.000 mm can be performed. In the new technique all sides of pipe are irradiated continuously in what can be described as an simultaneous interaction of pipe translation and rotation whilst passing through the beam. PE-Xc pipes provide a very secure network during the installation process and during operation as a result of product qualities like low creep tendency, high resistance against external impact loads, high resistance against the effects of notches and grooves or increased chemical and temperature resistance. The possibility of crosslinking PE pipes up to 450mm diameter will significantly increase the PE-X for gas and water pipes as well as pipes for industrial applications.Tags: Crosslinking, test, high, pipe, electrons, process Electron Beaming of Large Diameter Thick-Walled PE Pipes
Below, Quilitz, Schumann

The growing level of acceptance of various trenchless technology methods in North America for municipal construction has opened up a new market for the PVC pipe industry. By developing new types of joints geared for trenchless installation, the industry now offers a wide variety of options to municipal engineers and contractors. The introduction of fusible PVC, along with the other restrained joint products clearly increases competition for PE pipe. North American public works community continues to embrace trenchless technology; further research will be needed to gain a clearer understanding of the pipe/soil mechanism as it applies to trenchless applications.Tags: Pipe, PVC, joint, installation, pressure, diameter, bell, tensile, construction, Developments in North American PVC Piping Products for Trenchless Applications

The concept of thin-walled interactive PE lining of pressure pipelines has been successfully developed and is now being exploited commercially, both in the UK and elsewhere. It has enabled utility pipeline operators to rehabilitate existing leaking and corroding pipelines in a highly economical manner. This paper has made clear that very significant savings of operational costs are available to utilities which utilise leak-free, corrosion-proof PE-based structural and interactive lining systems to rehabilitate their pipeline systems. It has been shown indicated that a purely water quality-based approach to pipeline maintenance may be a false economy when the long-term operational costs of pipeline maintenance are taken into account.Tags: Cost, pipe, water, mains, year, cut, spray Thin-Walled PE Rehabilitation of PE Pressure Pipelines Using Trenchless Techniques
De Rosa, Spence

Canicatti Municipality chose to use the Weholite spirally would large diameter pipe system based on the new generation PP materials for entire sewerage/ rainwater expansion project, including all system parts. This decision was based on a thorough evaluation of the plastics pipes alternative and their previous experience with concrete and clay pipe system. However this is not often the case. In most cases large diameter non- pressure pipe systems are based on concrete and clay for cost reasons i.e simply cost per meter.Tags: Cost, pe, diameter, pressure, large, system Large Diameter Spirally Wound PP Sewerage Pipe Installation in Sicily
Barresi, Ek

The work undertaken at the University of East London has shown that manufactured artificial aggregates cannot only replace, but is some respects are superior in behaviour to natural materials. The importance of ensuring that plastic pipelines are properly installed is paramount to the longevity of the asset. The use of manufactured artificial materials will not only support effective construction, but will reduce the need to use precious natural resources and is more sustainable and effective than the use of other recycled materials.Tags: Material, pipe, waste, east, natural, Manufactured Aggregate as Imported Backfill Material for Plastics Pipes
Newport, Wijeyesekara, Edwards

Due to the variety of service and installation conditions, pipes systems need a wide range of different requirements per each possible application. Thanks to their design versatility polyolefinic materials allowed for a continuous improvement of the specific pipe system performance also because of a closer co-operation among the different players in this field. From a single reactor, polymerisation processes evolved to cascade processes and might go back to single reactor systems in future. The new processes have allowed the production of multimodal polymer blends and alloys, where different polymer structures are mixed together during polymerisation.Tags: New, diffrent, process, properties, catalyst, system New polymerization technologies for plastic pipes
De Vries

The JIP has issued a "Recommended Practice" for the qualification of RTP. The JIP has attempted to follow the procedures for qualification of plastic pipe as close as possible, making additions and alterations as required by the special character of RTP. The basis of any qualification procedure of RTP is still the determination of the "Regression line", which gives the time- to- burst as a function of the hydrostatic pressure. A few days gain of lost oil production is often worth more than the complete installed cost of RTP. In fact, RTP pays itself back within a weekTags: Rtp, oil, pipe, codt, indtslled, pressure, cost, high Qualification of Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipe and its Application in the Oil and Gas Industry

Background pipe evolution in the early 1950´s most gas, water and industrial pressure pipes were made of either steel or cast iron, with concrete and clay being used for non- pressure pipe applications. In practice there are only any potential concerns fpr depply laid high DSR pipes that will never be pressurised- this is self- evidently the reson for employing high ring stiffness structured wall thermoplastics pipes for deeper gravity flow applications, rather than realatively expensive solid wall PE or PVC pipesTags: Pipe, plastic, surge, material, very, more, industry 20+ Years Experience with PE Pipe for Water in the UK
Headford, Hill, Wilson

Practical examples using ambicat and novel flexible piping grade for PE-X-B. The use of the new resin developed for the production of pipes made of PE-X-b with silane cross linking, combined with the new ambicat catalyst has premitted to manufacture a pipe of optimal performance from a thermal and mechanical point of view and also to speed up the phase of crosslinking.Tags: Cross linking, pipe, novel, materials, market New Possibilities for Silane PE-X Materials Using a Novel Crosslinking Catalyst System and Innovative PE Resins
Palmloef, Quaretta

PVC pipe which is butt fused, inserted into a pipeline, and then expanded and oriented in place. The resulting product is a structural, NSF-61 certified, pressure capable renewed water line accomplished with a trenchless approach. Development of this product and system required three technical accomplishments: producing consistent, high-strength fusion joints; expanding the inserted fused sections to the inside diameter of the host pipe; and quantifying the strength increase obtained to rationally assign a pressure rating to the expanded-and-oriented pipe. Data supporting these developments is presented.Tags: Pipe, thickness, PVC, expansion, wall, pressure, ratio, diameter, fusion, material Pipeline Rehabilitation with Expanded and Reoriented PVC
Woods, Marti, Ferry

All the results, even from the first produced PVC-U pipes which have a service life of about 50 years, demonstrate in an impressive way the excellent durability of these plastic pipes. The best reflection of the positive experience and long term performance is the fact that, globally, PVC pipes are the most widely used plastics pipes. For new developments in PVC-U pipes, such as new stabilizer types, this long term experience forms an excellent basis against which to compare and correlate performance data. This will ensure that the excellent durability demonstrated in practice by the old pipes will, in the future, equaled and even exceeded by newly developed PVC-U pipe products.Tags: Pipe, PVC, production, water, years, crack, term, samples 70 Years of Experience with PVC Pipes
Huelsmann, Nowack

From all the results it can be concluded that all the pipes investigated fulfilled all requirements. The material characterisation tests indicate that the material has not suffered from age and can be considered as good as new. The pipes can still be fused, squeezed and used up to their full pressure rating for the next 50 years. It is, however, recommendable to check some of the properties again after 10 or 15 years to see if the expectation as written here is confirmed. Now a fixed point in time has been achieved, something that can be checked against in the futureTags: Pipe, material, results, danish, denmark, report, Durability of Danish PE Gas Pipes

The sewage municipality in Göttingen has the strong believe, that the future in non-pressure sewage pipeline construction is to use PE-HD materials. (12) If 50% of sewage network operators in Germany changed to the use of PE-HD piping, the newly generated market potential would be around 5.000 km / year in the diameter range 280 –560 mm and 3.000 km in the dimension 160mm. The path to the realisation of such attractive market potentials however requires a joint approach of the industry combined with very intense education and public relation activities – at present neither of these are being carried out sufficiently.Tags: Pipe, sewer, inspection, pipelines, water, system PE-HD Pipe Systems: 15 Years of Successful Application in the Public Sewer Network of Goettingen
Fiedler, Ettinger

The paragraphs on design and installation of pipe systems have been based on the lowest possible environmental impacts and financial costs as far as installation and operation are concerned as they give guidelines on how to establish pipe systems of high quality with a minimum of operational work. This paragraph describes cleaning methods in connection with sedimentation and CCTV inspection – both primarily in the event of acute problems, as a correctly designed and installed plastic pipe system does not require any periodic or planned cleaning/inspection.Tags: Lifetime, Quality, Environment, Economy Joint, commitment New Technical Guide - Using Plastics Pipes for Water Supply and Sewer Systems

The decision to make the change to peelable polyethylene pipes markes a significant stage in the history of polyethylene pipe development in the UK, enabling as it does a new generation of pipes which build on the existing excellent performance properties of polyethylene materials but with additional layers to provide added functionality aimed at addressing genuine and real industry concernsTags: Pipe, gas, pressure, safety, united, system PE, Reducing Risks in the Gas Industry by Replacing Ductile Iron Pressure Pipes

Accurate knowledge of the structural performance of interactive pipe liners is potentially of great benefit to the water industry, since there are significant potential cost and environmental benefits to be obtained by their use. At the moment the behaviour of liners under static service conditions, such as gap-spanning and hole-bridging is well understood. However there is a gap in the knowledge of liner behaviour under conditions that occur post host-main fracture. In earlier work it was shown that interactive liners are able to survive a ring fracture of the cast iron host main. The aim of the current work has been to extend this by considering conditions that may occur following ring fracture.Tags: Liner, pipe, work, water, creep, host, out Examining the Behaviour of an Interactive Pipe Liner Under Conditions that May Occur Following Ring Fracture of the Host Main
Crunkhorn, Whiter, Mulheron, Smith

The main requirements for successful pipeline renovation systems are to combine an easy and safe installation with a long lifetime and a good cost performance. This paper reviews the development and evaluation of the Omega-LinerTM relining system which is a close-fit system based on a PVC alloy. Practical experiences/projects with the Omega-LinerTM system are presented and characteristics of the PVC alloy are described.Tags: Liner, omega, pipe, PVC, system, installation, renovation, polymer, properties Experience with a Close-Fit Pipeline Renovation System based on a PVC Alloy
Bos, Huusko

The PE pipe supplier was a German company, Egeplast Werner Strumann GmbH& CO. Liner grip joints, which were utilized to complete steel pipe make- up connections between the lining runs, were supplied by Glynwed Pipeline systems from the U.K. Cleaning of the host pipe was completed by using highpressure water and visual inspectionTags: Pipe, water, diameter, subline, section Leiduin to Haarlem - Water Transport Pipeline Rehabilitation

It is possible to calculate stress levels in fittings using non-linear Finite Element Analysis. It is possible to generate ISO 9080 regression coefficients for modern materials that have not shown SCG failure modes using pipe specimens. Methods have been suggested to identify the resin fractions relevant to good SCG properties of polyethylene resins using SIS DSC methods. These could be developed into good quality control methods. Ideas have been offered for discussion and debate as to how we can take a new approach to fitting approval and fitting performance specification. These suggestions offer a standard and rational approach to material choice based on full disclosure of material properties as is accepted in most engineering fields.Tags: Stress, pipe, regression, materials, points, pressure, crack Design and Pressure Rating of PE Fittings, Stress Concentrations, Slow Crack Growth and the USE of ISO9080

Slip-lining with medium sized PE pipes is a well proven rehabilitation method which has been used since the early 60’s. During the pull-in operation, the PE pipes are able to withstand tensile stresses in the range of 8-10 MPa without any risk of overstressing the material. This means that it is possible to use significant pulling forces during the installation stage. In many instances, the actual pulling-force that large diameter PE pipe can withstand, is far in excess of what the equipment available on site can provide. A large diameter pipe is also less able to adjust itself for minor misalignments and bends compared to a smaller pipe. In the literature there is limited information available about slip-lining of PE pipes larger than 1000 mm diameter. The slip-lining performed in Kolkata shows, that with good planning, it is possible to execute slip-lining with large diameter PE pipes using relatively low pulling forces during actual installation. In this particular project, the PE pipe supplied was able to be subjected to a 200 ton pulling force, but only 19-28 ton pulling force was actually needed. The result of this project shows that it is possible to install large diameter PE pipework for slip-lining applications, easily, safely and cost effectivelyTags: Pipe, water, pulling, lining, possible, Relining of a large Diameter Water Main in Kolkata Using Solid Wall PE Pipes
Bjorklund, Leowpenwong

PE pipes are in widespread use as corrosion-proof piping materials in newly installed gas pipelines. Since PE pipes are flexible and easy to connect, they can enhance the work efficiency at construction sites and reduce the time required for carrying construction equipment and materials to the sites. As a result, the construction period during which the -9- road must be closed to traffic can be reduced. In addition, PE pipes have a potential of drastically saving civil-engineering and piping work costs, since it is compatible with the insertion or the trenchless installation technique. It is certain that PE pipes will more be widely used and established as reliable gas piping materials in the future.Tags: Pipe, crack, gas, test, time, growth, creep An Evaluation Method for Slow Crack Growth on PE Pipes for Gas Distribution
Nishimura, Kawaguchi

Pipes and fittings made of PE 80 and PE 100 have a proven track record within the area of industrial pipeline construction, in the gas and water supply industries, in waste disposal technology and also in the waste water disposal sector, even when subjected to extreme loading. Future expansion of their fields of application is not only possible through technical improvements in materials but also through new designs (ovoid profiles, ovality). In this respect the manufacture of ovoid profiles using PE-HD is a first decisive step. Based on these developments, PE-HD can be deployed for the renovation of existing defective brickwork or concrete ovoid systems, a procedure which was not previously technically possible. Thus, specialist renovation projects will also benefit from the commercial and technical advantages of pipes made of PE 80 and PE 100.Tags: Pipes, water, concrete, made, pipeline, proven PE - A Proven Material in the Practical Application

In the NPT Notched Pipe Test, ductile failure occurs as a result of notch blunting. As the stress level is reduced, the failure mode progresses through craze bunching to failure predominantly at a single craze. This pattern is displayed in the higher density pipe products, but the brittle mode is not observed for the medium density PE 80 material where notch blunting continues to occur even at low stress levels. Hence the density of the pipe material determines its ability to deform near the crack tip region and contribute to slow crack growth resistance via crack tip blunting. The excellent slow crack growth resistance in pipe demonstrated by achieving long times to failure in the Notched Pipe Test can be achieved in two ways:- By combining inherent resistance to slow crack growth with blunting mechanisms promoted by a lower density material, eg use of PE 80 MDPE materials. Via excellent inherent resistance to slow crack growth in higher density bimodal material, eg use of high performance PE 100 materials. The required pipe slow crack growth resistance could also be achieved with a balance of both contributory factors. The FNCT test whilst useful for an indication of inherent slow crack growth resistance cannot be used to predict pipe performance for a range of materials, and therefore is unsuitable as a reference test for a pipe product specification. The NPT test remains the bench-mark test for pipe performance and is referenced by many specifications.Tags: Test, material, pipe, crack, growth, slow, growth Interpretation of the Results of the Full Notch Creep Test and a Comparison with the Notched Pipe Test
Beech, Clutton

This paper is about fatigue failure data for PVC. The most commonly used method until the year 2001 had been Vinson’s equation (1). Vinson developed his equation by running test cases that assumed fatigue is a function of peak stress alone. Moser (5) showed that Vinson’s equation is very conservative. He also showed that the other methods of predicting fatigue were also incorrect. He developed his own S-N diagram based on the fatigue data that Vinson collected. His method assumes fatigue is plotted as a straight line on a semi-log plot. It was determined that stress amplitude influences the fatigue of PVC more than mean stress, but mean stress does play a role. A new S-N fatigue diagram has been developed that is more accurate than all previous methods. Equations (2) and (3) were developed to predict the fatigue failure but are still in the developmental stage and should only be used as a guide. to get a full understanding of how PVC behaves when subjected to all ranges of fatigue stresses.Tags: Stress, fatigue, failure, data, PVC, cycles, tests, pipe, amplitude New Design Guidelines for Fatigue Failure in PVC Pipe
Jeffrey, Moser, Folkman

From this presentation a number of conclusions can be drawn: PVC-M pipes are designed to operate at higher stresses than PVC-U, derating begins at a lower number of cycles. The slope of the stress-amplitude versus cycles-to-failure plot was similar to that reported by Joseph and Leevers and the lower bound published by Joseph. Results of tests at 3 and 19 Hz were similar in both the high and low stress amplitude regions. The higher frequency is therefore valid for investigating the threshold region. However, in the intermediate stress range at the higher frequency, higher cycles-tofailure were achieved. Both PVC-U and PVC-M exhibited a lower fatigue threshold at 30°C than at 20°C. It is therefore appropriate to apply a lower threshold value for pipelines operating at elevated temperatures. Tags: PVC, fatigue, cycles, pipe, results, failure, factor, resistance, temperature, Resistance of PVC-U and PVC-M to Cyclic Fatigue
Whittle, Teo

This paper is about the Technological solutions for PVC-U pipe extrusion machinery. Output capacities of counter-rotating twin screw extruders were increased significantly by development of longer processing units and more intelligent screw designs. New pipe extrusion die concepts ensure high product quality and allow for improved line flexibility. The co-operation of material supplier, machine manufacturer and pipe producer enables further developments to meet the future demands in PVC-U pipe extrusion.Tags: screw, pipe, PVC, extrusion, range, pressure, surface, die PVC-U Pipe Extrusion Machinery - Technological Solutions

Actually the major part of the users tend to stay with the most cost effective and expertized lead stabilizers where possible, nevertheless the phase-out of lead will take place and most companies have started to invest some work in alternative stabilizers to be prepared. Technically all alternatives - Ca/Zn, Ca-organic and tin based stabilizers - are valuable solutions. Attention has to be drawn to some inherent properties (sulfur staining, restricted use of some co-stabilizers for pressure pipes) of the different systems. Commercial comparison favors Ca/Zn or tin. Taking all that in consideration the best cost/performance ratio is given by Ca/Zn stabilizers.Tags: Stabilizer, system, tin, organic, PVC, pipe, sulfur, Alternative Stabilisers for PVC Pipes and Fittings

Under this evaluation the conclusion is that the foam core pipe leads to a higher benefit for the producer. The return of investment time can be very short in case of high output extrusion. Big extruders and high throughput coex tooling are more and more required. Long production runs helps reduce the startup scrap and helps to run with maximum possible savings and benefits.Tags: Cost, high, filled, material, pipe, formulation, market, production Filled or foamed PVC Pipes - Which solution achieves highest benefit?

In this work fatigue crack growth experiments were used to evaluate the long term performance of polyethylene pipe grades. The FCG- test were preformed under a sinusoidal load at a frequency of 5Hz, an R- ration(Fmin/Fmax) of 0,1 and a test temperature of 23°C. Eight different commercial pipe grades were included into the investigations. A procedure could be established to initiate quasi- brittle cracks that led to failure within 60 hours. Crack growth initiation times were determined from crack opening displacement data and crack growth kinetics were analysed using linear elastic fracture mechanics. For the investigated materials the ranking by FCG was in reeasonable agreement with results from Full notch Creep Tests, corroborating the usefulness of fatigure experiments to estimate long- term failure under static loadsTags: Pipe, PE, crack, growth, term, failure Ranking of PE-HD Pipe Grades by Fatigue Crack Growth Performance
Pinter, Haager, Balika, Lang

In recent years the ASTM F 1473 PENT test from the USA and the Full Notch Creep Test have been developed to ISO standards by ISO/TC138/ SC plastics pipes- Test methods and ISO/TC 61/ SC9 Plastics General Test Methods- polyolefin respectively. Full notch creep test is a relatively recent addition to the tests available for measuring resistance to slow crack growth.Tags: Pipe, dimension, system, diameter, plastic pipe, year QuickSwitch - Continuous Dimensions Change in Pipe Extrusion
Tuerk, Stieglitz

Following conclusions can be made from the test: The SCR of the resin was significantly reduced by the carbon black, regrind and pipe processing. The SCR of the corrugated pipe varies from locations to locations due to the manufacturing process. The bending stress should be considered when the circumferential oriented specimens were tested in tension. The longitudinal oriented liner specimen with notching on the outer surface should be used to characterize the SCR of the finished pipe. The SCR of the HDPE corrugated pipe should be determined instead of the resin due to the large variation in the reduction factors. Tags: Pipe, stress, liner, surface, outer, crest,inner Evaluation of Stress Crack Resistance of Corrugated High Density PE Pipes
Hsuan, McGrath

The development of Flex Ring Dies makes it possible to alter the gap of the flow channel at the die exit in a restricted region in regard to the circumference of the die. In many cases a conventional die can be modified into a co extrusion die by simply integrating a Flex Ring Tubing into the existing die. time is still far away but will come for sure that many conventional dies have been successfully retrofitted with Flex Ring Tubings and that nearly nobody will buy any longer a conventional die if he needs a new die. So due to the added value Flex Ring Dies have for the pipe producer they probably become the state of the art in pipe extrusion. The question is only how long it will still need until even the last pipe producer will go and see for himself of the advantages of the Flex Ring Technology.Tags: Extrusion, pipe dies, flow, channel, adjustable, walls, flex ring technology Reduction of Production Costs and Improvement of Pipe Quality by Using Flex Ring Dies

Overview of the different stabilizers for PVC with table showing the plus and minus of each of them, as well as an overview of the different driving forces for the substitution of Lead stabilisers.Tags: Lead, zinc, PVC, calcium, tin, system, pipe, organic, migration Stabilisers for PVC Systems
Schiller, Fischer

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the wear resistance of pipes to high-pressure water jetting: Pressure fluctuations during prolonged use at one pressure in high-pressure water jetting rigs were negligible up to 5000 psi. The water in the pressure line of a high-pressure water jetting rig did not show any signs of frictional heating below 2000 psi nozzle pressure. Gravitational effects on particles entrained in the high velocity flows flow were negligible. Fluctuations during pressure cycling of a high-pressure water jetting rig were negligible. Measured head losses were marginally higher than those calculated theoretically. The contribution of run-up and run-down time to the total impulse imparted into the sample decreased as test duration increased.Tags: Pressure, psi, time, water, pump, flow, pressure Erosion Performance of Plastics Pipes
Fairfield, Campbell, Reid

This case study follows the installation of a 300 to 800mm PVC sewer pipeline system in a housing development. The system: employs a novel design of PVC foam core pipes which have an integral fixed elastomeric sealing ring in the joint, Specially thickened inner wall. Incorporates a novel design of saddle, which is easy installed and allows ready connection to the house drainage system. All in all the system offers a cost effective high performance solution to utility provider.Tags: System, performance, novel, sewer, improved, design, saddle, solution Newly Developed Sewer Pipe System With Improved Abrasion Performance and Safer Joints

Pipe stiffness holds the pipe in shape during handling, installation, and when a surface wheel load passed over the pipe with minimum soil cover. For comparison of the stiffness of HDPE plastic pipes and elstic pipes such as steel pipes for which ring stiffness= EI/D3, FΔ= 53.77 EI/D3Tags: Pipe, soil, pressure, stress, trench, strength, stiffness Pipe and Soil Mechanics for Buried Corrugated HDPE Pipe

The described structural HDPE pipe is the most important component of buildings like collecting shafts and storage tanks. It has been shown, that a fast and cost-effective installation of an absolute tight, safe and reliable decentralised drinking water supply system can be made in mountainous and sparsely populated areas. As the pipes are designed individually for each project, a highly loaded system even in large diameters can be produced.Tags: Water, pipe, storage, supply, wall, installation, drinking Structural HD-PE Pipes - The Basis for Prefabricated Buildings and Their Special Opportunities by Collecting Potable Water in Mountainous Area

This study included structural design and qualification testing for new polypropylene stormwater chambers. Chambers installed in accordance with the instructions presented herein and subjected to AASHTO HS-20 live loads have adequate factor of safety against structural failure as defined in AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. The limiting design condition is longterm loading under deep burial. Important installation parameters include type and depth of bedding, type and height of fill, and spacing of adjacent chambers. Field testing of chamber systems shows that performance correlates well with modeling predictions. Testing under conditions more severe than allowed in service verifies that the safety factors are adequate. The American Society for Testing and Materials is balloting a standard specification for polypropylene stormwater chambers based on this work.Tags: Cover, chamber, wall, table, strain, test, model, live Structural Design of PP Stormwater Chambers Using Plastic Pipe Analysis, Design and Test Methods
Beaver, McGrath, Sharff

In underground pressureless plastic pipe systems, the durability is strictly connected to its thermoxidative behaviour. Up to 6 months at 95 [°C], for PP, we've found that mechanical performances are not influenced by ageing in water at high temperature. On the other side, this type of ageing has a deep effect on the thermoxidative life of PP, by extracting antioxidant additives. Similarly to the pressure pipe applications, the determination of the combined oxygen-water extraction is the k-point to detect the pipe material durability. Different additive systems exhibit different behaviour when subjected to air or to water extraction phenomena. Due to its low scattering of results, the only reliable method to detect the material performances is the determination of the additive system content after different ageing time by HPLC analysis, which determines the actual amount of additive which is still effective. By working on the base resin, BASELL has proposed a method to detect the predictable lifetime of poliolefinic pipe materials for underground sewerage applications, which avoids to test the actual produced pipes.Tags: Pipe, water, time,materials, ageing, iso, pressure A Proposal for a Method to Establish Long Term Behaviour of Underground Pressureless Polyolefinic Materials
DePalo, Burgin, Pradella, Ferrari

Work adopted into practice in the US AASHTO Specifications for design of thermoplastic culverts has been briefly presented. Information summarized includes methods of calculating the vertical arching factor to estimate load reduction based on low hoop stiffness, soil stiffness parameters that reflect the effect of confinement with increased depth of fill, and a method of evaluating the local buckling capacity of profile wall pipe. References with complete details on the methods are provided.Tags: Pipe, soil, stiffness, wall, strain, stress Design of Profile Wall Thermoplastic Pipe for Compression

External loading caused by installation, soil and traffic results in pipe deflection and bending stresses. The bending stresses are relaxing in the course of time. The additional stresses caused by external loading do not result in reduced failure times when the pipes are internally pressurized. Pipes failing in a ductile manner even profit a lot from combined loading, the time to failure increases. Pipes failing in a brittle manner are not affected by combined loading. It is shown that the visco-elastic behaviour of materials such as PE and PVC is a profitable feature providing a long life for thermoplastics pressure pipes.Tags: Pipe, pressure, stress, material, combined, thermoplastic Combined Loading of Buried Thermoplastics Pressure Pipes
Alferink, Wolters, Janson

The test results, which demonstrated good repeatability, demonstrate that some of the patterns of deflection seen in the field can be recreated by careful variation of installation procedures, and in all cases the pipes deform according to the degree of support and the angular stress variations caused by the inhomogeneity of the waste. When combined with the field measurements, it is possible to determine the structural action of the pipes in different construction and loading scenarios and to make recommendations for the design and installation of such pipes in practice. For example, it is apparent that larger gravel mounds attract far greater stresses and that a gradual thickening of the gravel (say with a side slope of 10-15° rather than 35°) might produce better pipe performance. It should be noted that, although the results presented here suggest that a smaller mound is preferable, the large inclusions in real landfills have been shown (4) to cause severe point loading where small gravel cover thickness have been used, and some compromise is therefore necessary.Tags: Pipe, test, waste, gravel, stress, above Laboratory Modelling of Plastic Landfill Leachate Drainage Pipes
Rogers, Vasilikos

The plastic industry is following the developments of EAS very carefully. In spite of the fact that there are still numerous question marks and open ends, a first start of EAS scheme is still predicted in 2006. Because of it is a political issue, and also in the view of recent publications about drinking water quality, the EC will be eager to take firm conclusions and start the new approach soonest. As plastic pipe industry, we are prepared to support this development, but are extremely concerned about the way the European regulators are tending to conclusions and requirements, which are far from realistic. For that reason, all our colleagues are asked to join us in following the work carefully and react to national regulators to defend our cases.Tags: EAS, safety, industry, plastic, EAS European Acceptance Scheme
Nury, Meijering

The localized increase in the tension in the pipe generates the progressive cracking from the inside toward the outside, in line with the hard point, over a few millimeters in the pipe inner surface. This cracking reveals in the form of a split – generally longitudinal – whose size and geometry depend on the external loading applied to the pipe and the intrinsic SCG resistance of the PE material. The analysis of failed samples allows one to evaluate very accurately the “current” size and geometry of the zone on the pipe engaged in the impingement process.Tags: Pipe, rock, data, failure, model Rock Impingement of PE Piping Systems
Gueugnaut, Berthier, Darut, Constantinescu

It is interesting to note that the results found do not to any extent differ from what has previously been reported for smaller flexible pipes. The results rather indicate that smaller diametrical deflections may be found in large diameter pipes compared to smaller pipes. The latter is probably due to the fact that large diameter pipes in practice might be better installed than smaller sized pipes. The traffic load does not seem to have affected the pipes, in spite of the fact that two of the culverts have had a very small cover depth.Tags: Deflection, pipe, diameter, installation, sect Performance of Buried Large Diameter Structured Wall PE Pipes
Andtbacka, Bjorklund, Lofmark, Thorstensson

An overview of the trend of the drafted european law and a comparison between the actual and future obligations for the producers shows that, reasonably, even higher burden of responsibility will be on the producer/manufacturer. In fact, according to new general policy, in the future major focus will be on certification/declaration system and EC marking. Therefore to ensure traceability of the products and clear allocation of responsibilities, implementation of quality systems along the whole productive chain will be a bare necessity for the future production in the field of materials and articles in contact with water for human consumption.Tags: Materials, water, contact, limits, articles, glass New Approaches About Compliance of Materials in Contact with Water for Human Consumption
Ottaviani, Sarti, Milana

In order to contribute to sustainable development - our common task - we all will further improve our materials and processes regarding the ecological and economical criteria. We have the chance to use the cost advantage of lower cost products to strongly support a ecologically positive development. Reducing cost as a prime sustainability task should not damage in an unacceptable way important social criteria, like working places; other social criteria are positively affected by decreasing cost, like availability for not so rich people. Promoting this along the whole product chain will be an important, continuous task of the PVC industry like of all competing industries.Tags: Cost, pipe, products pvc, system, co2, emissions, insulation Low Cost Piping: A Challenge for First and Third World

Experimental results are shown in Tables 1-4. A non-parametric statistic analysis consisting in paired samples series test was carried out in order to highlight potential effects produced by the disinfection treatment on the materials. In particular, when the migration series was examined, the results of the three extractions were compared pair by pair. In the same way, the differences between the two disinfectants as well as the four biocide concentrations were examined as binary clusters. Moreover, a comparison of the two stagnation times was performed for every disinfectant concentration. Both qualitative and quantitative differences among organoleptic data obtained for the three different materials were in agreement with the corresponding variations in GC-MS values. No significant information was obtained by THM and AOX determinations due to low formation of chlorinated by-products.Tags: Water, pe80, migration, materials, time, gas, sample Organoleptic Behaviour of Organic Materials in Contact with Drinking Water
Veschetti, Cittadini, Maresca, Ottaviani

Our work covers three broad areas:- Advisory – working with major business organisations to get Sustainable Development at the heart of their strategies and decision- making. This activity covers a wide range of interventions, based upon long term relationships. Tags: Work, sustainable, development, system, plastic, pvc Representation of Stakeholder and Sustainable Development Interests

An objective of this development was to combine the benefits of ‘no-dig’ techniques and live insertion technology in terms of installation to provide a remote mains replacement system. Transco now have another tool in its ‘tool box’ when it has to undertake mains replacement operations. This system, for short length replacement, has been successfully developed from concept to reality in the operational field. The 75mm in 4” system is currently being implemented while the 3” & 6” systems will be available from Summer 2004. Developments such as these cannot be undertaken in isolation. They require partners not only with research skills, but also with manufacturing and productionising skills. One of the key reasons this development has been a success is the result of a cooperative working relationship between the partners: Transco, Synthotech, Steve Vick & AdvanticaTags: Pipe, gas, iron, replacement, pressure, Innovative PE Pipe Technologies

Buckling is the dominant mode of failure for cylindrical thin-walled linings subject to collapse pressures, and is a strong function of both the nominal geometry and the structural imperfections in the system. On this basis a suitable generalised design procedure for cylindrical polymeric linings under conditions of both short and long term collapse pressure loading has been identified. To demonstrate the generalised approach, applications to both gravity and pressure pipes and involving two significantly different lining materials and procedures have been considered, and a major programme of research into the structural behaviour of polymeric pipe linings is under way to verify the proposed procedures.Tags: Pipe, lining, gas, pressure, system, linings, host Design of Cylindrical Plastics Pipe Linings to Resist Buckling due to Collapse Pressures

Multi-layer pipes based on PE as stress-bearing layer allow combining the desired advantages of PE, like flexibility, leak tightness,… with the specific properties of the additional layer(s). Systems with a barrier layer represent today a majority of the multi-layer PE pipes. EVOH, PA or Aluminium generally bonded to PE thanks to a tie layer are the more frequent systems. However many other applications to multi-layer PE pipes exist already today and will be further developed in the coming years. The design and development of multi-layer systems require paying attention to a series of specific factors that could affect the long-term lifetime of the pipe system. The effect on the mechanical properties like the resistance to RCP and to SCG is one point. However more specific is the interface cohesion issue, for the evaluation of which specific test methods have been developed and have proven to be adapted. The contact between the layers and the medium or permeants at pipe ends should also receive careful consideration.Tags: Layer, pipe, test, very, systems, resistance, stress, Polyolefin Pipes with Functional Layer(s) Extend the Competitive Edge of Plastics Pipes
Laurent, Hugues

PE pipe systems for gas and water supply have been tried and tested for decades. In spite of excellent material features, the eventuality of damage during operation can never be excluded. Repair options using the electro fusion technique presented here offer the practical person technically elegant and economical alternatives to conventional repair methods.Tags: Pipe, fusion, repair, water, gas, supply Integration, Shut-Off and Repair Technology for PE Pipe Systems

Molecular oriented PVC (MOPVC) is still growing and still has to acquire a stable market position. Nevertheless, MOPVC is offering an excellent long-term performance and opens new horizons for higher pressures. In this paper, the MRS (Minimum Required Strength) pressure rating obtained with ISO 9080 of PVC-U and MOPVC pipes are discussed and evaluated. Renewed safety coefficients for PVC-U and MOPVC, based on the regression curves, the installation conditions and specific water company requirements, are proposed.Tags: Pipe, temperature, failures, value, time, regression, quality, factor Molecular Oriented PVC and PVC-U Pipes for Pressure Applications in the Water Industry
Robeyns, Vanspeybroeck

This paper provides an overview of the basic properties of plastic pipes, in the range 50mm to 400mm, and how these should be used in the design of above ground process pipe systems made of PE and PVC. It covers the basic properties of plastics, examples of the determination of load cases and describes the basic types of supports and restraints.Tags: Pipe, loads, design, stresses, temperature, modulus, system, material, plastic, movement The Above Ground Design of Plastic Pipe Systems for Process Fluids
MacKellar, Headford, Ingham

The Rate Process Method is a very powerful tool that can be used to determine the projected life of old generation polyethylene pipe that is in service for natural gas distribution. RPM can project not only the life of control pipe based on internal pressure, but also the life of the pipe subjected to secondary loads such as rock impingement, squeeze-off, bending and deflection. RPM can also project the life of heat fusion fittings, such as butt fusion, socket fusion, saddle fusion and electrofusion. In addition, based on scatter of the data, RPM can project the mean or average failure time at use conditions and the lower confidence level at use conditions. RPM can be used for older generation PE materials like Aldyl “A”, Century, PE 2306, PE 3306, PE 3406 and PE 3408 materials. Because the new PE materials have such improved resistance to slow crack growth, RPM is not practical for modern PE 2406 or PE 100 materials because the slit failures simply take too long to generate in laboratory conditions.Tags: Pipe, gas, projected, pressure, average Correlating Aldyl A and Century PE Pipe Rate Process Method Projections With Actual Field Performance

The head-to-head comparison has revealed that MRS and HDB rating systems have the same extrapolation and design baseline. They have been validated by many years of field applications. PE materials have been improved in past years to exceed the extrapolation requirements in D 2837 as discussed. As a result, the dramatic advances in PE resin technology cannot be reflected by HDB. End users cannot differentiate PE pipe materials and therefore can not utilize their full potential. The MRS rating system is being introduced into North America, the only region in the world that uses the HDB rating system. Perhaps the best way to harmonize MRS and HDB is to use MRS to replace HDB rather than to revise D 2837. PPI and NSF International have listed MRS. ASTM D3350 and D 2513 have recognized MRS. There are many on-going projects to introduce MRS into ASTM, AWWA and DOT standards. PE100 pipe is being used in North America following ISO standards. The safe and efficient operation of a pipeline depends on many properties. The pressure rating is one that has been addressed in this paper. Resistances to slow crack growth (SCG), the major long-term brittle failure mode, to rapid crack propagation (RCP), the fast fractures, and the effect transported materials and environments on LTHS, the main resources to chemical-physical degradation, are not addressed due to space and time limitations.Tags: Hdb, iso, rating, factor, pipe, temperature, pressure Can ISO MRS and ASTM HDB Rated Materials be Harmonized
Zhou, Palermo

At the pipeline site, UT-TOFD scans detected welds that contained suspected severe fusion defects. To ensure that the suspected defects did, in-fact, exist, the team removed 2 suspect welds from the pipeline labeled Weld A and Weld B. Samples were then prepared for destructive examination with characterization of fusion defects, followed by correlation of NDE and DE results. The scan of Weld B (Fig. 17) revealed the presence of multiple point reflectors, coupled with an interruption of the back wall echo, which indicated severe lack of fusion, “cold weld” conditions and extreme weld porosity. Field application of UT-TOFD (Fig. 23) verifies laboratory findings and establishes that UT-TOFD is highly reliable at detecting, locating, and characterizing defects including porosity and LOF in HDPE welds. The finding that there is a questionable correlation between visual weld bead quality and actual weld integrity is alarming. A large disparity between visual weld bead quality and actual weld integrity illustrates that current industry quality practices are often inaccurate and may be inadequate.Tags: Weld, fusion, defects, pipe, sample, brittel Novel High Resolution Defect Detection for Thermoplastic Butt-Welds in Operating Pipelines by Ultrasonic TOFD
Messer, den Boer

In co-operation with the PVC producers, pipe manufacturers and waterworks companies in the Netherlands, a study is carried out by the research institute TNO Industrial Technology on the current status of the existing PVC water distribution system and on the prediction of its residual lifetime. The prediction of the residual lifetime of PVC water distribution systems is complicated as a result of the variations in production quality, of the installation process, of the service conditions, of the traffic load, etc. Moreover, material degradation processes occur during the whole history of the PVC systems. The consequences for the long-term behaviour were studied starting from the degradation processes in the PVC products in combination with the processing, installation and service conditions. Procedures to accelerate the relevant degradation processes in PVC materials with a service life of several decades are proposed.Tags: PVC, pipe, stress, gelation, stabilizer, processes, lifetime, degree, service, fatigue Long Term Performance of Existing PVC Water Distribution Systems
Breen, Boersma, Slaats

The most important results connected with the characterisation to determine the residual life time of pipes in operation are: the absence on the surface of the pipes of deep notches (the pipe markings were performed without damages on the pipe surface), micro-cracks or damages due to the pipe installations. Anyway some morphological heterogeneities were present in the inner surface of the pipes and these can act as starting point of the fracture. Nevertheless, some important questions remain open and worth of future work and investigation to define and fully understand: the possible natural aging of PE pipes, independently from morphological discontinuities and possible attack from oxidizing agents; the mechanism of attack of PE pipes in operation, the role of the morphological discontinuities on the inner surface and the role of oxidizing agents contained in the potable water they convey; the influence of the processing conditions and of the original morphological defects on the life time of the pipes once in operation.Tags: Pipe, time, life, pressure, inner, material, service PE Pipes in Operation to Convey Potable Water
Pontiggia, Vidotto

Seven exhumed pipes have been tested for a range of physical characteristics. The pipes from Ipswich varied in age from 11, 16 and 25 years according to the print messages that were still quite legible. The age of the pipe exhumed from Winmalee is estimated to be 20 years. No evidence of any erosion of the pipe wall during service = not a limiting factor in the life of these pipes. Joints were sound and functioned well enough to meet the requirements of the current DWV Standard. The interface contact pressures remain high and meet the current Standard. All in all there is no evidence to suggest the pipes will have their service life limited by erosion of the wall or changes to the strength or stiffness of the material. The joints continue to not only function, but also meet the requirements applied to new pipes. Nothing in the test results suggests the life of the pipes will be limited to 50 years. The pipes are in such a good condition and there is no reason that they would notachieve 100years. Tags: Pipe, wall, years, thickness, number, PVC, brittle, quality, life, fracture, ageingresistance Predicting the Residual Life of PVC Sewer Pipes
Whittle, Tennakoon

Plastic Pipes 11 (2001) - Munich


Founded on February 24, 1999, the PE100 Association is an industry organisation of several polyethylene manufacturers whose objective is to guarantee consistent quality at the highest level in the production and use of PE 100 pipe material.Tags: Association, pe100, quality, pipes Ensuring the Highest Quality in PE 100 Pressure Piping Materials
Scheelen, Tauber, Berndtson, Lackner, Bertrand, Bilda

According to the Russian standard local high pressure gas lines have pressure level of 6 and 12 bar. To provide these gas lines by PE pipes researches were conducted and pipes made from PE100 diameter 160 mm SDR7.4 were developed and produced.Tags: Bar, pipes, pressure, gas, pe100, deformation Gas 12 Bar PE Plastics Pipes
Kovriga, Gorilovsky

This paper explains the philosophy behind the Swedish - Norwegian distance requirements and why the authorities accept that the PE 100 pipes may have the proximity distances already used for steel pipes.Tags: Pipes, pipeline, steel Gas Pipes - Qualification of Plastics Pipes for 10 Bar

A number of PVC pressure pipes were exhumed from a large rural water supply scheme constructed in the early 1970s. Quantifying how long a pipe will remain serviceable is sometimes complicated by misunderstandings surrounding the characteristics of PVC pipes. The burst strength was shown to be higher for pipe aged in the labratory for 10 years than it was for the same pipe at the time of manufacture. Tags: Pipes, pvc, pressure, plastic, water Long Term Performance of PVC Pressure Pipes in a Large Rural Water Supply Scheme
Stahmer, Whittle

ince the 1850's, Washington Gas has provided natural gas service to the mid-Atlantic seaboard region of the United States. Today, the Washington Gas distribution network includes over 800,000 residential, commercial and industrial services extending from Baltimore, Maryland to the mid-Virginia region of the U.S. Brown's Directory ranks Washington Gas as one of the largest natural gas distribution companies in the US based on number of services and geographic region served.Tags: Gas, washington, pipe, hdpe The Introduction of PE-100 at Washington Gas
Gunther, Sandstrum

This paper reviews the growth in the market for polyethylene pipe products for both pressure and non pressure applications over the last 15 years in Western Europe, and the reasons why the system has been so successful. The predicted growth to 2005 and the role of the different classes of PE materials is presented. The principle pipeline applications for which PE is used are detailed, and the choice and requirements for the materials are discussed.Tags: Pipe, polyethylene, applications, water, gas, systems PE Pipeline Systems - The Big Success Story
Beech, Ducan, Millar

This paper discusses the loading types, like soil type, settlement and surface loading and other phenomena that were encountered during the field tests, and give guidance to the application of buried manholes. It is shown that plastic manholes, when well designed, add significant value to the achievement of a sustainable sewer system.Tags: Soil, chamber, shaft, cover, manholes Performance of Buried Plastics Manholes

Palermo, the capital of Sicily, is full of history and character - but in summer months it is often without water. At present, Palermo is currently implementing the biggest project of its kind in the field of European water distribution. The water distribution network is over 100 years old and is corroding and leaking. Tags: Water, system, palermo, distribution New Water Supply System for the City of Palermo

In the Netherlands, a gas distribution system of Ductile PVC with elastomeric sealing ring joints and several special features is already operating to full satisfaction during more than 35 years. Today, Ductile PVC is the preferred material in this market.Tags: Pvc, ductile, gas, pipes The Performance of a Gas Distribution System of Ductile PVC

There is continuing pressure within the U.K. for water companies to reduce costs whilst increasing levels of service to customers. Staff numbers within the water companies have been reduced leading to less site supervision by water company engineers and the letting of design and build contracts. The design and installation practices have a significant effect on the durability and hence service life of water pipelines. This paper discusses how such schemes can help modern pipe materials compete against traditional materials.Tags: Pipe, scheme, design, installation, water, plastic Pipe Manufacturers Design and Installation Support Schemes
Tarbet, Smoker

These methods consist of the Notched Pipe Test, the Full Notch Creep Test, the Cone Test, the pressure test under Point Loading and the Tensile test. In the case of the latter, even the most severe tests lead to excessive testing time. In the case of latter resins, even the most severe tests lead to excessive testing time.Tags: Test, stress, pipe, properties Comprehensive Evaluation of the Long-Term Mechanical Properties of PE100 Resins Meeting the Requirements of Modern Installation Techniques

The new generation pipe materials PE 100 are now well positioned in the market because of their unusual combination of mechanical properties. Major advantages are high resistance versus slow crack growth combined with superior stiffness. These new PE 100 resins show very high long term hydrostatic strength for pressurized pipes used for drinking water systems and sewage lines as well. They further have a much higher resistance versus rapid crack propagation and can therefore be used for gas distribution systems at higher pressures.Tags: Molecular, pipe, high mass, crack, polymerization Multimodal Design of Thermoplastic Pipe Material
Berthold, Boehm, Enderle, Lackner, Lilge, Schulte

In this paper new products with high potential have been presented, such as the LS technology for large diameter pressure pipes, and the new generation of flexible PE80 for gas and water pipes. New applications, where bimodal polymer design is beneficial, are constantly being identified. Differentiation of products will continue, fuelled by development of new catalysts, utilisation of different comonomers, and the adaptation to customer demands and value creation in the market.Tags: Pipe, pe80, bimodal, pe100 generation, properties New Generation Bimodal PE80 and PE100 Polymer Design Benefits Pipe Manufacture and End Use

Steel mesh reinforced plastic composite pipe, possessing advantages of both metal and plastics, is a new type pipe that made a perfect combination of steel wire mesh and thermoplastics. A general description of characteristics of pipe structure, production process, pipe performance analysis and model projects of engineering application of steel mesh reinforced plastic piping products is given in this article, and methods and formulas for calculation of pressure rating of the pipe is also brought forward.Tags: Pipe, steel, plastic, composite Development of Steel Mesh Reinforced Plastic Composite Pipe and Investigation of its Performance
Sun, Niu

The paper examines the production of PVC and its conversion into PVC-U pipes. Advances in chemistry, process engineering and the design of extrusion equipment have led to significant improvements in quality and consistency of both PVC polymers and pipes made from them. At the same time, pipe productivity has risen more than threefold. The contributions made by the improvements in polymer quality and novel pipe designs are examined.Tags: Pvc, pipes, quality, consitency, sustainability Progress in PVC Pipes - Quality, Consistency and Sustainability
Bos, Tan

Pipelines are the arteries of civilization. One of the greatest challenges of our age, namely the supply of clean water world-wide, cannot be resolved without plastic pipes for the efficient transport of drinking water and sewage. Of all the types of plastic suitable for this application, polyolefins are – after PVC – the most important. Their use for the production of pipes will continue to increase at an even higher rate than the already high rate of growth of plastics in general.Tags: Pipes, hdpe, plastic, consumption Plastics Pipes: Opening New Dimensions

Although total safety in the gas industry may be an impossible dream, each engineer must definitely use every possible means to come near to this perfection. In view of this objective some gas companies join their efforts for combined research and development in order to improve standards or specifications and research was undertaken to avoid Rapid Crack Propagation.Tags: Test, bar, pipes, crack, research, gas, pressure RCP Mastered by Two ISO-Tests

Analysis of polyethylene pipes ductile failure suggests that it is directly related to the delayed necking phenomena and time to ductile failure of PE pipe can be evaluated as the time to delayed necking. Thus, this paper, in combination with previously reported studies on brittle fracture, offer a basis for an accelerated testing for PE pipes failure for the entire range of stresses that encompass both ductile and brittle modes of PE failure.Tags: Stress, failure, ductile, pipe, Ductile Failure and Delayed Necking in PE
Jivraj, Sehanobish, Dun, Damen, Wu, Zhou, Chen, Shulkin, Chudnovsky

This work presents a 3D coupled solid-fluid model for predicting fast failures in pressurised plastic pipes. It is developed within a unified computational procedure where both solid pipe and pressurising media are discretised using the Finite Volume method. The coupling is achieved across the pipe-fluid interface via special interpolation procedure. Cohesive zone model, which describes the local separation process, is incorporated into the model allowing the prediction of the crack growth along the pipe.Tags: Crack, fluid, pipe, model, pressure, solid Fully Predictive Model of RCP in Plastics Pipes
Ivankovic, Tropsa, Jasak, Leevers

The resistance of PE pipes to rapid crack propagation depends strongly on temperature. The critical pressure measured using ISO 13477 ‘S4’ tests increases abruptly above a transition temperature Tc. For PE100 grades Tc has become a primary index of quality. This paper demonstrates that Tdb, and its thickness dependence, may itself be predictable from a more basic measurement of shear lip resistance made using a modified impact bend test. Tags: Transition, temperature, impact, pipe, resistance, material, crack The Ductile-Brittle Transition in Pipe-Grade PE
Leevers, Moreno, Paizis

PVC in the third Millennium - this sounds fantastic! How can an old fashioned - as some people believe - plastics material continue to grow and develop further in this new and even faster emerging new millennium? PVC is under more and more competition in the pipe industry from other polymers such as PE and PP but also from traditional materials such as cast and ductile iron or clay andconcrete. Tags: Pvc, pipes, industry, european PVC in the Third Millennium

This paper reviews the European market for all major resin systems with data by application also discussed. It also looks at the restructuring of the market in terms of supplier and those of the pipe producers.Tags: Growth, market, pipe, europe, pvc The Market for Thermoplastic Pipe in Europe

The current study of elastomeric joints with interfacial pressures between 0.04 and 0.38 MPa in conjunction with spigot deformation revealed that after 29 months of vigorous root intrusion testing, no intrusion occurred in joints with average maximum interfacial pressures of 0.37 and 0.38 MPa.Tags: Interfacial, root, joints, pressure, elastomeric Elastomeric Pipe Joint Performance Requirements for Use in PVC Sewer Pipelines
Sadler, Burn, Whittle

Electrofusion (EF) joints have been widely used as easy-to-fuse and high-quality joints for joining polyethylene pipes. This paper describes the features of the program and its application to EF joints developed for the casing pipes of district heating and cooling pipelines and to the design of EF joints based on the revised JIS.Tags: Joint, fusion,time, temperature, wire Electrofusion Joint Strength of PE Pipes
Nishimura, Inoue, Inoue, Tani, Higuchi

Butt fusion welding is the most reliable and unobtrusive method of joining PE pipes of virtually any size-except perhaps the smallest where other methods are usually preferred. It is the dominant method of jointing both medium and large pipe sizes, but for different reasons. In medium pipe sizes the ability to supply PE pipe in coils or sticks, suitable for mechanised laying, is enhanced by butt welding as the joint itself does not contribute additional bulk or adverse handling characteristics to the jointed pipe.Tags: Pipe, weld, fusion, wall, pe100 Butt Fusion Welding of Large Diameter/Thick Wall Pipes
Hill, Wilson, Headford

This paper summarizes work that was undertaken to improve coiled pipe operations. Two different technical issues were addressed. The first is to improve the reliability and lower cost of gas mains by understanding the effects of excess ovality in plastic gas pipe. The second is to improve the handling of plastic pipe by developing a self loading pipe trailer. Tags: Pipe, trailer, tee, ovality, coil Effect of Pipe Ovality on Service Tee Reliability and Equipment and Technology Promises Rapid Handling and Loading of Coiled Pipe
Campbell, Reyes, Rush, James

Electrofusion is undoubtedly the most important method for jointing polyethylene piping systems in gas and water distribution. Today it is not unusual to joint PE 100 pipes and fittings in diameters up to 500 mm using electrofusion couplers whereas only five years ago the maximum size used was 315 mm. With these large diameter couplers it is particularly important to have a good understanding of the gap closing process during electrofusion in order to provide the optimum conditions for site fusion. Tags: Fusion, heating, electrofusion, pipe, design Fundamental Aspects for Design of Electrofusion Fittings
Petry, Gressmann, Pylarski

The use of sand bedding, usually required for PE pipe, can be eliminated with PE-X, owing to the notch resistance and other proven material advantages. PE-X pipes are used for floor heating systems, air conditioning pipe systems as well as for district heating systems. In addition to the user friendly advantages of the PE-HD pipe such as low weight and high flexibility, PE-X offers excellent resistance against notches and high resistance against rapid crack propagation at low temperatures.Tags: Pipes, welding, cross, material, polyethylene Jointing of PE-X-Pipes

Fusion jointing of cross-linked polyethylene pipe systems can be achieved by the use of conventional electrofusion couplers. The body of these couplers are manufactured from thermoplastic polyethylene, hence the performance of the joint is limited by the response of the body of the EF coupler. We report on a new form of fusion joining for PE-X pipe that utilises a PE-X bodied coupler capable of operating at pressure at temperatures up to and beyond 60°C. With this technology a bimetallic cage is contained within the coupler, and a current induced to flow within the cage.Tags: Fuison, pipe, temperature, joint, cage, performence High Performance Fusion Jointing of PE-X Pipes
Friend, Harget, Hauki

The response of three different forms of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe has been explored when the pipes had attached to them ferrule straps. Pipes were subjected to fluctuating internal pressure (fatigue) loading at 20°C, and the lifetimes, location of any failures and the types of failures recorded. Tests were made with the ferrule straps attached using different torque values, and with varying spacing between ferrule straps.Tags: Pvc, ferrule, pipes, fatigue, torque Optimising the Performance of Ferrule Straps with PVC Pipes
Stokes, Potter, Metcalfe, Bowman, Graham

As sewage systems and treatment plants are often converted from mixed wastewater to concentrated, highly polluted water, leakproof pipelines are urgently needed today. Investigations have shown that not only old pipelines, but even newer pipes are leaky. Due to cracks and fragments, the pipeline can also lose its static loading capacity.Tags: Pipes, welding, pks , electrofusion PE-HD Spiral for Sewage Pipelines - Electrofusion Socket Welding up to DN 1800

This paper will review flow stop applications highlighting their limitations and detail new developments undertaken by Advantica including, the use of “Stoppling” equipment for large diameter PE systems.Tags: Squeeze, flow, diameter, pipe, bar, pe100, gas Developments of Flowstop Systems for Large Diameter PE Mains
Morgan, Hill

This paper highlights potential factors within the manufacture and subsequent fusion jointing of EF fittings that can impair SCG resistance when compared with the performance of the PE material from which the EF fitting is manufactured. The injection moulding process is examined by the manufacture of two types of EF coupler fitting, moulded using different processing conditions from a selection of commercially available PE 80 and PE 100 resins.Tags: Fittings, resistance, scg, injection, wire, temperature, fnct The Evaluation of Factors Governing Long Term Performance of PE Electrofusion Fittings
Allcard, Beech

New methods of pipe laying such as horizontal drilling - the ploughing or milling in of pipes -makes it impossible to protect the pipe with the sand or special sheets. Without a protective surrounding stress cracks are induced in the pipe by stones or rocks that penetrate the pipe. The crosslinked structure of PE-X prevents the pipe from cracking under these local stresses, making it the first choice for these difficult applications.Tags: Pipe, gas, crosslinking, water, material, crack PE-X for Gas and Water Pipes
Palmloef, Haizmann

This presentation illustrates the extended functional possibilities yielded by multilayer systems based on simple polyethylene pipes installed underground. A simple, installed polyethylene pipe comprises: A core, through which the medium to be transported flows, A pipe wall made of polyethyleneTags: Pipe, layer, coating, wall, soil, polyethylene HDPE-Pipes with Protective Coating Multilayer Systems Yield New Possibilities

This paper is about the squeeze-off tests on pipes made of PE 80, PE 100 and PE-Xa of different dimensions. After having squeezed off the pipes to a rate of 0.8 the air and water impermeability of the squeezed point is examined at different pressures and the leakage rates are determined. After reforming the pipe resistance towards long-term hydrostatic pressure is tested.Tags: Pipe, aqueezing, wall, rate Examinations Concerning the Squeeze-Off of Pipes Made of PE 80, PE 100 And PE-Xa

A further statistical analysis of samples of pipe from different contractors' sites, with a statement of methodology applied, will identify the techniques least likely to incur cause damage to the PE pipe. A further statistical analysis of samples of pipe from different contractors sites with a statement of methodology applied will identify the techniques least likely to incur severe scores on the PE pipe.Tags: Pipe, wall, bursting, depth 90mm, damage level Measurement of Scores and Scratches on PE Pipes used in No-Dig Operations
Stokes, Potter, Muhl, Acland

With alternative installation techniques for drinking water pipes, the installed pipe has to take high stresses because of point loads and outside damages. The specific raw material characteristics, which have been proven by different test results, have been transferred to a pipe system, which allows cost savings with the pipe installation to a large extent, without having to compromise regarding the lifetime of the pipeline.Tags: Protective, test, crack, installation, material Protected PE100 Pipes for No Sand Installation
Koestering, Laurent

This paper describes an approach for performing improved commissioning tests on gas distribution mains. It covers the background theory to the problems involved, which include the discrimination of leaks from creep and temperature change. The production of models to predict the creep behaviour is outlined, along with the development of novel acoustic technology to provide temperature compensation. Tags: Temperature, test, pressure, pipe, acoustic Pressure Testing of PE Pipes Using Acoustic Temperature Measurement

While a detailed review of various lifetime assessment and prediction models for thermoplastics pipes is beyond the scope of this paper, one of the most promising routes will be briefly described to provide the necessary background for the subsequent discussion. The paper is based on recent experimental results obtained in our laboratory with various types of PE and focuses in particular on effects of material aging and degradation, and on the influence of stabilization on creep crack growth kinetics and pipe failure times.Tags: Crack, growth, failure, stress, time, pipe, creep Applicability and Limitations of Current Life-Time Prediction Models for Thermoplastics Pipes Under Internal Pressure
Lang, Pinter, Stern

Fittings used in water and gas piping systems are rarely, if ever, explicitly rated for load carrying capability relative to internal pressure. This is the first in what is anticipated to be a series of papers evaluating methodologies for determining an estimate of the long-term pressure rating of plastic piping fittings. For pipe, the method is quite straightforward, as the material can be tested directly in cylindrical form, and circumferential stress is related to pressure using what is commonly referred to as the “ISO Equation”Tags: Data, pipe, testing, pressure, fitting, ,aterial, methode A Method for Assessing the Long-Term Strength of Unplasticized Poly Fittings
Paschal, Ciechanowski

In addition to the HDB pressure rating, PPI now also lists the MRS pressure rating obtained with ISO 9080 in PPI’s publication TR-4, “Hydrostatic Design Bases , Pressure Design Bases, Strength Design Bases and Minimum Required Strength Ratings for Thermoplastic Piping Materials or Pipe”. This paper also summarizes other recent revisions to TR-4, which include the PDB using ASTM D 2837 and the SDB using ASTM F 2018. Finally, we also discuss the latest addition, which will be to list PEX pipe chlorine resistance in accordance with ASTM F 2023.Tags: Pipe, hdb, astm, ppi, pressure, materials PPI Adopts International Pressure Rating Method for Plastic Piping Materials

To assess the PEX-b intrinsic stress cracking resistance, standard FNCT tests as well as innovative Point Loading measurements have been carried out. In this paper are related the results for such laboratory experiments, performed on three kind of materials: purePE100, pure-PEXb and PEXb-PE100-PEXb tri-layered pipes.Tags: Pex, pipe, pe100, pexb, stress Resistance of Crosslinked PE Pipes to Rock Impingement
Rouyer, Cornette

The lifetime of plastic pipes has been studied at Bodycote Polymer AB for more than 27 years. This paper presents some of the factors found to control the lifetime of plastic pipes. How to extrapolate the lifetime of plastic pipes will be presented and discussed. A question will also be raised with regards to the test method used in order to determine the lifetime for multi-layer pipes based on an aluminium layer.Tags: Pipes, plastic, iso, polymer, pressure Which Factors Control the Lifetime of Plastics Pipes and How the Lifetime Can be Extrapolated?

Extensive short term and long term evaluations of polyamide 11 piping systems have been performed as part of a study funded by ATOFINA Chemicals Inc. and the Gas Technology Institute. The paper presents the laboratory results of short term strength and durability testing and installation, operational and maintenance evaluations for polyamide 11 fittings and pipe. Tags: Polyamide, pipe, psi, testing, pressure, crack, moisture An Evaluation of Polyamide 11 for Use in Natural Gas Distribution Systems Operating at High Pressures and Temperatures
Wolf, Dang, Patadia

The COREL – corrosion resisting liners – project has been running since 1997 with the aim of qualifying plastic lining systems for use in upstream oil and gas pipelines. Lined carbon steel pipes can be cheaper to install and operate than alternatives such as corrosion resistant alloys or large corrosion allowances and chemical inhibition. Collapse of liners has been the major technical hurdle preventing the adoption of this technology.Tags: Lineer, corrosion, phase, pipe, pressure, gas Plastic Lined Pipe for Oil and Gas Service - The Corel Project
Groves, Goodrich

Magnetic detectable polyethylene (PE) pipe has been developed for the gas distribution system that has permanent detection for locating underground piping. Magnetic detectable PE pipe differs from normal PE pipe by the addition of magnetic particles in the PE resin, which are magnetized in a sinusoidal pattern during the extrusion process. This paper describes the development of magnetic detectable PE pipe: the technical approach to the development of the pipe; the short-term and long-term properties of magnetic PE pipe; and the development of the locatorTags: Pipe, magnetic, concentration, particles, ferrite, density Development and Testing of Magnetic Detectable PE Pipe
Jarnecke, Mamoun

Polyolefins have been used in chemical and industrial applications for many years with an impressive and highly successful track record. However, the progress of polyolefin systems in substituting traditional materials such as cast iron, steel, concrete and clay has been much more striking in construction and utility markets. The application examples for polypropylene, polyethylene and cross-linked polyethylene given in the following pages shall demonstrate the wide range of opportunities for successful usage in industrial conveying and storage systems.Tags: Industrial, pipe, systemsy, applications, water, material Opportunities for Polyolefins in Industrial Applications

The discussion concerns e-business and if it applies to manufacturers of plastic pipes. In a business world companies objectives are predominantly centred around three areas, retaining customers, improving efficiencies and expanding markets. Plastic pipe manufacturers are no exception and the benefits of e-business are also available to them. Tags: Business, web, pipes, customers, plastic, suppliers e-Business (Davies)

Both systems described offer the user a number of combination possibilities when transporting ground water pollutant liquids. A clever, specific selection of the products allows a construction suitable for the application and, thus, a trouble-free service for many years.Tags: Pipe, welding, containment, carrier, pvdf, system Special Applications for Piping Systems

This paper describes the activities of the Joint Industry Project on Implementation of Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipe in the Oil and Gas Industries. The aim of the JIP is to promote applications of this new class of product in the transport of oilfield fluids, in gas transmission and in subsea flowlines.Tags: Rtp, gas, pipe, pressure, design, temperature, oil Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipe in the Oil and Gas Industries
Frost, Gibson

Design of new rubber seal joints during last years have focused more on reduction of jointing forces than of sealing forces. Which sealing quality is necessary to avoid capillary water transfer and leakage through the joints on short and long-term, is an open question. Based on existing publications and test results the technical background is presented and tendencies for design criteria are given.Tags: Sealing, pressure, test, joints, seal, meathod, pipes Long Term Tightness of Sealing Joints in Non-Pressure Plastic Piping Systems

The very high costs of underground electrical power transmission preclude its widespread usage even where social and environmental concerns make it highly desirable. This paper examines the technologies of below ground alternatives to overhead power lines and identifies the opportunities for introducing pipeline disciplines to the subject of electrical power networks. The paper summarises the existing state-of-the-art of technologies that enable power distribution cables, operating at tens of kilovolts, to be ducted through uncooled plastic pipes and goes on to describe the more challenging design problems associated with the ducting of transmission cables operating at half a million volts.Tags: Heat, pipe, cabel, power, water, termperature, design The Challenge and Opportunity of High Voltage Cable Pipes
Stafford, Bircumshaw

Market success factors agree with sustainability indicators to a large extent, both being multi-dimensional. Complete life cycle considerations are essential for comprehensive assessments. PVC pipeline systems are shown to be competitive considering all three sustainability categories, economic, ecological, and social. Options for further improvement of PVC pipeline systems are discussed.Tags: Pvc, systems, pipeline, pipe, apme, environmental Sustainable Pipeline Systems - The Lifecycle Perspective
Kraehling, Spindler

Two papers dealing with the intermediate results of the TEPPFA / APME project on design of thermoplastics pipes has been published at the 10th Plastics Pipes Conference in Gothenburg in 1998 by Alferink et al.1, 2 Meanwhile the study has been almost completed and the results discussed with several experts. This paper shows part of the results and explains that the soil-pipe interaction process is primarily a volume process in case of flexible pipes. It illustrates the mistake that will be made when geometrical non-linearity is included in load steered methods for flexible pipes and the soil changes are neglected. Tags: Pipe, soil, stiffness, load, deflection, design, kpa, methodes Soil-Pipe Interaction: A Next Step in Understanding and Suggestions for Improvements for Design Methods

The work reported in this paper provided a means of applying a statistical characterisation to design variables leading to a more rational design technique. By providing a method to account for the variability and random nature of the design parameters, the engineer is able to gain a greater appreciation of the reliability of their design.Tags: Failure, duct, reliability, design Risk Analysis and Plastic Duct Design
Drummond, Fairfield, Wamuziri

The new generation PP-B, first introduced in 1998 for underground drainage and sewerage, is primarily based on a combination of a unique stiffness/impact property balance, low specific weight, good long-term properties and excellent chemical resistance. Stiff PP, the new generation high molecular weight PP-B, first introduced in 1998, is primarily characterised by a combination of a unique stiffness/impact property balance, low specific weight, good long-term properties and excellent chemical resistance. Tags: Pipe, systems, stiff materials, sewerage Stiff PP The New Generation PP Block Polymer for Non-Pressure Pipe Applications

Typical examples are sanitary pressure piping systems made from PP random co-polymers for domestic hot and cold water supply, PP homopolymers for industrial pressure piping systems and soil and waste piping systems for domestic waste disposal. A significant part of soil and waste piping systems is made from PP-H in Central Europe, whilst in Scandinavia soil and waste pipe systems made from PP-B are preferred due to their higher impact resistance. Tags: Pipes, piping, systems, applications, impact Latest Trends and Developments of PP for Piping Applications

The most important requirement for a pipe in H & C water applications is that it remains trouble free throughout its life time. The life span of a piping system is influenced by the fluid conveyed through it; the external environment of the pipe and the pipes operating-conditions. As metallic pipes are susceptible to corrosion, the life span of these pipes is affected. There are many uncontrollable factors that make predicting the exact life-span of a system virtually impossible.Tags: Pipe, installation, layer, expansion, materials, aluminium Innovative Installation Systems

In the paper the situation, which exists in Poland in the field of the design of plastic pipes is presented. The size of the plastic pipes deflection obtained from the field measurements, which took place in Poland a few years ago, is widely discussed. The variety of pipe bedding conditions as well as its technical parameters allowed to carry out the detailed analysis and to determine the influence of the important factors upon the size of the pipe deflection. Tags: Deflection, pipe, asphalt, method, size The Analysis of the Flexible Pipes Deflection, According to the Field Measurements
Kuliczkowski, Kubicka

Developments in catalyst and process technology have resulted in a new highly differentiated product family based on ethylene-α-olefin copolymers. This paper reports on the key attributes of these materials. These polymers show superior Long Term Hydrostatic Strength at higher temperatures, without the need for crosslinking. This results in significant processing advantages. Such materials can be used in all classes of hot water pipe and technical pipe applications.Tags: Pipe, temperature, tie, water, polyethylene PE-RT, A New Class of PE for Hot Water Pipes
Damen, Schramm, Quack, Sehanobish, Cham

In this paper the suitability of PEX, PEX/Al/PEX and PE/Al/PE pipe systems for indoor gas installations with respect to technological aspects is discussed in more detail. Next to the technological suitability, the suitability of these systems also depends on other aspects, such as safety and economical aspects. These items are addressed as well. Tags: Pipe, gas, systems, pex, odorant Opportunities for Plastics in Flexible Indoor Gas Pipe Systems
Oesterholt, Scholten, Roebers

The only pipe materials for gas installations inside buildings in Germany and most of Europe used to be metals for a long period of time. Especially screwed steel pipes and soldered copper pipes have been installed. During the last few years also press systems made of copper were established. In contrast to this rather reserved and cautious development plastic and multilayer pipes have been used in plumbing and heating applications for about twenty years now.Tags: Gas, pipes, systems, installations, composite MT Multilayer Pipes for Gas Installations Inside Buildings

Fold and form procedures are classified as renovation by the European Committee for Standardization CEN. OmegaLiner, a product combining the advantages of comparable procedures with a special material composition, has been marketed by Uponor Anger for several years. The material is modified PVC. The application of these procedures results in a "Pipe within the pipe". The article describes the application of PVC-U fold and form procedures based on the Omega Liner technology and compares it to the PE-HD fold and form procedure ULiner that has been used by PRS Rohrsanierung GmbH for many years. Tags: Liner, material, pipe, ovc, materials Comparison of Thermoplastic Close-Fit Liner Systems for the Renovation of Pipelines

Initially, the rehabilitation techniques developed in Western Europe proved to be too expensive in many situations. Presently, most rehabilitation techniques known in Western Europe are used in Poland, including the Compact Pipe method developed by Wavin and introduced in Poland in 1997. Initially two, and presently three Compact Pipe licensees operate over the entire territory of Poland.Tags: Pipe, renovation, water, poland, compact, pipeline, gas, market Development of the Pipeline Renovation Market in Poland as Illustrated by Compact Pipe
Wroblewska, Kwietniewski, Roszkowski

This paper discusses the application of the PARMS planning model to allow selection of pipeline replacement or repair, and the influences that a range of decisions can have on a water authority’s capital and operational expenditure. It analyses the cost data requirements necessary for these models, and the methods needed to allow the development of deterministic and statistical models to predict failure for plastic and other pipeline materials.Tags: Costs, pipe, water, models, pipeline The Role of Planning Models in Pipeline Rehabilitation
Burn, Davis, DeSilva, Marksjo, Tucker, Geehman

At present the tendency is to use these systems under conditions of minimal load bearing requirement, i.e. the loading taken by the liner under either transient conditions, such as soil loading, or under more dynamic conditions, such as those associated with pipe fracture, is assumed to be A series of cast iron pipes were tested to circumferential failure in four point bending, with various liner configurations. Tags: Pipe, failure, stress, liners, strain Examining the Performance of Semi-Structural Pipe Liners
Crunkhorn, Smith, Whiter, Mulheron

The type of problems encountered in existing pipelines are presented in this paper, together with the available methods to rehabilitate them. In the majority of the cases plastics are nowadays applied, either to replace the existing ones, or to renovate them by lining. The latter is increasingly gaining popularity. Attention will be given to particular design aspects of renovation with plastics pipes as well as the quality assurance of the liner in installed state.Tags: Pipe, lining, renovation, rehabilitation, system The Need for Pipeline Rehabilitation

This paper considers the collapse of liners confined within rigid pipes and recommends design equations top avoid this effect. Two and three-dimensional aspects of the problem are examined. The onset of unstable collapse is well-described by the critical pressure predicted from analytical models and is essentially an elastic phenomenon.Tags: Liner, collapse, pressure, slip, model, external The Collapse Mechanics of Polymer and Composite Liners
Gibson, Wu, Frost, Korsunsky

This paper considers the current state of the UK water industry with respect to its maintenance of its pipelines, in the context of the regulatory framework in the UK, over the next 4 years. It also reviews the development of a thin walled PE liner for pipes in need of rehabilitation. The benefits of the use of thin walled liners in terms of their effects on the CaPex and OpEx of water companies in England and Wales are outlined.Tags: Waterm pipe, cost, rehabilitation, companies, method, industry Thin Walled PE Liners - Cutting the Costs of Corrosion

This paper provides an overview of the evolving Liberalisation process in the context of the European Water sector. The underlying drivers are outlined from the perspective of EU member countries, the EU Commission and the broader international situation. The importance of the Liberalisation process in the balance of relationships between end-users and suppliers and the re-structuring of supply chains is emphasised. The increased relevance and importance of investment planning tools for the management of water and wastewater networks is highlighted.Tags: Water, sector, competition, liberalisation, countries Effects of Liberalising the European Market for Water

This paper discusses the important role that technology continues to play in addressing the challenges faced by the energy industry and the natural gas industry in particular. It also highlights how the changing structure of the industry is having an impact on the way technology development needs are being met. The development of polyethylene pipes and the associated technological advances that have been critical to the development of the gas industry are summarised. Finally, new developments that will enable technology to be harnessed to deliver real value in future are discussed.Tags: Pipe, technology, gas, polyethylene, energy, industry, development Harnessing Technology to Deliver Real Value

Powerpoint presentation on the topic.Tags: Pipe, standards, rbs, polyolefin, systems, europe, golbal, plastics, water, material Transferring High Standards outside Europe for Polyolefin Pipe Systems

The strength and toughness of each pipe was measured by a variety of methods including uniaxial tensile strength, notched C-ring, essential work of fracture, strain energy release rate, fracture toughness, and impact resistance by various techniques. All of the quantitative measures of toughness and strength suggest the existence of an approximately linear relationship with modifier concentration over the range tested. In order to utilise this combination of high strength and increased toughness, national Standards and Specifications5-7 have been published for modified PVC pipes.Tags: Strength, pipes, cpe, pvc, impact, phr, fracture Assessment of the Strength and Toughness of Modified PVC Pipes
Whittle, Burford, Hoffmann

Lifetime expectations play a major role when selecting materials for pressure pipes. Information on the service life of a piping system made of polyethylene can be gained from the creep rupture tests at various temperatures being evaluated by standardized extrapolation methods. Practical experience for 45 years show quite clearly that plastics pipe systems do not "Fade away" after the end of the service life guaranteed in the relevant standards.Tags: Pipe, life, service, failure, temperature, zone Pipeline Systems Made of Plastics Pipes Extruded from PE

The quality of the PE products used for gas and water pipe line systems was constantly improved in the last decades. The renouncement of the complex sand embedding of buried pipes and thus the use of PE pipes in no-dig procedures cannot be impossible any more. IRO has performed point load tests since 1999 with a testing device especially designed therefore and offers this to pipe manufacturers and users. Only the standardisation of the investigational performance could help pipe manufacturers as also users to a better orientation.Tags: Pipe, stamp, load, stress, testing Long-Term Point Loads Testing with Plastics Pipes

Further acceleration is used in the notched pipe test, which is a medium term test designed to assess pipe stress crack resistance. A reappraisal of these techniques has been performed on a range of pipe grades by mapping out the behaviour in each test as a function of applied stress and interrupting tests to examine the nature of failure occurring. The implications for long term testing and prediction of pipe lifetimes based on such accelerated test data are discussed.Tags: Pipe, stress, failure, crack,fracture, npt, fnct, growth Mechanisms of Slow Crack Growth in PE Pipe Grades
Beech, Ferguson, Clutton

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) is being used more and more in critical long-term application, such as in pipes for the distribution of water and gas. For this reason it is important to have a strong understanding of those parameters which control the fracture behaviour of HDPE.Tags: Dsc, sis, time, paper, faliure, fracture, crack, hdpe Structural and Fracture Methods as Means of Predicting the Lifetime of HDPE Pipes
Nezbedova, Zahradnickova, Salajka


To increase understanding of chemical jointing in pipes, the strength of solvent cement joints in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and poly pipes was investigated, using mechanical tests and morphology studies. The strength of solvent cement increases with curing time, and it was found that the performance of ABS joints was significantly superior to that of PVC. Tags: Abs, cement, joint, pvc A Study of the Solvent Cement Bond for PVC and ABS Pipe Joints
Tjandraatmadja, Burn

Detergents of the type nonylphenol ethoxylate are often used in PE pipe tests at 80°C like the Full Notch Creep Test, Cone test and Constant Load test. An alternative detergent TeepolTM is presented which shows a constant activity in Cone tests on PE pipe materials during more than 1600 hours at 80°C. Consequently this detergent is recommended for use in FNC, constant load and Cone tests. The only possibility to keep using NPE detergents in PE pipe testing is to purge the testing baths with nitrogen continuously, to limit detergent oxidation at 80°C as much as possible. Tags: Detergent, testing, npe, cone, crack, pipe, materials A More Reliable Detergent for Cone and Full Notch Creep Testing of PE Pipe Materials
Scholten, Gueugnaut, Berthier

The initial work was reported at Plastic Pipes X, in Sweden in 1998.1 An ASTM test method has also been developed, ASTM F 2018, "Standard Test Method for Time-to-Failure of Plastics Using Plane Strain Tensile Specimens." This test method generates a Strength Design Basis or SDB, which will be included in PPI TR-3 and TR-4 for moulding applications. After reviewing several test methods, the plane-strain tensile method, developed by Choi and Broutman,2-4 was chosen as the test method most likely to succeed in generating the same HDB as determined from testing pressurized pipe specimens. Tags: Stress, psi, pipe, lts, strains An Alternate Method for Determining the Hydrostatic Design Basis for Plastic Piping Materials
Edwards, Broutman, Choi

Finally it must be said that the technology of modified materials with regard to installation and operational requirements is a great challenge. Material properties specially designed for pipe rehabilitation offer the operator-user and the construction company technical and cost-efficient advantages. The facts given in this report give the reader an initial impression and show to what extent this material development has optimised the rehabilitation of waste water sewer pipes with Close-Fit pipes. The manufacturer’s own monitoring system and that of an external monitor is essential when using new application-oriented materials.Tags: Material, temperature, pvc, pipes, crystalline, polymers Application Orientated Material Development for Close-Fit-Relining Pipes

This paper provides estimates of the draw force needed to pull sub-ducts or cables through a series of typical ducted utility networks. Variables such as: coefficient of friction between the outside of the cable and inside of the duct, the main duct’s vertical diameter, the cable bundle or sub-duct’s external diameter, the length of cable or sub-duct being pulled and changes in the direction of drawing through various networks were examined. Simple spreadsheet based routines have been coded to enable engineers to calculate force versus distance drawn profiles for any complexity of network.Tags: Cable, network, straight, lenght, pull, force Cable Drawing Through Deformed Plastic Ducts
Fairfield, Reid, Hounsome, Edwards, Sibbald

The chlorine present in potable water as a disinfectant has been reported to reduce the lifetime of some plumbing system components. Test lifetimes are seen to be noticeably lower for chlorinated potable water, even at chlorine levels as low as 0.1 mg/ L, than for non-chlorinated water. In the United States, it is reported1 that approximately 68% of utilities add chlorine and 8% use chloramines to maintain disinfectant residuals in treated surface water. Tags: Water, chlorine, material, pex, potable Assessing Material Performance in Chlorinated Potable Water Applications
Vibien, Couch, Oliphant, Zhou, Zhang, Chudnovsky

In the past the crack propagation behaviour of various pipe grades, especially polyethylene and polyvinylchloride types, was investigated using crack growth tests under both static may be considered insignificant at both test temperatures, indicating that FCG rates are primarily controlled by the cyclic component of the crack tip stress field rather than an additional creep crack growth component associated with higher mean stress levels. Tags: Crack, pvc, fcg, growth, fatigue, fracture Creep and Fatigue Crack Growth in a Pipe Grade PVC Material
Balika, Lang

A new plastic piping material to augment and complement polyethylene and extend the use of plastics to highpressure distribution piping is being developed. The scope of work consists of identification and laboratory testing of candidate materials, and scale-up to commercial availability. The creation of new materials by systematically modifying existing materials is relatively new as a technological practice. This piping could be replaced by a plastic material if such a material were available, and if the life-cycle replacement were cost-effective. Tags: Properties, materials, pressure, pipe, material, gas, plastic, distribution Development of High-Pressure Plastic Materials for Gas Distribution Pipeline Systems
Sudheer, Pimputkar, Michael, Mamoun

In recently designated plane strain grooved tensile methodology of ASTM F2018 standard, a groove in the direction perpendicular to the loading axis allows biaxial stress state to be generated under a uniaxial loading. An oblique angle grooved tensile specimen made from PE100 grade resin is investigated of its yield behaviour to better understand the effect of groove angle in changing the stress state in the groove. In terms of von-Mises stress a maximum value is apparent at this groove angle.Tags: Stress, groove, angle, specimen, tensile, psgt Complex Yield Behaviour of PE100 Resin on Plane Strain Tensile Specimen
Choi, Lee, Broutman, Edwards, Palermo, Cho, Choi, Park

The importance of plastics piping systems based on glass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester resins for water supply, industrial or sewer pipe works has continuously increased worldwide. Centrifugal casting is one of the most important technologies to manufacture CC-GRP-UP pipes. 75 times gravity the constituents are compacted to a dense laminate, followed by an exothermal polymerization process resulting in cured and stable pipe wall laminates with excellent mechanical and chemical properties. Tags: Time, material, pipe, temperature, test, strain, dependent Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics Pipe Systems Produced by Centrifugal Casting Technology Performance Profiles
Neumayer, Knauder, Pilz, Lang, Major

PPAs are used to optimise the process conditions in a wide range of applications without having to make compromises on the properties of the final products. PPAs were originally designed to solve surface defects such as sharkskin or cyclic melt fracture during the polyethylene extrusion. Using PPA during a HDPE extrusion results in a significant pressure reduction in the extruder. Tags: Ppa, pressure, resin, ppm, temperature, hdpe Dynamar Fluoropolymer Processing Additives in Applications of HDPE Pipes
Papp, Steve, Amos, Briers

This paper presents a method of optimising the distribution of plastic in a twin-walled, corrugated duct. This could be used to achieve maximum stiffness for minimum linear mass or a desired target stiffness for any envisaged market for the product. Spreadsheet optimisation routines based on a generalised reduced gradient solver and Langrangian multipliers were shown to balance structural integrity requirements with efficient usage of raw material. Tags: Duct, ina, efficiency, corrugation, stiffness, material Optimisation of Corrugated Duct Profiles
Fairfield, Hounsome, Reid

Whilst PVC-U failed by slow crack growth and eventual fast brittle fracture, PVC-M specimens failed by plastic collapse of the uncracked ligament. To investigate these mechanisms further, phenomenological simulations of the C-ring test were developed, using incubation time, slow crack growth and fracture/ collapse criteria as the individual stages of failure. Whilst true plane-strain fracture toughness was used as an ultimate failure criterion for PVC-U, PVC-M specimens were assumed to fail when the applied bending moment attained the value required for plastic collapse of the uncracked ligament. Tags: Pvc, crack, ring, growth, failure, fracture, toughness Investigating Crack Growth and Plasticity in the C-Ring Fracture Toughness Test
Davis, Burn, Whittle

A new calculation method for the determination of the Long-Term Hydrostatic Strength, of PVC, PE, PP, PEX etc., is based on an advanced statistical method, developed by ISO TC 138 SC5 Ad Hoc RCP.Tags: Model, stess, log, time, pe80, data, temperature SEM, The New Approach for the Classification and Designation of Thermoplastics Materials

The development trend for polypropylene (PP) materials is towards stiffer PP. The new generation of stiff PP copolymers has generated the significant advance seen in the PP foam used as thermal insulation in a multilayer pipe coating system for offshore usage. In addition to the stiff PP copolymer, HMS-PP based polymers can be added to further improve pipe insulation, increasing both compression strength and thermal insulation capacity.Tags: Foam, coating, insulation, pipe, thermal, hms, offshore PP Multilayer Coating Systems for the Offshore Pipeline Industry

Soil-pipe interaction studies generally recognise the significance of deformations in the pipe due to soil loading, but not differential ground and structure movements, which can induce excessive stress concentrations in the pipeline. A procedure for predicting pipeline settlements, based on strip foundation theory is presented, and a detailed analysis is made of failures encountered by a group of submarine plastics pipelines. Tags: Pipeline, pipe, settlement, joints, foundation Soil Structure - Pipe Interaction with Particular Reference to Ground Movement Induced Failure
Olliff, Rolfe, Wijeyesekera, Reginold

A 2 Design of Experiments test grid was run to examine the influence of the following variables on the chlorine resistance of PEX pipe; temperature, water quality and metal ions. The four factors were each run at two levels and a centre point was included. A minimum of two replicates was run for each condition. The significant factors were temperature, pH, Fitting Type, and Chlorine level. The significant interactions were pH and Temperature, and Fitting Type and Temperature.Tags: Chlorine, failure, test, temperature, water, pex The Influence of Water Quality on the Test-Life of PEX Pipe
Mahabir, Henderson

This paper describes the development of an ultrasonic non-destructive examination system that is incorporated into an automatic butt fusion welding machine and performs an examination of the joint within the cooling time of the welding cycle. The programme of work included the optimisation of the ultrasonic NDE techniques; the determination of the limits of detection of the NDE system. Tags: Welds, ultrasonic, contamination, flaws, pipe, nde Welding with Integrated Non-Destructive Examination of PE Pipes

In this work the influence of three different stabiliser systems on the stress rupture behaviour of high density polyethylene pipes under constant internal pressure was examined at 60 and 80 °C with special consideration of the quasi-brittle failure by growth of a single crack in the failure regime preceding the global chemical degradation of the pipes.Tags: Pipes, failure, crack, ageing, region, growth The Influence of Local Ageing on Brittle Failure of Thermoplastics Pipes
Pinter, Lang

To characterize the viscoelastic properties such as creep modulus and time dependent Poissons's ratio of commercial medium and high density polyethylene materials, in total 5 types of polyethylene with densities ranging from 0.928 to 0.951 g/cm3 were investigated. In good agreement with the results of tests additionally performed on pipe specimens, creep modulus values were found to decrease up to 1.5 orders of magnitude over the time scale indicated. As expected, creep modulus data were found to be strongly affected by the material density. Tags: Creepo, modulus, mpa, range, values, viscoelastic, materials Viscoelastic Properties of PE for Pipe Applications
Pilz, Lang

Plastic Pipes 10 (1998) - Gothenburg


As the Environmental matters gain more attention, laws and regulations building on the principle of Sustainable Development emerge both on national and EU level. This concerns product application as well as their chemical constituents.Tags: Environmental, polyolefine, pipes, future, development Environmental excellence of Polyolefin Pipes

Over the past 25 years, plastics such as PE-X, PP, C-PVC, have established their position also for hot water applications like industrial and domestic floor heating, drinking water installations, industrial piping, and district heating.Tags: Plastic Pipes, hot water, heating Plastics pipe in hot water applications
Bresser, Palmloef

This paper analyses why PE100 is rapidly growing in the European and American market and what the impact of PE100 is likely to have on the global market.Tags: Health, Environment, plastic Pipes, industry Plastic Pipes and the Environment
Van't Veer

This paper analyses why PE100 is rapidly growing in the European and American market and what the impact of PE100 is likely to have on the global market.Tags: PE100, development, material PE100 opens new horizons for Plastics Pipes
LeRoux, Espersen

In this paper, the author reviews the current situation with regard to the development of standards for plastic piping systems. Tags: Plastic piping system, Standards, development Standards and Certifications

This paper attempts to look at the history of Plastic Pipe system markets in Europe, explain some of the reasons behind today´s market structure and to look to the future.Tags: PVC, Europe, market, production rate, Plastics Pipe Market

The paper examines the business and regulatory background to the infrastructure investments anticipated in the next few years, from the point of view of a major UK water Company. Past performance of use of plastic pipes for sewers and water mains are examined.Tags: Water, industry, plastic pipes, sewer, new millennium Plastics Pipes - Future in the Water Industry
Stokes, Edwards

This paper introduces some examples of the application of PE composite pipes in special fields in Japan, it is assumed that conversion to PE pipe will be promoted rapidly not only in the field of gas industry and sewer but also in water works. In this regards, there are many things to be learned from European and American countries which are advanced in conversion to PE pipes.Tags: Japan, Water, sewer, Development, pvc, platic pipes The Evolution and Present State of PE Water Pipes in Japan

Urban underground infrastructure consists of a critical network of pipes including the water and sewerage systems. The assets are long lasting but nevertheless deteriorate. The consequences of failure can be very great: loss of drinking water supply, demise of drinking water quality, sewerage flooding and many moreTags: Urband, infrastructure, wastewater, sewer, pipes Urban Water and Wastewater Infrastructure in Europe

Description coming soon!Tags: Design & Testing for Obtaining Sustainable Products (Janson)

This paper examines the asset investment options available to water utility companies for the maintenance of the underground utilities emphasizing the advantages in taking the best whole life cost option for rehabilitation or replacement.Tags: Constrution, infrastructure, utility companies, , maintance , cost Whole Life Investment Options for Underground Utility Construction Activity

This Paper analyses the findings of different studies made about the performance of thermoplastic pipes underground.Tags: Pipes, design, thermoplastic, installation, depth Design of Thermoplastics Pipes
Alferink, Janson, Olliff

The alternate Methods committee of plastics pipe institute´s hydrostatic stress board has initiated development of an alternate method for determining the hydrostatic design basis for plastic piping materials.Tags: Alternativ method, hydrostatic stress, HDPE testing, polyamide An Alternate Method for Determining the Hydrostatic Design Basis for Plastic Piping Materials
Broutman, Edwards, Shah, Palermo

One of the characteristics behaviors of plastics materials is the creep phenomenon. The problem of creep behavior of polymers has attracted the attention of many researchers throughout the world.Tags: Creep, temperatures, polymers, pipes, creep modeling, Long-Term Creep of ABS Pipes at Variable Temperatures
Lu, Burn

Recent years have seen the steadily increasing use of thermoplastics for pipes and fittings for domestic hot and cold water supply and heating installations. Plastic pipe systems, in particular, those that incorporate a push-in design offer considerable advantages over conventional pipe systems.Tags: Dynamic test method, geometry effect, material, Product Development Using the Dynamic (Cycle Pressure) Test
Ansell, Lawrence

The field of application for which these pe-resins were intended was to replace alternative pipe materials such as steel and ductile iron, and PVC, because of the higher pressure rating that was reached and as such improving the economic aspects of pe.Tags: PE80, PE100, Temperature, hydrostatic strengh, pressure PE80 or PE100 (Suys)

This paper reports about the background of the project form TEPPFA and APME, the approach was taken and the relative place design versus installation and material capabilities. IT presents a design philosophy including all aspects of piping design and installation.Tags: Pipes, design, thermoplastic, design criteria, soil properties The Design of Thermoplastics Pipes
Alferink, Bjoerklund, Kallioinen

Description coming soon!Tags: New Test Methods for Structured Wall Pipes for Sewers

Description coming soon!Tags: State of the Art of the Standard Extrapolation Method for Analysing Stress Rupture Data and Applications

Description coming soon!Tags: A New Approach to the Instrumented Falling Weight Method
Lawrence, Rasbash, Potter, Teo

Description coming soon!Tags: Rapid Crack Propagation

Description coming soon!Tags: Accelerated Test Methods for Stress Crack Resistance Evaluation of PE Pipe Grades
Dreze, Scheelen

Description coming soon!Tags: Impact Test for Preventing RCP
Brown, Lu

Description coming soon!Tags: Fast brittle fracture of gas pressurised plastic pipes
Venizelos, Greenshields, Ivankovic

Description coming soon!Tags: Relationship between Toughness and Structural Parameter of PE-Copolymers
Nezbedova, Salajka, Kucera

Description coming soon!Tags: Slow Crack Growth and Impact Mechanisms in PE
Clutton, Rose, Capaccio

Description coming soon!Tags: Comparison of Short-Term Coupon Test
Hinchcliff, Troughton

Description coming soon!Tags: Slow Crack Growth Test

Description coming soon!Tags: Non-Destructive Testing of Electrofused Joints and Large Diameter Gas Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Development of EF Jointing Works
Yoshida, Kitaoka, Nishimura

Description coming soon!Tags: Fast Weld Field Trials, High Productivity Butt Fusion Jointing of PE Pipes
Reynolds, Jenkins, Burgess, Attwood

Description coming soon!Tags: Ultrasonic Inspection of Butt-Fused PE-Joints
Horst, Weyn, Hermkens

Description coming soon!Tags: Properties and Performance of Biaxial PVC Pipe Manufactured by a Continuous Process

Description coming soon!Tags: Multilayer Molding Technology for Electro-Fusion Fittings

Description coming soon!Tags: Cone Extruder
Valta, Syrjaelae, Karttunen, Phillips, Kirjavainen

Description coming soon!Tags: Updating Retained Gastket Jointing Technology for PVC Pipes
Smith, Guzowski

Description coming soon!Tags: The Mechanical Performance of PE Pipe Elbows Produced by a Novel Continuous Moulding Process
Allan, Hashemi, Faulkner, Bevis

Description coming soon!Tags: Aliphatic Polyketones in Pipe Applications
Gray, Powell, Bonner

Description coming soon!Tags: High Performance HDPE Pipe Compound Development

Description coming soon!Tags: New Generation of Polyolefins

Description coming soon!Tags: Optimising the Performance of Modified PVC for Pressure Pipe Applications
Whittle, Burford

Description coming soon!Tags: Organic Based Stabilizer Systems for PVC Pipes
Hopfmann, Wehner, Stoffelsma, Ryningen, Clucas, Pfaender

Description coming soon!Tags: Continuous Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipes (RTPs) for Use in the Transport and Distribution of Fluids for the Oil and Gas Industries

Description coming soon!Tags: The Use of Polypropylene for Buried Sewage Piping Systems
Ebner, Konrad

Description coming soon!Tags: Linear Vibration Welding of PE Pipes
Nomura, Hirabayashi, Troughton

Description coming soon!Tags: Reduced Cost Pipelines, Manufactured Using Thermoplastic Composite Technology
Francomb, Sharpe

Description coming soon!Tags: PE Pipes for Contaminated Land

Description coming soon!Tags: Structural Considerations for Thermoplastic Pipe Linings Used for the Transport of Aggressive Hydrocarbons
Boot, Naqvi

Description coming soon!Tags: Cross-Linked PE Pipe for Hot Water and Geothermal Applications Reliability and Fusion Technology
Tsunaga, Matsunami, Sato, Nakata

Description coming soon!Tags: Fresh Water Supply System of Nonmetallic Materials for Large Aircraft
Otto, Schulte, Feldmann

Description coming soon!Tags: Results and Experiences from Tests on PEX, PP and PVC Pipes Exposed to Different Chemicals
Ifwarson, Andersson

Description coming soon!Tags: Large Diameter Cross-Linked PE Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Long Term Durability of Cross-Linked PE Tubing Used in Chlorinated Hot Water Systems
Gill, Knapp, Bradley

Description coming soon!Tags: Hot Pipes - Close fit lining of Cast Iron Gas Mains using Cross Linked PE

Description coming soon!Tags: Welding of Peroxide, Silane and Electron Beam Crosslinked PE Pipes
Scholten, Wolters

Description coming soon!Tags: A Flexible Solution for Renovation of Small Diameter Service Pipes
Morgan, Muckle, Scott

Description coming soon!Tags: Omega-Liner - A new pipeline renovation system
Huusko, Bos

Description coming soon!Tags: Smart Solutions for the Design of Rehabilitation with Plastics Pipes
Marshall, Morley, Pearson

Description coming soon!Tags: The Advantages of a Silane Crosslinkable PE Liner for Pipelines
Wright, Burley

Description coming soon!Tags: The Structural Behaviour of Cured-In-Place Pipe
Boot, Javadi

Description coming soon!Tags: The Use of a Traffic Parking Survey to Generate Realistic Load Regimes
Reid, Polson, Fairfield, Zohrabi, Sibbald

Description coming soon!Tags: Environmental Stress Cracking of PVC Pipe Materials

Description coming soon!Tags: Assessment of Pipe Systems, Condition and Residual Life

Description coming soon!Tags: Empirical Study of Water Hammer in Plastics Pipes
Mitosek, Roszkowksi

Description coming soon!Tags: Thin Walled Polyester Reinforced PE Lining for Potable Water Pipeline Renovation

Description coming soon!Tags: PE Pipes - a 100 year service life?

Description coming soon!Tags: Evaluation of the Surge and Fatigue Resistance of PVC and PE Pipeline Materials for use in the UK Water Industry
Marshall, Brogden, Shepher

Description coming soon!Tags: Sewer Jetting
Cant, Morris

Description coming soon!Tags: Site Jointing

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastic Deformation Behavior of PE Pipes under Displacement
Nishimura, Macba, Ishikawa, Ueda

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics Pipeline Training Systems

Description coming soon!Tags: Installation Technology for Maximum Benefit
De Rosa, Lane

Description coming soon!Tags: Jointing Methods for Plastics Pipeline Systems

Description coming soon!Tags: Introduction to Plastics Pipeline Materials

Description coming soon!Tags: Key Properties of Plastics for Installation and Service

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastic Pipeline Systems


Description coming soon!Tags: A Review of the Latest Stage of a Method That Allows the Testing of Large Bore Pipe
Lawrence, Potter, Teo

Description coming soon!Tags: A Universal, User Friendly, System for Gas Leakage Free House Connections

Description coming soon!Tags: Biaxially Oriented PE100 Pipes by Die-Drawing
Taraiya, Ward

Description coming soon!Tags: Dynamic Test Method for the Evaluation of Butt Welds
Lawrence, Potter, Teo

Description coming soon!Tags: Dynamic Pressure Testing
Lawrence, Potter, Teo

Description coming soon!Tags: Ductile deformation in Pipe Grade PE
Hillmansen, Davis, Leevers

Description coming soon!Tags: Effects of Processing Conditions on the Fracture Toughness of PVC-U Pipe
Kuriyama, Narisawa, Shiina, Kotaki

Description coming soon!Tags: Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Gas Distribution Systems
Wikkerink, Wolters, Van den Berg, Huppes

Description coming soon!Tags: Evaluation of RCP resistance for Japanese domestic-made PE gas pipes by S4 test and Charpy impact test
Okamoto, Akiyama, Wasada, Komukai

Description coming soon!Tags: Elastomeric Joint Comparison of PVC, VC and FCR Pipes
Lu, Burn, Whittle

Description coming soon!Tags: Fast brittle Fracture of Water Pressurised Plastics Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Extrusion of Fibre Reinforced Pipes with Controlled Orientation
El-Sobky, Psimolophitis

Description coming soon!Tags: Impact Rate and Geometry Effects in Pipe Grade Materials
Douglas, Leevers

Description coming soon!Tags: No Dig Drain, A System for Remediation of Soil

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics Pipes in Hot Water Applications
Bresser, Hoejer, Palmloef

Description coming soon!Tags: Numerical Analysis and Soil Box Study of the Influence of Trench Width on the Behaviour of Buried GRP Pipes
Wijeyesekera, Warnakulasuriya

Description coming soon!Tags: PP for Buried Sewage Piping Systems

Description coming soon!Tags: Influence of Various Stabilizers in PE on Creep Crack Growth Behavior and Pipe Failure
Pinter, Lang

Description coming soon!Tags: Process and Property Interactions in PE Pipelines
Davis, Greenshields, Dabas, Leevers

Description coming soon!Tags: Relationship between Molecular Structure of PE Resins or Additives and Long-Term Performance of PE Pipes
Higuchi, Nishimura, Tamamura, Harada

Description coming soon!Tags: Results and Experiences from Tests on Polyolefin Pipes exposed to Chlorinated Water
Ifwarson, Aoyama

Description coming soon!Tags: Rapid Extension and Failure of PE Craze Material
Hazra, Leevers

Description coming soon!Tags: Skinned PE Pipe Offering Non Scrape Electrofusion Jointing and Protection During Handling and Installation
Muckle, Wood, Reed

Description coming soon!Tags: Results and Experiences Obtained by Studsvik From Long-Term Pressure Tests
Leijstrom, Ifwarson

Description coming soon!Tags: The New Water Supply Pipeline for the Town of Palermo
Abdel, Vanspeybroeck

Description coming soon!Tags: Time-Dependent Crack Growth in PE
Bradley, Slay, Self, Register, Lamborn

Description coming soon!Tags: Ultimate Mechanical Performance of a Filament Wound Glass Fibre-Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) Pipeline
Thornhill, Curley, Gilchrist

Plastic Pipes 9 (1995) - Edinburgh


Description coming soon!Tags: An Evaluation Method for Electrofusion Joint Strength of Polyethylene Pipes for Gas Distribution
Nishimura, Suyama, Inoue, Higuchi

Description coming soon!Tags: Experience with Higher Performance PE Compounds
Castin, Tavernier

Description coming soon!Tags: High productivity butt fusion jointing of PE pipes
Cartwright, Troughton, Hinchcliff, Bowman, Jenkins

Description coming soon!Tags: From Pipe to Pipeline
Stokes, Morris

Description coming soon!Tags: Quality assurance in a training concept

Description coming soon!Tags: Molecularly Orientated PVC Pressure Pipes
Lowdon, Chantre, Brown

Description coming soon!Tags: Improvements in Electrofusion Welding in the UK Water Industry
Marshall, Hepburn, Netherwood

Description coming soon!Tags: Verification of butt fusion weld quality in large diameter PE100 water pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Taking the stress and strain of buried thermoplastic pipe design
Boot, Headford

Description coming soon!Tags: The Use of Plastics alloys in Water Pressure Systems

Description coming soon!Tags: Assessing mechanical properties of polymers for pipe application
Dear, Brown, Mason

Description coming soon!Tags: A study of rapid crack propagation in gas-pressurized PE pipes
Kitao, Hiarse, Nishimura, Inouge, Ishikawa, Otani, Miyasa, Kato

Description coming soon!Tags: Fracture toughness and dynamic fatigue characteristics of PVC/CPE blends
Fitzpatrick, Mount, Smyth, Stephenson

Description coming soon!Tags: Factors affecting the fracture toughness measurement of uPVC pipe samples
Burn, Richards

Description coming soon!Tags: Discontinuous Creep Crack-Growth in PE
Frassine, Rink, Pavan

Description coming soon!Tags: Characterising Toughness for Pipe Grad Materials

Description coming soon!Tags: Material, structural and pressurising fluid models for RCP tests on thermoplastics pipes
Leevers, Greenshields, Venizelos, Ivanovic

Description coming soon!Tags: Rapid Crack Propagation in PE Gas Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Compact Pipe - Close fit lining with PE pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: High Integrity PE Stub Flange Connections

Description coming soon!Tags: The Validation of a PE for a Gas Pipe System

Description coming soon!Tags: The Role of Crazing in the Impact Fracture Toughness of PE Pipe Grades
Channell, Clutton

Description coming soon!Tags: Holy Islands Mains Water Supply Project
Woodward, Pike

Description coming soon!Tags: Installation of Large Diameter Electro-Fusion Branch Saddles
Kenworthy, Harvey

Description coming soon!Tags: Mains Rehabilitation - the Lackington Way

Description coming soon!Tags: PE for Large Diameter Re-lining

Description coming soon!Tags: Structural design of thin-walled PE pipe linings for water mains
Boot, Guan, Toropova

Description coming soon!Tags: No-Dig Water Mains Rehabilitation - Polyester Reinforced PE

Description coming soon!Tags: The Development of a Mains Pressure Test for PE & PVC Pressure Pipes
Marshall, Birch, Morley

Description coming soon!Tags: Computer simulation of the Cooling Process in Plastic Pipe Manufacture
Pittman, Farah

Description coming soon!Tags: An Intelligent Knowledge Based System for the Electro-Fusion Welding for PE Pipes
Torsun, Day, Wound, Dib, Rosala

Description coming soon!Tags: Behaviour of notched fatigue data
Lawrence, Potter, Teo

Description coming soon!Tags: Fundamental Aspects for Design of Electrofusion Fittings
Hilger, Petry, Barbari

Description coming soon!Tags: Fundamental Studies on Creep Properties of Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe under Internal and External Pressure Loading
Iwamaoto, Saito, Araki, Hori

Description coming soon!Tags: Predicting long term pipe strength by uniaxial tensile testing

Description coming soon!Tags: Results and experiences obtained from SEM evaluations according to ISOTR 9080 of polyolefin pipes
Leijstroem, Ifwarson

Description coming soon!Tags: The Use of Fatigue Testing to evaluate Long Term Performance of PE
Van der Grinten, Wichers-Schreur

Description coming soon!Tags: The prediction test for life period of polymer pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Biaxially Oriented Polymer Tubes by the Die-Drawing Process
Taraiya, Ward

Description coming soon!Tags: Advanced Polymerization Process for Tailor-Made Pipe Resins
Berthold, Boehm, Enderele, Groebel, Lueker, Lecht, Schulte

Description coming soon!Tags: Coextruded Pipe: An ideal product for recycled PVC pipes and fittings
Pots, Benjamin

Description coming soon!Tags: Linear vibration welding of PE pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Fusion Welding of Crosslinked PE
Ovington, Stafford

Description coming soon!Tags: New Opportunities for New Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Polybutylene - An Alternative for Heating and Domestic Hot & Cold Water Systems

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastic Lined Pipelines for Corrosion Control
Maine, Hicke

Description coming soon!Tags: Rotational Moulding of Plastics Pipes and Pipe Fittings
Crawford, Xu, Spence

Description coming soon!Tags: PP-R Sanitary Pipe Systems

Description coming soon!Tags: The Use of Plastics Pipes of Tomorrow

Description coming soon!Tags: PVDF Chimney Lining: A new flue gas system for low emission heating boilers

Description coming soon!Tags: Enhancing the performance of Plastics Pipes, Fittings & Joints

Description coming soon!Tags: PE for Gas, Home and Away

Description coming soon!Tags: PVC Pipes (Hollins)

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics Pipes for Water Industry

Description coming soon!Tags: The PE Pipe Market

Description coming soon!Tags: An Overview of ISO/CEN Standards for Plastic Piping Systems

Description coming soon!Tags: Implementing Traceability Features in Components and Equipment for PE Piping Systems
Barbari, Hilger

Description coming soon!Tags: Analysis of results of the Constant Tensile Load Test for Fused PE Gas Pipe Materials

Description coming soon!Tags: Oxygen Induction Time

Description coming soon!Tags: Old PVC gravity sewer pipes: Long Term Performance
Alferink, Guldback, Grootook

Description coming soon!Tags: Testing, Specification and Design Concepts

Description coming soon!Tags: Long-term behaviour of buried PVC sewer pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: The modified Stepwise Isothermal Segregation technique
Gueugnaut, Rousselor

Description coming soon!Tags: The Crack Growth Resistance of PVC and PE
Marshall, Ingham, Brogden

Description coming soon!Tags: The Resistance of PE Water Pipeline Systems to Surge Pressure
Beech, Headford, Hunt, Sandilands


Description coming soon!Tags: An analytical model of the gas discharge process in the S4 test for Rapid Crack Propagation
Venizelos, Greenshields, Leevers

Description coming soon!Tags: A Fracture Consideration of the Sinusoidial Behaviour of Fast Fracture in Plastics Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Assessment of the reliability of plastic pipes in potable water installations affected by microbially influenced corrosion
Wagner, Siedlarek, Kropp, Fischer

Description coming soon!Tags: Buckling Resistance of Polymer Pipes Under Hydrostatic Pressure
Farshad, Flueler

Description coming soon!Tags: Critical Review of the Creep Stiffness Test for Structured Wall Pipes
Evans, Loeppky, Rogers

Description coming soon!Tags: Factors affecting the implementation of Vee notched plastic pipe tests
Lawrence, Potter, Teo

Description coming soon!Tags: Flyde Coast - MDPE Marine Outfalls

Description coming soon!Tags: Degradation of Unstabilized Medium Density Polyethylene Hot-Water Pipes
Viebke, Gedde

Description coming soon!Tags: Fast fracture of plastic water pipes and the measurement of dynamic fracture resistance
Greenshields, Leevers

Description coming soon!Tags: Mechanical properties and residual stresses trough the wall thickness of polyethylene piping
Isaac, Eccott, Pittman, Farah

Description coming soon!Tags: Influence of Residual Chlorine on Durability of Cross-linked Polyethylene and Polybutene Pipes used in Hot-Water Supply Systems
Tanaka, Akiyama, Komukai

Description coming soon!Tags: Oxidation Induction Time
Schmutz, Kramer, Zweifel

Description coming soon!Tags: Modelization of the behaviour of a PE pipe under constant initial wall strain
Bon, Gueugnaut, Marty

Description coming soon!Tags: Microstructural Characterisation of Polyethylenes for Pipe Application
Isaac, Eccott, Perridge, Pittman

Description coming soon!Tags: Prediction of Notched Pipe Stress Crack Performance
Rose, Channell, Palmer

Description coming soon!Tags: Porous hoses and their manufacture
Kowalska, Wielgosz

Description coming soon!Tags: PE-X - The Versatile High Performance Pressure Pipe System
Hoving, Palmlof, Harget, Upperton, Ewing

Description coming soon!Tags: The Evaluation of Non-Flat Plastic Samples using an Instrumented Falling Weight Test Method

Description coming soon!Tags: The effect of pressurizing fluid on fast fracture in plastic pipes
Greenshiels, Leevers

Description coming soon!Tags: Studies on the Drainage Performance of the Double-pipe Drainage Stack System

Description coming soon!Tags: Ultrasonic and radiographic NDT of butt fusion welds in polyethylene pipe
Munns and G.A, Georgiou

Description coming soon!Tags: Transfer Coefficients in Spray Cooling of Plastics Pipes
Pittman, Farah

Plastic Pipes 8 (1992) - Eidhoven


Description coming soon!Tags: End Effects on Long-Time Internal Pressure Testing of PVC Pipes
Farshad, Flueler

Description coming soon!Tags: Analysis of Enhanced Resistance to Slow Crack Growth in PE Materials

Description coming soon!Tags: Fundamental Justification of a Fatigue Based Quality Control Test on All Sizes of Plastic Pipe

Description coming soon!Tags: Shock Behaviour of HDPE Pipes
Farshad, Flueler

Description coming soon!Tags: Methods for Tightness Testing of Plastics Pressure Pipelines

Description coming soon!Tags: A Time Dependent Fracture Toughness Measure for PE Pipe Resins
Strebel, Moet

Description coming soon!Tags: A Quality Control Test for Predicting the Lifetime of PE Pipes, Fittings and Resins
Brown, Lu

Description coming soon!Tags: Evaluation of Slow Crack Growth Mechanisms in PE Pipes with a simple Reliable and Economic Method - The Cone Test

Description coming soon!Tags: The Use of recently Developed Experimental Methods and Modelling Techniques to study Crack Propagation in Viscoelastic Materials
Clutton, Dear, Channell

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics Pipes Industry Overview

Description coming soon!Tags: Fibre Creep and Long-Term Fracture Resistance in PE
Channell, Cawood, Capaccio

Description coming soon!Tags: New Test Methods to Evaluate the Resistance to Rapid Crack Propagation in Pressurized PE Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Rapid Crack Propagation along Pressurized PE Pipe - Small Scale Testing and Numerical Modelling
Leevers, Venizelos, Ivankovic

Description coming soon!Tags: The Development of the Notched Pipe Test for the Assessment of the Slow Crack Growth Resistance of PE Pipe
Beech, Allwood

Description coming soon!Tags: PVC Pipes - Today and Tomorrow

Description coming soon!Tags: The Challenge for Water Pipe Systems in the 21st Century

Description coming soon!Tags: The PE Pipe Industry

Description coming soon!Tags: The Future of R&D of Plastics Pipes Used in Gas Distribution Systems

Description coming soon!Tags: Use of PE Pipes for Gas Distribution in Italy
Del Gaudio

Description coming soon!Tags: Computer Aided Design of the Butt Fusion Welding Process on Polymer Pipes
Dib, Day, Benkreira, Wood

Description coming soon!Tags: Excellence in Welding HPPE

Description coming soon!Tags: Fusion Jointing of PE Pipes - A Water Industry Perspective
Morris, Gill

Description coming soon!Tags: Procedures of Quantifying the Strength of Electrofusion Joints
Bowman, Medhurst, Portas

Description coming soon!Tags: An Evaluation of Toughened PVC-U Pressure Pipes
Holloway, Naaktgeboren

Description coming soon!Tags: The Evaluation of Mechanical Testing Techniques and the Influence of Defects on MDPE Butt Fusion Welds

Description coming soon!Tags: Lifetime Predictions of uPVC Pipes - Theoretical and Experimental Comparisons

Description coming soon!Tags: Service Life Analysis of PVC Gas Pipes in Practice
Rijpkema, Wolters

Description coming soon!Tags: Antioxidant loss in Hot-Water Polyolefin Pipes - Experimental Data and Modelling
Gedde, Smith, Ifwarson, Viebke

Description coming soon!Tags: The Evaluation of Polyolefin Pipes by Means of the Ultimative Elastic Wall Stress Concept
De Craene, Schwenke

Description coming soon!Tags: What Controls the Lifetime of Plastic Pipes and how can the Lifetime be Extrapolated
Ifwarson, Leijstroem

Description coming soon!Tags: Crosslinked PE - Extruding the Limits of Pressure Pipe Performance
Harget, Skarelius, Imgram

Description coming soon!Tags: The Failure of Long Term Pressure Properties of Plastic Pressure Pipes
Marshall, Harry, Ward, Pearson

Description coming soon!Tags: Erosive wear Mapping of Pipe Materials
Wood, Moore

Description coming soon!Tags: Pipe the bores

Description coming soon!Tags: Smart Heat Induction Fusion Joining of PE Gas Pipe - Results of PRI sponsored Project

Description coming soon!Tags: Development and Application of PE Gas Pipe Systems for Use at Pressures Beyond 7 bar
Ewing, Greig

Description coming soon!Tags: Effect of Installation Conditions on Buried Plastic Pipes
Alferink, Wolters

Description coming soon!Tags: Field failures in PE Gas Pipes - Analysis versus Lifetime Prediction
Scholten, Rijpkema

Description coming soon!Tags: Forecasting the Long-Time Service Performance of PE Gas Distribution Pipes
Kuhlmann, Kanninen, Tweedy

Description coming soon!Tags: Shear controlled Orientation in Thermoplastic Pipe Extrusion
Allam, Bevis, Chuah, May

Description coming soon!Tags: High Strength Oriented HDPE Pipes
Ward, Atkinson, Greig, Hansard

Description coming soon!Tags: High Performance PE Compounds for safer Gas and Water Transportation

Description coming soon!Tags: PE Submarine Outfall lines

Description coming soon!Tags: Spirally ribbed, directly extruded structured PVC-U Pipe. Production, Properties and Jointing Methods

Description coming soon!Tags: The Cooling Phase of Large Pipe Manufacture
Pittman, Whitman, Gwynn, Beech

Description coming soon!Tags: New Procedures for the In Situ Repair of Surface Defects in Plastic Gas Distribution Pipes
Mamoun, Grigory, Mallow, Bucza

Description coming soon!Tags: No-Dig Lateral Reconnecting in Lined Sewer Pipes
Meijers, van Beurden

Description coming soon!Tags: The Influence of Time and Temperature on the Strength of a Multilayer Pressure Pipe

Description coming soon!Tags: Profiled Flexible Pipes - A Comeback for Sliplining in Pipe Renovation

Description coming soon!Tags: Rehabilitation - The Use of Plastics Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Structural Behaviour of Thin-Walled Plastic Pipe Linings for Water Mains
Boot, Guan

Description coming soon!Tags: Swagelining - A Pipeline Renovation Technique
Maine, Ross

Description coming soon!Tags: European Certification of Plastics Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Developments in European Standardization and Certification for Plastics Pipes and Fitting Systems
de Putter

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics Pipes in Water Distribution Systems. A Study of Failure Frequencies

Description coming soon!Tags: The Actual Performance of Plastics Pipes in Europe over 25 Years
Elzink, Molin

Description coming soon!Tags: Recycling Pipe and Profile Scrap

Description coming soon!Tags: The Potential for Recycling Scrap arising from Pipeline Systems

Plastic Pipes 7 (1988) - Bath


Description coming soon!Tags: Calculation of Pipes under Multiaxial Mechanical Strain
Menges, Schmachtenberg

Description coming soon!Tags: An Argon Plasma Etching Method for the Investigation of Craze Microstructure in PVC Gas Pipes
Zefrin, Scholten

Description coming soon!Tags: Filament Wound Pipes - Machining and Finishing
J.E. Morgan

Description coming soon!Tags: Characterisation of Blue MDPE Water Pipe
Mallison, Gwynn

Description coming soon!Tags: The Fatigue Behaviour of Medium Density Polyethylene Pipe Systems

Description coming soon!Tags: Rapid Crack Propagation in Hydrostatically Pressurized 250 mm Polyethylene Pipe

Description coming soon!Tags: Residual Stress in Large Diameter MDPE Water Pipe
Beech, Burley, Bunn

Description coming soon!Tags: The Characterisation and Performance of UPVC Pressure Pipes
Moore, Stephenson, Tagger

Description coming soon!Tags: The Long Term Performance of Plastics Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: The Possibility of Assessing the Long Term Performance of PE Pipes Using a Quality Control Fatigue Test
Greig, Lawrence

Description coming soon!Tags: Developing an ISO Test-Method for rapid evaluation of ESCR in Polyethylene Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Degradation of Plastics Pipes in a Tropical Climate
Qureshi, Hamid, Maadhah, Amin

Description coming soon!Tags: Use of Fracture Mechanics in the Development of Tough Polymers for Use in the Water Distribution System of NWWA
Marshall, Marshall, Young

Description coming soon!Tags: Fracture of GRP Pipe bends under a Variety of Loads
Myler, Kitching

Description coming soon!Tags: Mechanical Behaviour of Composite Thermoplastic Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Material for Crosslinked Polyethylene Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: A new Manufacturing Technology for Large Diameter Polyethylene Pipe Fittings
Aboutorabi, Bowman

Description coming soon!Tags: The Behaviour of a Multilayered GRP Pipe when Subject to Local Attachment and Fluid Loading - Strain Decay Characteristics
Tooth, Banks, Wilson

Description coming soon!Tags: The Correlation of Fast Fracture Resistance of Polyethylene with Impact Toughness
Marshall, Youd, Birch-Kisbenyi

Description coming soon!Tags: Electrofusion - A new System
Walton, Van Houten

Description coming soon!Tags: Extrusion Technology for Large Diameter Polyolefin Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Evaluation of Aged Plastics Pipes Used in Natural Gas Distribution Systems
Duvall, Nylander, Broutman

Description coming soon!Tags: Medium Density Pipe Materials for Elevated Temperatures

Description coming soon!Tags: In Field Quality Control of Fusion Jointing Methods
Stafford, Maine

Description coming soon!Tags: Factors Controlling the Lifetimes of Polyethylene Pipes in the Slit Mode Failure Regime
Wright, Bowman

Description coming soon!Tags: Gravimetric Compound Throughput Recording as the Key to Automatization of the Extrusion Process

Description coming soon!Tags: The Butt Fusion Jointing Process - Fundamental Aspects

Description coming soon!Tags: The Failure of Polyethylene Gas Pipe Materials by Slow Crack Growth
Brown, Lu

Description coming soon!Tags: Deformations in Buried Flexible Pipes
Alferink, Wolters

Description coming soon!Tags: Flexible Pipe Design and Installation

Description coming soon!Tags: Corrugated Pipe Production Latest Developments

Description coming soon!Tags: Physical Ageing of Buried PVC Sewer Pipes as Affecting their Long Term Behaviour

Description coming soon!Tags: The Long Term Behaviour of Buried uPVC Sewer Pipe
Elzink, Walton

Description coming soon!Tags: The Effect of CaCO3 Fillers on Processing and Mechanical Properties of UPVC Pipes
Gilbert,, Plaskett, Hancock, Higgs

Description coming soon!Tags: Prediction of Stiffness of Foamed Pipe Systems
Moore, Stephenson

Description coming soon!Tags: Ring Stiffness by Long-Term Creep and Relaxation Tests of Rib-Reinforced uPVC Sewer Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Recent Developments in the Design of Underground Plastics Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Thin-Walled Thermoplastics Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Extrapolation of Stress Rupture Data
De Putter

Description coming soon!Tags: A Novel Process for Lining Pipes with Polyolefins
Butters, Mistry

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics in Sewer Renovation

Plastic Pipes 6 (1985) - York


Description coming soon!Tags: The Growing Interest in High Pressure

Description coming soon!Tags: Trends in Plastics Pipe Usage

Description coming soon!Tags: The review of the Pipe Work sponsored by the Polymer Engineering Directorate (PED)

Description coming soon!Tags: Characteristics of a Good Joint with Electrofusion Fittings

Description coming soon!Tags: Experience from 12 Years Evaluation of Cross Linked Polyethylene
Ifwarsson, Eriksson

Description coming soon!Tags: Electrofusion Welding Prediction and Computer-Aided Design of Fittings

Description coming soon!Tags: Design of Bolted Flange Joints in GRP Pipes
Godwin, Kilty, Matthews

Description coming soon!Tags: Jointing Methods for PE Casing Pipes of District Heating Systems
Alferink, Blom, Venema, Wolters

Description coming soon!Tags: The Development of a Novel Electrofusion System

Description coming soon!Tags: PE Jointing Techniques
Maine, Stafford

Description coming soon!Tags: ABS Pipework for High-Tech Applications

Description coming soon!Tags: Behaviour of GRP Pipes under a Variety of Load Conditions
Rahmann, Banks, Tooth

Description coming soon!Tags: The Failure of Butt Fusion Joints in Polyethylene Pipe Systems
Parmar, Bowman

Description coming soon!Tags: Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe - A Proven Performer in the Management of Inorganic Chemicals and Aggressive Hot Water

Description coming soon!Tags: Fracture Arrest Conditions in Polyethylene (PE) Gas Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Is it possible to explain the Occurrence of Brittle Fracture in Polyethylene with Fractography and Chemical Analysis?
Ifwarsson, Eriksson

Description coming soon!Tags: Optimizing the Resistance of Polyethylene to Slow Crack Growth
Lustiger, Markham

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastic Valves in Polyethylene Natural Gas Distribution Networks

Description coming soon!Tags: Polybutylene Pipes - Their Performance and World-Wide Applications

Description coming soon!Tags: Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness Values of Ductile Plastics Pipe Materials
Van Dijk

Description coming soon!Tags: Polyvinylidene Fluoride for Resistant and Long Life Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: PVDF Pipe Systems for Supply of Chlorinated Chemicals
Parker, Wydle

Description coming soon!Tags: Specifying High Toughness in PE Pressure Pipes
Marshall, Birch

Description coming soon!Tags: Relevance and Application of Fracture Toughness Measurements for UPVC
Moore, Prediger, Stephenson

Description coming soon!Tags: The Abrasion Resistance of Polymers in Slurry Environments
Lowe, Marshall

Description coming soon!Tags: The Design and Performance of Thermoplastic Valves

Description coming soon!Tags: The Influence of Bedding and Sidefill on the Response of nPVC Pipes to Surface Loading
Rogers, Brown, Boyle

Description coming soon!Tags: The Dynamic Fatigue Behaviour of UPVC Pressure Pipe

Description coming soon!Tags: The Production and Properties of the Die-Drawn PE Pipe
Selwood, Parson, Gray

Description coming soon!Tags: Use and Specification of GRP Pipes in Abu Dhabi Area

Description coming soon!Tags: Unique Usage of High Density Polyethylene Piping Systems

Description coming soon!Tags: The Relationship of the Initial Velocity of the Deformation Zone to the Slow Crack Growth Rate in Linear Polyethylene

Description coming soon!Tags: Weathering of UPCV Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: A Methodology to Predict Safe Allowable Pressures to Prevent Rapid Crack Propagation
Krishnaswamy, Maxey, Hulbert, Mamoun

Description coming soon!Tags: Analysis of Field Failures Caused by Slow Crack Growth

Description coming soon!Tags: Evaluation of Plastics Tubing for Domestic Wet Central Heating
Britton, Houseman

Description coming soon!Tags: Evaluation of the Notched Ring Test as a Means of Predicting the Long Term Performance
Harnett, Wilson

Description coming soon!Tags: Pipe Extrusion with Rotating Die Systems
Bush, Harland, Bilgin

Description coming soon!Tags: Modern Extrusion of Pipes and Profiles - Computer Controls on Extrusion Lines
Fischer, Worthberg

Description coming soon!Tags: Rapid Crack Propagation in PE Pipes Studied by Modified Robertson Tests

Description coming soon!Tags: Static Calculation of Load of Buried HDPE Pipes with Profiled Wall and Smooth Pipe Inside
Koch, Meldt

Description coming soon!Tags: The Investigation into the Use of Fatigue in Accelerated Quality Control Procedure for 50 Years Life Prediction

Description coming soon!Tags: Wall Thickness Control and In Line Inspection of Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Deflection of Sewer Pipes and a New Method for Measuring and Specifying Stiffness of Plastics Pipes
Joekes, Elzink

Description coming soon!Tags: In-Service Durability of uPVC Water Mains

Description coming soon!Tags: Severn-Trent Water Authoritys Experience on Laying Medium Density PE Pipe

Description coming soon!Tags: Sewer Renovation - Site Experiences and Future Developments

Description coming soon!Tags: The Renovation of Trunk Mains and Distribution Pipes in NWWA by Cold Drawn Swage Lining with MDPE
Young, Thomas, Marshall

Description coming soon!Tags: The Production and Application of Bioriented PVC Pipe

Description coming soon!Tags: The Abrasion Resistance of Polymers Used in Slurry Transport Systems
Lowe, Marshall

Plastic Pipes 5 (1982) - York


Description coming soon!Tags: A Theoretical Approach to the Practical Problems involved in Jointing different PE Grades

Description coming soon!Tags: An Appraisal of the UK Market for Plastics Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastic Material for Pipeline Installations

Description coming soon!Tags: Fracture Propagation in Plastics Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Sealing Systems for PVC Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Transportation of Solids and Slurries trough Pipelines - A Promising Market for Glass Fiber reinforced Piping Systems

Description coming soon!Tags: The Markets for Plastics Pipes in West Germany and the UK

Description coming soon!Tags: Recent Developments in Expansion Joints for Plastic Pipe Systems

Description coming soon!Tags: Transportation of solids through plastic pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Criteria for High Toughness in UPVC Pressure Pipes
Marshall, Birch

Description coming soon!Tags: Fracture Propagation in Polyethylene (PE) Gas Pipes
Greig, Ewing

Description coming soon!Tags: Design and Manufacture OF GRP Liners and Their Installation

Description coming soon!Tags: Degradation of PVC Plain and Corrugated Pipes due to Weathering Conditions in Egypt

Description coming soon!Tags: Flexible Thermoplastic Pipes buried in Soft Soils

Description coming soon!Tags: New Modifications of Chemically Crosslinked Polyolefin Based Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: The Forecast of Polyethylene Pipe and Fitting burst Life using Rate Process Theory

Description coming soon!Tags: Some factors affecting Toughness in UPVC Pipe Materials
Moore, Stephenson, Whale

Description coming soon!Tags: Polybutylene - Selected Material and Property Aspects

Description coming soon!Tags: PVC Pressure Pipes The Importance of Gelation to Ensure
van den Hevel

Description coming soon!Tags: The Performance of Polyethylene Pipe Systems under Internal Fatigue Pressure Loadings
Barker, Bowman, Bevis

Description coming soon!Tags: The Properties of PVCC and its Applications in the Transport of Hot Fluids with or without ...

Description coming soon!Tags: The Strength of HDPE Pipes for the Renovation of Pipelines by Sliplining

Description coming soon!Tags: 13 years of deformation measurement on HDPE- (Hostalen GM 5010) sewer pipe
Gaube, Mueller

Description coming soon!Tags: Weathering Behaviour in UPVC Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Recent Developments to Overcome Problems with Drain Reconnections in Plastic Sewer Linings

Description coming soon!Tags: Gravity Sewage Pipes of UPVC for 10 Years in Use

Description coming soon!Tags: Assessment of the Influence of Processing on Medium-High Density PE Pressure Pipes
Marshall, Taylor, Dickinson

Description coming soon!Tags: Data Collection during Pipe Extrusion

Description coming soon!Tags: Extrudate Cooling of Medium Density Polyethylene Pipe Sections
Edwards,Ellis, Georghiades,Smith

Description coming soon!Tags: Dynamic Testing of GRP Pipe

Description coming soon!Tags: Environmental Stress Cracking as a Tool for Evaluating Polyethylene Piping Materials
Lustiger, Markham, Cassady

Description coming soon!Tags: Loading Tests on Buried Plastics Pipes to Validate a New Design Method
Reilly, Crabb, Trott

Description coming soon!Tags: Mechanical Quality of Welds in Polyethylene Pipe Systems
Wolters, Venema

Description coming soon!Tags: Measurement of Toughness in Pipe Materials
Gray, Frye

Description coming soon!Tags: Relaxation Modulus of PVC and PEH Sewage Pipes for Evaluation of Long-Term Stiffness

Description coming soon!Tags: Flexible Plastics Pipes for Hot Water, and the Effects of Oxygen Diffusion

Description coming soon!Tags: Case History of a GRP Rivercrossing - Design, Manufacture and Installation
Birkenfeld, Tiemersma, Zonneveld

Description coming soon!Tags: Residual Stress in Internally Cooled Pipe
Ingen Housz

Description coming soon!Tags: Insulated Flexible Plastics Pipes in District Heating

Description coming soon!Tags: Service Failure Experience of uPVC Pressure Pipes in the Water Industry
Stephens, Gill

Description coming soon!Tags: Underfloor Heating - The Up-To-Date Heating System

Plastic Pipes 4 (1979) - Brighton


Description coming soon!Tags: Examination of cross linked Polyethylene for Heating Systems
Roseen, Bergmann

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics Pipes in Water Distribution - Hopes and Fears

Description coming soon!Tags: An Analysis of Past and Future Markets for Thermoplastics Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics Pipe Systems for Hot Water Services

Description coming soon!Tags: Applications and Applicational Limits of Plastic Pipework Systems for Industrial Installations

Description coming soon!Tags: Materials Selection for HDPE Pipes
Price, Gray

Description coming soon!Tags: Crack Propagation in PE Pipes
Gaube, Mueller

Description coming soon!Tags: National and International Standardization related to Plastics Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: The Role of GRP - An Introductory Review

Description coming soon!Tags: Corrosion Control with Glass Fiber reinforced Plastics in the Power Industry in the USA

Description coming soon!Tags: Polypropylene Pipes - Properties and Choice

Description coming soon!Tags: Stimulating Local Authorities to Use Plastics in On-Coming Municipal Projects

Description coming soon!Tags: Present and Projected Markets for HDPE Pipe in Scandinavia

Description coming soon!Tags: Fracture Modes in Medium Density Polyethylene Gas Piping Systems

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics Gas Distributions Systems, A Review of Current Practice

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics in Gas Distribution

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics in Gas Distribution

Description coming soon!Tags: Glassfibre Reinforced Plastics Pipework for Chemical Plant

Description coming soon!Tags: Polyvinylidene Fluoride for Piping operating under highly Corrosive Conditions

Description coming soon!Tags: The Advantages and Suitability of uPVC Pipes for Hot Climates

Description coming soon!Tags: Experience of Long-Term Behaviour of uPVC Gravity Sewers
Gehrels, Elzink

Description coming soon!Tags: Slip-Lining of the Municipal Sewer Mains with HDPE Piping in the US

Description coming soon!Tags: Evaluation and Usage of Joint Seals for UPVC Pipe Systems

Description coming soon!Tags: A Study of Long-Term Strength and Creep Rupture in uPVC Plastics Pipe

Description coming soon!Tags: Surge and Fatigue in uPVC Sewer Rising Mains

Description coming soon!Tags: The Lubonyl DSA - An Underground Sewage Pipe System

Description coming soon!Tags: Designing to Prevent Failure by Buckling on PVC Pipes
Stapel, Steenbergen

Description coming soon!Tags: Failure Processes in Filament Wound GRP Pipe

Description coming soon!Tags: Non-destructive Testing of Heated Tool Butt Welded Pipes Using Optical Methods
Potente, de Zeeuw

Description coming soon!Tags: Loading Tests on uPVC Pipes on installed in cohesive and non-cohesive Bedding Materials
Trott, Stevens

Description coming soon!Tags: Grow Moulding; A new Conception in the Manufacture of Plastics Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Performance Testing of GRP Pipe Systems

Description coming soon!Tags: Pressure Fatigue Testing of Plastics Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Predicting the Creep Rupture Life of Polyethylene Pipe
Barton, Cherry

Description coming soon!Tags: The Long Term Fracture Performance of uPVC Pressure Pipe as Influenced by Processing
Moore, Benham, Gotham, Hitch, Littlewood

Description coming soon!Tags: Standard Testing of Pipes and the Examination of Failures

Description coming soon!Tags: The Need to Revise is 1167, Dealing with Pressure Testing

Description coming soon!Tags: Processing of Polyethylene Pressure Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: The Use of Fracture Mechanics for the Prediction of Failure of Thermoplastics Pipes
Birch, Howarth, Marshall

Plastic Pipes 3 (1974) - Southampton


Description coming soon!Tags: Experience at Droitwich in the use of PVC drainage

Description coming soon!Tags: A major ductwork and waste system in plastics for aggressive and radio-active laboratory effluents

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics pipes in the Shell Centre building, London - a retrospective view

Description coming soon!Tags: Discussions - Sessions 1 - 6

Description coming soon!Tags: A study of an experimental uPVC pipeline laid beneath a major road during and after construction
Trott, Gaunt

Description coming soon!Tags: The Analysis of practical failures of plastic pipelines
Marshall, Williams

Description coming soon!Tags: International developments in PVC gravity sewer design

Description coming soon!Tags: Investigations concerning uPVC drain and sewer pipes and fittings

Description coming soon!Tags: Experience with uPVC sewers in West Germany
Jirka, Greenrod

Description coming soon!Tags: Attitudes and aptitudes at the interface between the pipe manufacturer and the user

Description coming soon!Tags: Development for polymers in pipemaking

Description coming soon!Tags: International standardisation - a pipe dream?

Description coming soon!Tags: Case studies of plastics pipelines in acid-proof installations
Schmidt, Kessler

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics pipelines in electrolytic process plants

Description coming soon!Tags: The new generation of specifiers - education in the application of plastics pipes
Holmes, Walker

Description coming soon!Tags: Unusual hospital effluents and plastics drainage

Description coming soon!Tags: Automatic irrigation systems

Description coming soon!Tags: A 24 in (610mm) x 10 mile potable water pipeline in PVC

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics pipe in land drainage and irrigation

Description coming soon!Tags: Flexible water pipes for high voltage cable cooling systems: A review of present practice and possible future developments

Description coming soon!Tags: The role for plastics in developing countries

Description coming soon!Tags: A water distribution scheme for Washington new town

Description coming soon!Tags: Polyethylene systems in the distribution of gas
Wilkinson, Halliwell

Description coming soon!Tags: The use of plastics pipes for an integral cooled 400kV cable system
Barton, Cliffe

Description coming soon!Tags: Stress cracking in uPVC and high impact (PVC/CPE) pipes in the natural gas distribution network in the Netherlands
Mutter, Benjamin

Plastic Pipes 2 (1972) - Southampton


Description coming soon!Tags: Application of uPVC pipe in a large irrigation project

Description coming soon!Tags: Development and design of a uPVC diffuser pipe system for activated sludge plants

Description coming soon!Tags: Installation for plastics pipelines for effluent conveyance

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics pipes and fittings for the surgeon and bio-medical engineer

Description coming soon!Tags: Hospital drainage - Sanitation and the use of plastics

Description coming soon!Tags: Design considerations for gravity sewers in PVC

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics pipes in highway drainage
Northcott, Plant

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics plumbing in buildings and below ground drainage

Description coming soon!Tags: A review of recent international standardisation

Description coming soon!Tags: Design of pipe networks in unsteady flow conditions

Description coming soon!Tags: Education in plastics
Holmes, Walker

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics terminal fittings and pipework for domestic use

Description coming soon!Tags: The acceptance and the place of plastics pipes in chemical work process

Description coming soon!Tags: Practical experience of plastics pipe installation for potable water supply
Young, Howarth

Description coming soon!Tags: The prospects for new polymers and grades of polymers
Brighton, Baxter

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics - versatile engineering materials

Description coming soon!Tags: The scope for second generation plastics materials in engineering plant applications

Description coming soon!Tags: Choice of materials available to the gas industry
Thorne, Hall

Description coming soon!Tags: Six years of experience with uPVC for sewers in West Germany

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics pipes for natural gas distribution in the Netherlands
Van Gunst

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics pipes in gas distribution and relevant joining techniques

Plastic Pipes 1 (1970) - Southampton


Description coming soon!Tags: Agrement Assessment - Testing for Performance

Description coming soon!Tags: Cold Water Plumbing Services in Plastics Piping

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics Piping for Building Services - An Architect's Appreciation

Description coming soon!Tags: The Durability of Plastics

Description coming soon!Tags: Thermoplastics as Engineering Materials

Description coming soon!Tags: The Spectrum of Polymers - Recent Developments
Van der Vegt

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics in Food Processing

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics Pipes for Air Leads, Hydraulic Systems and Fluidics

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics Pipes and Fittings for Chemical Process Work

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics Piping for Higher Temperature Use

Description coming soon!Tags: British Standards for Plastics Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics Piping for Telephone Cable Ducts

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics Soil, Waste and Drainage Systems

Description coming soon!Tags: Reinforced Plastics for Process Pipe-work and Plant

Description coming soon!Tags: The Development of Plastic Valves

Description coming soon!Tags: Applications for Plastic Piping in Marine Laboratories

Description coming soon!Tags: Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering Requirements in Plastics Piping

Description coming soon!Tags: Main Laying Techniques for Plastic Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Moleplough Laying Techniques for Plastic Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Paper 15 - Large Diameter Helix Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: Some Case Histories on the Use of Plastic Pipes in Sewerage and Water Supply Schemes

Description coming soon!Tags: The Use of Plastics Pipe in Agricultural Land Drainage

Description coming soon!Tags: Experience with Plastics Pipe in the Water Supply Industry
Gill, Law

Description coming soon!Tags: Plastics Pipes in the Gas Industry

Description coming soon!Tags: Flow Characteristics of Plastic Pipes

Description coming soon!Tags: The Structural Requirements of Plastic Gravity Sewers

Description coming soon!Tags: The Choice of Plastics for Gas Distributions Systems